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Eastern hemisphere at the end of the 3rd century BC.
3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.
Mediterranean the first few decades of this century were characterized by a balance of power between the Greek Hellenistic kingdoms in the east, and the great mercantile power of Carthage in the west. This balance was shattered when conflict arose between Carthage and the Roman Republic. In the following decades, the Carthaginian Republic was first humbled and then destroyed by the Romans in the first and second Punic wars. Following the Second Punic War, Rome became the most important power in the western Mediterranean.
India, Ashoka the Great ruled the Maurya Empire. The Pandya, Chola and Chera dynasties of the classical age flourished in the ancient Tamil country. The Xiong Nu were at the height of their power in Mongolia. The Warring States period in China drew to a close, with Qin Shihuang conquering other nation-states and establishing the short-lived Qin dynasty, the first empire of China, which was followed in the same century by the long-lasting Han dynasty. The Protohistoric Period began in the Korean peninsula.
The Pyramid of the Moon, one of several monuments built in
Significant people [ edit ]
Appius Claudius Caecus, Roman statesman
Aratus of Sicyon, Greek statesman
Arsinoe II, co-ruler of Egypt
Ashoka the Great, Mauryan ruler of India
Bai Qi, Chinese general
Diodotus I, first ruler of Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Emperor Gaozu of Han, founder of the Han Dynasty in China
Gaius Lutatius Catulus, Roman general
Hamilcar Barca, Carthaginian general and politician
Hannibal Barca, Carthaginian general and politician
Hanno the Great, Carthaginian politician
Hasdrubal Barca, Carthaginian general
Ilamcetcenni, Cholas ruler of South India
Mago Barca, Carthaginian general
Manius Curius Dentatus, Roman general
Marcus Atilius Regulus, Roman general
Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Roman general
Marcus Porcius Cato, Roman statesman and writer
Masinissa, king of Numidia
Philip V of Macedon, King of Macedonia
Ptolemy I, pharaoh of Egypt
Ptolemy II, pharaoh of Egypt
Pyrrhus of Epirus, King of Epirus
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Roman general and politician
Qin Shi Huang, Chinese Emperor
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, Roman general and politician
Xanthippus of Carthage, Greek general
Xiang Yu, Chinese rebel general against the Qin Dynasty
Literature [ edit ]
Science and Philosophy [ edit ]
Apollonius of Perga, Greek mathematician
Arcesilaus, Greek philosopher
Archimedes, Greek mathematician, physicist, and engineer
Aristarchus of Samos, Greek astronomer and mathematician
Aristyllus, Greek astronomer
Berossus Hellenistic Babylonian historian and astronomer
Conon of Samos, Greek astronomer
Demetrius of Phalerum, Greek philosopher and orator
Dicaearchus, Greek philosopher and scientist
Epicurus, Greek philosopher
Eratosthenes, Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer
Euclid, Greek geometer
Han Fei, Chinese philosopher
Manetho, Hellenistic Egyptian historian
Mencius, Chinese philosopher
Philo of Byzantium, Greek mechanic
Pyrrho, Greek philosopher
Theophrastus, Greek philosopher
Timon of Phlius, Greek philosopher
Xun Zi, Chinese philosopher
Zeno of Citium, Greek philosopher
Zenodotus, Greek grammarian
Inventions, discoveries, introductions [ edit ]
Eratosthenes accurately calculates diameter of the Earth using Camels and Shadows.
Weiqi well-established in China, and may date back to the 2nd millennium BC. Stone of Canopus (for Ptolemy III), No. 1, in Rosetta Stone Series of 3 stones. Implements leap year in Egypt. Leap year not formally recognized until Caesar in 55 BC.
293 BC: first Roman
sundial [Pliny (79ce): Natural History 7.213].
Water screw invented by Archimedes. Invention of the
musical instrument hydraulis, the precursory to the Pipe organ by Ctesibius, a Greek engineer working in Alexandria.
Emperor Gaozu of Han China discovers an elaborate mechanical puppet theater in the treasury of the previous ruler Qin Shihuang. The enormous
Du Jiang Yan Irrigation System of China is engineered and constructed by Li Bing in 256 BC. Burial chamber, Tomb of the Reliefs,
Cerveteri, is made. Great Stupa,
Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh, India, Maurya period, is founded by King Ashoka.
Silk is exported to Europe from China.
Armillary spheres, models of objects in the sky developed by the Greeks, are in use as teaching tools.
Evidence [ edit ]
Much of what is known of this century comes from the works of the Greek historian
Polybius, whose main concern is the story of how Rome comes to dominate the known world.
Sovereign States [ edit ]
List of sovereign states in the 3rd century BC.
Decades and years [ edit ]