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3DBenchy as a downloadable STL file
The single-material 3DBenchy model
The multi-material 3DBenchy model
Classification3D model
Used with3D printers
InventorCreative Tools

The 3DBenchy is a 3D computer model specifically designed for testing the accuracy and capabilities of 3D printers.[1] The 3DBenchy is described by its creator, Creative Tools, as "the jolly 3D printing torture-test" and was released (initially only in STL format) in April 2015, with a multi-part, multi-color model released in July 2015.[2][3][4]

Due to its status as a common benchmark, it is believed to be the world's most 3D printed object.[5] The popular 3d-printing website Thingiverse (where the model was originally uploaded) has the 3DBenchy marked as its most popular model of all time.[6] The model itself is a tugboat design, and, as with many 3D prints, actually floats in water given the right conditions in printing.

Geometric Feature Assessment[edit]

The unique geometric features of the 3DBenchy have allowed it to become the most comprehensive calibration print that is readily available to the public. These geometric features provide users with visual benchmarks to assess a large variety of 3D printing capabilities. Visual assessments of a 3DBenchy can be made using the geometric characteristics below.[7]

Hull (Surface Deviations): The 3DBenchy has a sizeable hull for its objectively small volume (15.55cm3). The hull of the 3DBenchy is a smooth, round, and overhanging surface that blatantly reveals any surface deviation issues.

Vertical Symmetry (Skewness and Warping): The 3DBenchy is vertically symmetrical. Printer skewness and warping are uncovered by variations in the vertical symmetry of the 3DBenchy.

Chimney Top, Main Deck, and Rear Box (Parallelism): The bottom surface of the 3DBenchy is perfectly horizontal and planar. If printed correctly, the top of the chimney, main deck, and rear box behind the cabin of the 3DBenchy are parallel to the bottom surface.

Nameplate (Resolution): The 3DBenchy features a small nameplate located in the center of the stern. The name “#3DBenchy” is engraved into the nameplate. This nameplate prints seamlessly if the resolution settings are configured correctly.

Cabin Roof Bridge (Overhang): Overhang issues are often the pinnacle of a 3D printer’s weakness. The bridged roof and arched side doors of the 3DBenchy’s cabin include complex and secluded geometry that distinctly reveal overhang issues.

Acute Angled Surfaces (Layer Shifting): The bridged roof of the cabin and gunwale of the 3DBenchy were designed to incorporate acute angles. These acute angles portray a 3D printer’s layer-stepping capability. Layer-shifting issues are present if the layer-stepping on the 3DBenchy does not print correctly.

Shallow Bottom Characters (First Layer Issues): The characters “CT3D.xyz” are embedded in the bottom surface of the 3DBenchy. These characters are shallow and expose first-layer issues and squashing when present.

Nominal Dimensions[edit]

The nominal dimensions of the 3DBenchy provide a measurable baseline to accurately assess variation. The dimensions of the 3DBenchy can easily be measured with a caliper. The nominal dimensions of a 3DBenchy, using a 1:1 scale, are listed below.[8]

Cabin Roof Bridge- The diagonal length of the cabin roof bridge is 23.00 millimeters.

Chimney- The chimney, located on top of the cabin roof, has an outer diameter of 7.00 millimeters. It features a hole that is 3.00 millimeters in diameter and 11.00 millimeters deep.

Overall Length- From bow to stern, the 3DBenchy measures 60.00 millimeters in length.

Overall Width- From port to starboard, the 3DBenchy measures 31.00 millimeters in width.

Overall Heights- The height of the 3DBenchy is commonly measured from the top of the chimney and the top of the box behind the cabin to the bottom surface. From the top of the chimney, the 3DBenchy measures 48.00 millimeters in height, and from the box, 15.50 millimeters.

Rear Box- The rear box, located behind the cabin, has an exterior width of 12.00 millimeters and an exterior length of 10.81 millimeters. The interior of the box measures 8.00 millimeters in width, 7.00 millimeters in length, and 9.00 millimeters in depth.

Hawsepipe- The hawsepipe of the 3DBenchy, located near the front of the hull, features an inner diameter of 4.00 millimeters and a miniscule flange thickness of 0.30 millimeters.

Front Cabin Window- The rectangular front cabin window of the 3DBenchy features an interior width of 10.50 millimeters and an interior height of 9.50 millimeters.

Rear Cabin Window- The circular rear cabin window features an inner diameter of 9.00 millimeters and utilizes a minute flange that is 0.30 millimeters thick with an outer diameter of 12.00 millimeters.

Bow Angle- The 3DBenchy employs a high-cain spoon bow design with an overhang angle that measures 40° from the bottom surface.

Cabin Roof Angle- The top surface of the cabin roof is designed at an acute angle of 5.5° from the horizontal plane.

Nameplate Thickness- The nameplate, located in the center of the stern, utilizes a minuscule thickness of 0.10 millimeters.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Why the 3D Benchy is the greatest 3D model ever made (and why you might be using it wrong), retrieved 2022-10-28
  2. ^ "New dual- & multi-part color version of #3DBenchy test print released". Retrieved 2016-07-29.
  3. ^ "Test and calibrate your 3D printer's capacities with the #3DBenchy test project". Retrieved 2016-07-29.
  4. ^ "Creative Tools Release #3DBenchy - The Coolest 3D Printer Calibration & Benchmarking Tool Yet". 3DPrint.com. 2015-04-10. Retrieved 2016-07-29.
  5. ^ Sarah Anderson Goehrke (November 2017). "#3DBenchy: A Little 3D Printed Boat Making Big Waves as the Most-Printed Object". Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  6. ^ Thingiverse.com. "Thingiverse - Digital Designs for Physical Objects". www.thingiverse.com. Retrieved 2023-10-26.
  7. ^ CreativeTools. "#3DBenchy - the Tool to Calibrate and Test Your 3D Printer". Instructables. AUTODESK. Retrieved 22 February 2024.
  8. ^ Pollen AM. "Torture Test Analysis". Pollen AM Tortue Test - Analysis. Pollen AM. Retrieved 22 February 2024.

External links[edit]