3C 295

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3C 295
3C 295 Chandra.jpg
3C 295 by Chandra X-Ray Observatory Credit: NASA/CXC/SAO
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension 14h 11m 20.6s[1]
Declination+52° 12′ 21″[1]
Redshift108508 km/s
0.456 (SIMBAD)[2]
0.464 (NED)[1]
Distance4.6 billion light-years
(Light travel time)[1]
5.6 billion light-years
2486 Mpc
(Luminosity distance)[3]
Apparent magnitude (V)19.8[2]
TypeFRII RG[3]
Apparent size (V)2 Mly diameter
Other designations
DA 360, 3C 295, 4C 52.30, QSO B1409+524[2]

3C 295 is a narrow-line radio galaxy located in the constellation of Boötes. With a redshift of 0.464,[1] it is approximately 5 billion light-years from Earth.[1] At time of the discovery of its redshift in 1960, this was the remotest object known.[4]


The number in its name corresponds with it being the 295th object in the Third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources (which are ordered by right ascension). This is also where the prefix 3C came from.

The radio galaxy itself is a fairly normal small radio galaxy although unusually its hotspots are readily detected in optical and X-ray emission.[5] The X-ray emission from the source is dominated by thermal emission from a rich cluster of galaxies. In optical images about 100 galaxies can be seen. 3C 295's cluster has enough material to create another 1,000 galaxies or more, making it one of the most massive objects in the known Universe. However, X-ray data showed that there is not enough mass to hold 3C 295 together gravitationally, which suggests the presence of dark matter.[6]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for 3C 295. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
  2. ^ a b c "3C 295". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg.
  3. ^ a b "3C 295". XJET: X-Ray Emission from Extragalactic Radio Jets. 2004-07-16. Retrieved 2010-04-06.
  4. ^ Table 1 in Daniel Stern; Hyron Spinrad (1999). "Search Techniques for Distant Galaxies". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 111 (766): 1475–1502. arXiv:astro-ph/9912082. Bibcode:1999PASP..111.1475S. doi:10.1086/316471.
  5. ^ Hardcastle, M. J (2001). "An optical inverse-Compton hotspot in 3C 196?". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 373 (3): 881–885. arXiv:astro-ph/0105228. Bibcode:2001A&A...373..881H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20010687.
  6. ^ Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (25 November 1999). "3C 295: X-rays From A Giant Galaxy". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. Retrieved 2007-04-20.

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