Land attack cruise missile
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Used by||See users|
|Manufacturer||Novator Design Bureau|
|Weight||Varies on variant, from 1,300 kg-1780 kg- 2300 kg|
|Length||Varies on variant, from 6.2 m to 8.9 m|
|Engine||Multi-stage Solid-Fuel rocket, Turbojet engine for 3M-54/E/TE/E1/TE1, -14/E/TE, Solid fuel rocket for 91RE1/RTE2|
|Flight altitude||4.6-15 m|
|Inertial guidance plus terminal Active radar homing, By satellites, DSMAC|
|naval ships, submarines|
The Russian 3M-54 Калибр (Kalibr) and 3M-14 Бирюза (Biryuza) are Russian surface ship and submarine-launched anti-ship and coastal anti ship (AShM) and land attack cruise missiles (LACM) developed by the Novator Design Bureau (OKB-8). Its NATO designation is "SS-N-27A" with the NATO codename of "Sizzler". Derived export versions are the 3M-54E and the 3M-54E1. The 3M-54E has a NATO designation, the SS-N-27B; (it does not have a NATO codename). The 3M-54, 3M-54E, 3M-54TE and 3M-54AE have a second stage that performs a supersonic "sprint" in the terminal approach to the target, reducing the time that target's defense systems have to react. The 3M-54E1 has the capability of subsonic speed during its entire flight. Its range is longer than that of the supersonic versions accordingly.
The name of "Klub" is used for export versions, the 3M-54E and 3M54E1.
The missile is a modular system with five different variants: two anti-shipping types, one for land attack, and two with an anti-submarine role. The missile is designed to share common parts between the surface and submarine-launched variants. But each missile consists of different components, for example, the booster. The missile can be launched from a surface ship using a Vertical Launched System (VLS). It has a booster with thrust vectoring capability. The missile launched from a submarine has no need for such an addition, but has a conventional booster instead. The air launched version is held in a container. The container is dropped, and the missile launches, detaching from the container.
Terminal supersonic flight
The Russian domestic variant (3M-54) and export variants (3M-54E/3M-54TE) fly at sub-sonic speeds while achieving supersonic speed as they near their target. They are also believed to be able to perform very high angled defensive maneuvers in contrast to the common linear flight path of other anti-ship cruise missiles.
On 7 October 2015, the Gepard-class frigate Dagestan and three Buyan class Russian Navy corvettes, part of the Caspian Flotilla launched 26 Kalibr-class cruise missiles from the Caspian Sea at 11 targets in Syria as part of the Russian intervention in Syria during the Syrian Civil War. The missiles traveled 1,500 km (932 mi) through Iranian and Iraqi airspace and struck targets in Raqqa and Aleppo provinces (controlled by the Islamic State), but primarily Idlib province (controlled by the Free Syrian Army and Nusra Front). Anonymous Pentagon officials reported that four missiles crashed in Iran. Russian and Iranian governments denied this claim  while Pentagon and State Department officials refused to comment on the reports. Russia posted video footage of 26 Kalibr missile launches as well as several videos of missile impacts without time or location information. On the 20th of November 2015 Russia launched 18 Kalibr-class cruise missiles from Caspian Sea onto targets in Syria, the targets were in Raqqa, Idlib and Aleppo.
Domestic variants are basic versions of this missile family; these are the 3M-54 and 3M-14. The export model is called the "Club" (Klub). There are two major launch vehicles: the Klub-S, designed for use from submarines, and the Klub-N, designed for surface ships. These two launch platforms can be equipped with the following warhead and guidance combinations:
- 3M-54 - DOD designation SS-N-27A (NATO codename "Sizzler"). An anti-shipping variant deployed by the Russian Navy, as a submarine launched missile, Its basic length is 8.22 m (27.0 ft), with a 200 kg (440 lb) warhead. Its range is 440–660 km (270–410 mi). It is a Sea-skimmer with supersonic terminal speed and a flight altitude of 4.6 metres (15 ft) at its final stage; its speed is then Mach 2.9.
- 3M-54T - DOD designation SS-N-27A (NATO codename also "Sizzler"). The anti-shipping variant is deployed by the Russian Navy, in a surface ship with a VLS launched system and a thrust vectoring booster; its Basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performances are the same as the 3M-54.
- 3M-14 - DOD designation SS-N-30A. An Inertial guidance land attack variant deployed by the Russian Navy. The submarine-launched weapon has a basic length of 6.2 m (20 ft), with a 450 kg (990 lb) warhead. Its range is 1,500–2,500 km (930–1,550 mi). Its subsonic terminal speed is Mach 0.8.
- 3M-14T - DOD designation SS-N-30A; is the Inertial guidance land attack variant which is deployed by the Russian Navy. A surface ship with VLS launched missile, with thrust vectoring booster, its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performance are the same as the 3M-14. Russia fired 26 3M-14T cruise missiles from four surface ships in the Caspian Sea against 11 targets in Syria on 7 October 2015.
- According to state television news (broadcast of 11.10.2015), launch of production took place in 2012. Details of this version - the maximum speed of Mach 3, the range of 4,000 km, basing in the air, on land, on water and under water (shows launch from water depth). The missile can make in-flight maneuvers 147 times or more (in any direction), the minimum height of 10 meters, an average of 20 – 50 meters (up to 1000), it will automatically follow terrain, the missile can be controlled in flight.
- 3M-54E Klub-S- DOD designation SS-N-27B is the submarine launched anti-shipping variant, Its basic length is 8.2 m (27 ft), with a 200 kg (440 lb) warhead. Its range is 220 km; (note that its range is less than the 3M-54). It is a sea-skimmer with a supersonic terminal speed and a flight altitude of 4.6 metres (15 ft) at its final stage is 2.9 mach.
- 3M-54E1 - No DOD designation; is a submarine-launched anti-shipping variant, Its basic length is 6.2 m (20 ft), with a 400 kg (880 lb) warhead. Its range is 300 km (190 mi). It is a sea-skimmer with a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach. It is allegedly capable of disabling or even sinking an aircraft carrier.
- 3M-14E - DOD designation SS-N-30B. An inertially guided land attack variant; it is launched from a submarine. Its basic length is 6.2 m (20 ft), with a 450 kg (990 lb) warhead. Its range is 300 km (190 mi). It has a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach.
- 91RE1 - No DOD designation. A submarine-launched anti-submarine variant, it consists of two stages, one solid booster with four grid fins and one anti-submarine light torpedo. Its basic length is 7.65 m (25.1 ft), it has a range of 50 km (31 mi). It can reach supersonic speed. The torpedo has a warhead weight of 76 kg (168 lb). It is similar to the American ASROC/SUBROC missile/torpedo system. It follows a ballistic path on the surface, with a speed of Mach 2.5.
- 3M-54TE Klub-N - DOD designation SS-N-27B. A surface vessel with VLS launched anti-shipping variant; with a thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m, its warhead weight and other performance is the same as the 3M-54E. Its range is less than the 3M-54. It is a sea-skimmer with supersonic terminal speed and a flight altitude of 15 feet (4.6 m) at its final stage, when it has a speed of 2.9 mach.
- 3M-54TE1 - No DOD designation. A surface ship with VLS anti-shipping variant, with thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performance is the same as the 3M-54E1. A sea-skimmer with a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach. It is also allegedly capable of disabling or even sinking an aircraft carrier.
- 3M-14TE - DOD designation SS-N-30B. An inertially guided land attack variant. It is a surface ship with VLS missile and a thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performances are the same as the 3M-14E. Its subsonic terminal speed is 0.8 mach.
- 91RTE2 - No DOD designation. A surface ship with the VLS launched anti-submarine variant; it consists of three stages, one booster with thrust vector nozzle, one conventional booster, and one anti-submarine light torpedo. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), with a range of 40 km (25 mi) at supersonic speed. The torpedo has a warhead weight of 76 kg (168 lb). The lightest of all variants, with a launch weight of 1,300 kg (2,900 lb). Speed is Mach 2.
- 3M-54AE - Air-launched anti-ship variant. Two stages, terminal supersonic speed. Weight 1950 kg. Warhead 200 kg. Range 300 km.
- 3M-54AE1 - Air-launched anti-ship variant. Subsonic.
- 3M-14AE - Air-launched land attack variant. Subsonic. INS+satellite guidance. Length 6.2 m. Weight 1400 kg. Warhead 450 kg. Range 300 km.
The Russian Kilo class submarine is the primary launch platform for the missile. The future Russian Lada class and its variants should also be able to launch this weapon. The Indian Talwar class frigate is another primary shipborne launch platform for the missile. The Akula-class submarine and the new Yasen-class submarine can also launch it. The new Russian Admiral Sergei Gorshkov class frigates and the second batch of Steregushchy class frigates use the same UKSK VLS as the Talwar class frigates, and are also able to carry these missiles.
In addition, it is believed by some analysts that an air-launched variant will be developed to arm the Tu-142s currently in service with both the Russian and Indian Navies; it is also anticipated that the Tu-22M3 operated by the Indian Navy will be equipped with the missile. A truck mounted version is planned for development by the Novator Design Bureau. A Klub-K variant, which is disguised as a shipping container that can be placed on a truck, train, or merchant vessel, was advertised in 2010 and was shown for the first time at the MAKS 2011 air show. Putting the launcher system into a standard shipping container allows the missiles to be moved and stored without arousing suspicion, which in turn renders pre-emptive strikes against the launcher very difficult. In MAKS 2007, the 3M-54AE was placed beside a Su-35. This means the plane will have the ability to launch the Klub A variants. The lighter 3M-14AE was also beside MiG-35.
- Russia: The Russian Navy uses the 3M54 and the 3M14. Submarine launched variants are used by Kilo-class submarine, Lada-class submarine, Akula-class submarine, and the Yasen-class submarine. Surface ship launched variants are used by the Gremyashchy, Buyan-M class, Gorshkov class and the Grigorovich class frigates.
- Algeria: The Algerian National Navy uses the 'Klub-S' variant for their four Kilo class submarines also the P-900 Alfa for the 2 new Kilo class submarines.
- India: The Indian Navy uses both 'Klub-S' and 'Klub-N' variants for the Kilo class submarines (known as the Sindhughosh Class in Indian service), the Talwar class frigates respectively.
- Vietnam: The Vietnam People's navy uses the 'Klub-S' variant for its six Kilo class submarines. Klub-N -M also, maybe -K on proposal .
- China: The People's Liberation Army Navy uses the 'Klub-S' variant for its Kilo class submarines.
- Iran: Contradictory sources indicate that the Iranian Navy is thought to have purchased or is about to purchase, 'Klub-S' missiles for its three Kilo class submarines.
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- U.S.: Several Russian cruise missiles landed in Iran - Militarytimes.com, 8 October 2015
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- Jane's Weapons: Naval 2012-2013, Janes Information Group, 2012, p. 15
- "KLUB (SS-N-27) ASCM". bharat-rakshak.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010.
- "Surface Forces: Arming Container Ships With Anti-Ship Missiles". strategypage.com.
- "3M-54 Klub". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
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- "MAKS: Russian firm debuts shipping container-housed cruise missiles". Flight Global. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
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- Pandit, Rajat (August 4, 2008). "India to acquire new undersea cruise missiles". Times of India. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- Newsweek, article “China’s Carrier Killers”, Oct. 4, 2010
- Strategy Page, article Iranian Submarine Launched Missiles, Aug. 30, 2006
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 3M-54 Klub.|
- http://www.concern-agat.com/index.php producer
- "3M-54 Klub". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-27.
- "Klub (SS-N-27) ASCN". Bharat Rakshak Monitor. Archived from the original on 2007-02-05. Retrieved 2007-02-27.
- "3M-54 Klub". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-27.
- "Navy Systems". Globalsecurity.org (Navy Systems). Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-23.