3 point player

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3 point player is a disability sport classification for wheelchair basketball.


The classification was created by the International Paralympic Committee and has roots in a 2003 attempt to address "the overall objective to support and co-ordinate the ongoing development of accurate, reliable, consistent and credible sport focused classification systems and their implementation."[1]


This classification is for wheelchair basketball.[2] Classification for the sport is done by the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation.[3] Classification is extremely important in wheelchair basketball because when players point totals are added together, they cannot exceed fourteen points per team on the court at any time.[4] Jane Buckley, writing for the Sporting Wheelies, describes the wheelchair basketball players in this classification as players having: "May have some limb movement more control of their trunk. They are quite limited in their sideways movement. Can rebound overhead with 2 hands."[2] The Australian Paralympic Committee defines this classification as: "Players with good trunk movement in the forward direction to the floor and up again without arm support. They have good trunk rotation but no controlled sideways movement."[5] The International Wheelchair Basketball Federation defines a 3 point player as "Good trunk movement in the forward direction to the floor and up again without arm support. Has good trunk rotation but no controlled sideways movement."[6] The Cardiff Celts, a wheelchair basketball team in Wales, explain this classification as, "excellent stability of the trunk in a forwards and backwards direction. Class 3 players suffer little loss of stability during upright passing and can usually rebound forcefully with two hands overhead by moving the trunk forward while reaching for the ball. Limited stability during reaching laterally for rebounding; often executed by holding the side of the wheelchair with the off hand. Able to push the wheelchair forcefully with no loss of anterior or posterior stability. Typical Class 3 Disabilities include : L2-L4 paraplegia, with control of hip flexion and adduction movements, but without control of hip extension or abduction. Post-polio paralysis with minimal control of lower extremity movements. Hip disarticulation or above-knee amputees with very short residual limbs." [7]

A player can be classified as a 3.5 point player if they display characteristics of a 3 point player and 4 point player, and it is not easy to determine exactly which of these two classes the player fits in.[5][6] For example, Australian Shelley Chaplin is classified as 3.5 point player.[8]

Functional ability[edit]

There is a significant difference in special endurance between 2 point players, and 3 and 4 point players, with 2 point players having less special endurance.[9]

Getting classified[edit]

Wheelchair basketball players who are going to compete at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in this classification need to have their classification be in compliance with the system organised by the IWBF and their status being listed as ‘Review’ or ‘Confirmed’.[10]

In Australia, wheelchair basketball players and other disability athletes are generally classified after they have been assessed based on medical, visual or cognitive testing, after a demonstration of their ability to play their sport, and the classifiers watching the player during competitive play.[11]

Once a player is classified, it is very hard to be classified into a different classification. Players have been known to have issues with classification because some players play down their abilities during the classification process. At the same time, as players improve at the game, movements become regular and their skill level improves. This can make it appear like their classification was incorrect.[12]


Wheelchair Twin Basketball is a major variant of wheelchair basketball.[13] This version is supposed by the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation, [13] and played in Japan.[14] Twin basketball has a three-point classification system based on the evaluation of the mobility of people with cervical cord injuries. In this variant, the equivalent to three point players would be players without a head band. These players are "Players without a headband (no band players) - the players possess good triceps, a good balance of the hand and some finger functions. They can score by shooting with a smaller and lighter basketball to the normal basket."[13]


Australian Shaun Norris is a 3 point player.[15] Tina McKenzie, Sarah Stewart and Katie Hill are 3 point players for Australia's women's national team.[8] Yvon Rouillard is a 3 point player for the Canadian men's national team.[16] Dave Durepos and Mickael Poulin are 3.5 point players for the Canadian men's national team.[16]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ Paralympic Classification Today. International Paralympic Committee. 22 April 2010. p. 3. 
  2. ^ a b Buckley, Jane (2011). "Understanding Classification: A Guide to the Classification Systems used in Paralympic Sports". Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  3. ^ "IPC CLASSIFICATION CODE AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS" (PDF). International Paralympic Committee. November 2007. p. 21. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  4. ^ "Wheelchair Basketball". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  5. ^ a b "Classification Information Sheet: Wheelchair Basketball" (PDF). Sydney, Australia: Australian Paralympic Committee. 27 July 2010. p. 2. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "International Wheelchair Basketball Federation Functional Player Classification System" (PDF). International Wheelchair Basketball Federation. December 2004. p. 8. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  7. ^ "Simplified Rules of Wheelchair Basketball and a Brief Guide to the Classification system.". Cardiff Celts. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  8. ^ a b "2010 WC Team". Basketball Australia. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  9. ^ Doll-Tepper, Gudrun; Kröner, Michael; Sonnenschein, Werner; International Paralympic Committee, Sport Science Committee (2001). "Organisation and Administration of the Classification Process for the Paralympics". New Horizons in sport for athletes with a disability : proceedings of the International VISTA '99 Conference, Cologne, Germany, 28 August-1 September 1999 1. Oxford (UK): Meyer & Meyer Sport. pp. 355–368. ISBN 1841260363. OCLC 48404898. 
  10. ^ "Wheelchair Basketball: LONDON 2012 PARALYMPIC GAMES" (PDF). International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  11. ^ "Understanding Classification". Sydney, Australia: Australian Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  12. ^ Berger, Ronald J. (March 2009). Hoop dreams on wheels: disability and the competitive wheelchair athlete. Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-415-96509-5. 
  13. ^ a b c Strohkendl, Horst (2002). "WHEELCHAIR TWIN BASKETBALL... an explanation" (PDF). International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation. p. 9-10. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  15. ^ "Shaun Norris". Australian Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  16. ^ a b "Team Canada: Men's Roster". Canada: Wheelchair Basketball Canada. 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.