356 BC

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Millennium: 1st millennium BC
356 BC in various calendars
Gregorian calendar356 BC
Ab urbe condita398
Ancient Egypt eraXXX dynasty, 25
- PharaohNectanebo II, 5
Ancient Greek era106th Olympiad (victor
Assyrian calendar4395
Balinese saka calendarN/A
Bengali calendar−948
Berber calendar595
Buddhist calendar189
Burmese calendar−993
Byzantine calendar5153–5154
Chinese calendar甲子年 (Wood Rat)
2342 or 2135
    — to —
乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
2343 or 2136
Coptic calendar−639 – −638
Discordian calendar811
Ethiopian calendar−363 – −362
Hebrew calendar3405–3406
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat−299 – −298
 - Shaka SamvatN/A
 - Kali Yuga2745–2746
Holocene calendar9645
Iranian calendar977 BP – 976 BP
Islamic calendar1007 BH – 1006 BH
Javanese calendarN/A
Julian calendarN/A
Korean calendar1978
Minguo calendar2267 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−1823
Thai solar calendar187–188
Tibetan calendar阳木鼠年
(male Wood-Rat)
−229 or −610 or −1382
    — to —
(female Wood-Ox)
−228 or −609 or −1381

Year 356 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Ambustus and Laenas (or, less frequently, year 398 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 356 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


By place[edit]

Persian Empire[edit]

  • Having blamed the defeats by Philip II in Thessaly and Chalcidice on his colleagues, Chares is left as sole Athenian commander. Chares is in need of money for his war effort, but frowns upon asking it from the Athenians so, partly compelled by his mercenaries, he enters the service of the insurgent Persian satrap Artabazus of Phrygia who rewards Chares very generously.[citation needed]
  • Artabazus of Phrygia is also supported by the Thebans, who send him 5,000 men under their general Pammenes. With the assistance of these and other allies, Artabazus defeats his Persian enemies in two great battles.[citation needed]
  • The Persian King Artaxerxes III orders all the satraps (governors) of his empire to dismiss their mercenaries. The Athenians, who have originally approved their mercenaries' collaboration with Artabazus of Phrygia, order them to leave due to their fear of Persian support for the revolting states of Chios, Rhodes, and Cos. Thebes follows suit and withdraws its mercenaries.
  • With King Artaxerxes III succeeding in depriving Artabazus of his Athenian and Theban allies, Artabazus is defeated by the Persian King's general, Autophradates.[citation needed]


  • Philip II of Macedon secretly offers the city of Amphipolis back to the Athenians in exchange for the valuable port of Pydna. Despite the Athenians being willing to comply, both Pydna and Potidaea are conquered by the Macedonians (along with other Athenian strongholds in Thessaly and Chalcidice) despite being defended by Athenian forces led by general and mercenary commander, Chares, as well as generals Iphicrates and Timotheus.[citation needed]
  • With Pydna and Potidaea occupied, Philip II decides to keep Amphipolis anyway. He also takes the city of Crenides from the Odrysae and renames it Philippi.[citation needed]
  • The Phocians capture and sack Delphi in whose territory the famous temple and oracle stand. A sacred war is declared against them by the other members of the Great Amphictyonic League. The Phocians, led by two capable generals, Philomelus and Onomarchus, use Delphi's riches to hire a mercenary army to carry the war into Boeotia and Thessaly.[citation needed]
  • The Social War begins between the Second Athenian League, led by Athens, and its revolting allies of Chios, Rhodes, and Kos as well as the independent state Byzantium. Mausolus, the tyrant of Caria, instigates the rebellion against the Athenian control of these states. The revolting allies ravage the islands of Lemnos and Imbros which are loyal to Athens.[citation needed]
  • The Athenian generals Chares and Chabrias are given command of the Athenian fleet with the aim of defeating the rebellious cities. However, Chabrias' fleet is defeated and he is killed in its attack on the island of Chios, off the coast of Ionia.[citation needed]
  • Chares is given complete command of the Athenian fleet and withdraws to the Hellespont to move against Byzantium. The generals Timotheus, Iphicrates and his son Menestheus are sent to help him when the enemy fleet is sighted on the Hellespont. Timotheus and Iphicrates refuse to engage due to a severe gale, but Chares does engage and lose many of his ships. Timotheus and Iphicrates are accused by Chares and put on trial, however only Timotheus is condemned to pay a fine.[citation needed]

Roman Republic[edit]


By topic[edit]



King Alexander the Great



  1. ^ Matz, David (2000). Famous Firsts in the Ancient Greek and Roman World. Jefferson: McFarland. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-78640-599-2.
  2. ^ Ogden, Daniel, ed. (2024). The Cambridge Companion to Alexander the Great. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-10884-099-6.
  3. ^ Wasson, Donald L. "Hephaestion". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2024.
  4. ^ "Chabrias". Encyclopædia Britannica. February 21, 2024. Retrieved February 25, 2024.