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|356 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1109|
|Balinese saka calendar||277–278|
|Chinese calendar||乙卯年 (Wood Rabbit)|
3052 or 2992
— to —
丙辰年 (Fire Dragon)
3053 or 2993
|- Vikram Samvat||412–413|
|- Shaka Samvat||277–278|
|- Kali Yuga||3456–3457|
|Iranian calendar||266 BP – 265 BP|
|Islamic calendar||274 BH – 273 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1556 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||667/668 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||898–899|
482 or 101 or −671
— to —
483 or 102 or −670
Year 356 (CCCLVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Constantius and Iulianus (or, less frequently, year 1109 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 356 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- February 19 – Emperor Constantius II issues a decree closing all pagan temples in the Roman Empire, and ordering the banishment once again of the anti-Arian patriarch of Alexandria, Athanasius. He tries to have him arrested during a vigil service, but Athanasius flees to the Nitrian desert in Upper Egypt.
- The veneration of non-Christian images is banned in the Roman Empire.
- Siege of Autun: Julian receives a report that Augustodunum (Autun) is under attack by the Alemanni. The city walls are in poor state and in danger of falling.
- Battle of Reims: Julian is defeated by the Alemanni at Reims (Gaul).
- Battle of Brumath: Roman forces pursue Germanic warbands through the Gallic countryside. Julian wins an open battle near Brumath (Alsace).
- Rhaetia (Switzerland) is invaded by the Alemanni.
- Winter – Siege of Senonae: Julian over-winters at Senonae (Bourgogne). German federated troops (foederati) desert and hostile warbands besiege the town.
- Anthony the Great (pictured) dies at his hermitage near the Red Sea in mid-January at age 105 (approximate), having preached against Arianism, and having tried to codify guidelines for monastic life. His followers subsequently establish the Monastery of Saint Anthony, beginning the tradition of Coptic monasticism.
- Construction begins on the first basilica of Saint Peter in Rome.
- Anthony the Great, Christian saint and Desert Father
- Amasius, Bishop of Teano (also known as St. Paris)
- Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, rabbi of the Talmud
- Vetranio, Roman Emperor
- Empress Qiang, wife of Chinese emperor Fú Jiàn
- Yin Hao, politician of the Jin Dynasty