3rd millennium

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In contemporary history, the third millennium is a period of time that began on January 1, 2001, and will end on December 31, 3000 of the Gregorian calendar.[1][2] It is the third period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini or Common Era.[2][3]


The civilizations in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Civilizations of the 3rd millennium AD
Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania


The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Events of the 3rd millennium AD
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
21st century 2010 Arab Spring[4] 2001 September 11 attacks[5]
2013 Boston Marathon bombing[6][7]
2014 Shootings at the Canadian parliament[8][9]
2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
2014 Disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370
2015 Mina stampede
2005 July 7 London bombings[10]
2015 November 13 Paris attacks[11]
2013 Tasmanian Bushfires[12]

Predicted events[edit]

As this millennium is currently in progress, its first two decades of 21st century (the past 2000s and the current 2010s), are the subject of the historian's attention. The remaining part of the 21st century (2020s to 2090s) and longer-term trends (22nd to 30th century) are researched in futures studies. Here are some possible events that will happen in those particular years:

Time capsules[edit]

Astronomical events[edit]

Biological events[edit]

  • 2099 - According to one study, 83% of the Amazon rainforest may have been destroyed.[26]
  • By 2100, 12% (about 1250) of the bird species existing at the beginning of the 21st century are expected to be extinct or threatened with extinction.[27]
  • By 2100, emperor penguins could be pushed to the brink of extinction due to global climate change, according to a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution study from January 2009. The study applied mathematical models to predict how the loss of sea ice from climate warming would affect an Antarctica colony of emperor penguins, and they forecast a decline of 87% in the colony's population by the end of the century.[28]

Calendric predictions[edit]

  • March 17, 2160 – Unless changes are made as to when Easter can be observed, this particular March 17 will fall within Holy Week for the first time since 2008 and fall on the same day (Monday) as it did in that year, likely requiring the movement of the Feast of Saint Patrick's Day to another date.[29]
  • Unless changes are made in the religious calendar, in 2285, the Western Easter will fall on March 22 for the first time since 1818, the earliest possible date on which Easter can occur.[30]

Technological predictions[edit]

Social predictions[edit]

Significant people[edit]

The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Significant people of the 3rd millennium AD
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
21st century Muammar Gaddafi
Hosni Mubarak
Nelson Mandela
Desmond Tutu
Anwar al-Awlaki
Hugo Chávez
Dilma Rousseff
George W. Bush
Barack Obama
Malala Yousafzai
Tu Youyou
Hu Jintao
Narendra Modi
Salman of Saudi Arabia
Ban Ki-moon
Elizabeth II
Vladimir Putin
Mario Draghi
Angela Merkel
Pope Francis
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Kevin Rudd
Julia Gillard

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

Inventions, discoveries and introductions
Communication and technology Math and science Manufacturing Transportation and
space exploration
  1. iOS
  2. Android
  1. X-ray astronomy[52]
  2. Poincaré conjecture[53]
  3. Higgs boson[54]
  1. Graphene
  1. Mars Orbiter Mission[55]

Centuries and decades[edit]

21st century 2000s[b][c] 2010s 2020s 2030s 2040s 2050s 2060s 2070s 2080s 2090s
22nd century 2100s 2110s 2120s 2130s 2140s 2150s 2160s 2170s 2180s 2190s
23rd century 2200s 2210s 2220s 2230s 2240s 2250s 2260s 2270s 2280s 2290s
24th century 2300s 2310s 2320s 2330s 2340s 2350s 2360s 2370s 2380s 2390s
25th century 2400s 2410s 2420s 2430s 2440s 2450s 2460s 2470s 2480s 2490s
26th century 2500s 2510s 2520s 2530s 2540s 2550s 2560s 2570s 2580s 2590s
27th century 2600s 2610s 2620s 2630s 2640s 2650s 2660s 2670s 2680s 2690s
28th century 2700s 2710s 2720s 2730s 2740s 2750s 2760s 2770s 2780s 2790s
29th century 2800s 2810s 2820s 2830s 2840s 2850s 2860s 2870s 2880s 2890s
30th century 2900s 2910s 2920s 2930s 2940s 2950s 2960s 2970s 2980s 2990s


  1. ^ a b Partially recognised state
  2. ^ 2000 is generally considered the last year of the 2nd millennium, but there is some dispute.
  3. ^ 9 of the 10 years of the decade are in this millennium.


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  2. ^ a b "When and where did the new Millennium officially start, and why?". Royal Observatory Greenwich
  3. ^ Associated Press (2001-01-01). "Y2K It Wasn't, but It Was a Party". latimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-10-15. 
  4. ^ The Arab Spring—One Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met 2012's need to sustain its momentum. The CenSEI Report, 13 February 2012
  5. ^ "How much did the September 11 terrorist attack cost America?". 2004. Institute for the Analysis of Global Security. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  6. ^ "What we know about the Boston bombing and its aftermath". CNN. April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  7. ^ Kotz, Deborah (April 24, 2013). "Injury toll from Marathon bombs reduced to 264". The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 29, 2013. Boston public health officials said Tuesday that they have revised downward their estimate of the number of people injured in the Marathon attacks, to 264. 
  8. ^ http://www.parl.gc.ca/about/house/newsroom/articles/2015-06-03-Summary-e.pdf
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  10. ^ Bennetto, Jason; Ian Herbert (13 August 2005). "London bombings: the truth emerges". The Independent. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
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  12. ^ "Fires rage across Tasmania". abc.net.au (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  13. ^ Diduch, Mary (April 27, 2009). "U. celebrates Old Queens bicentennial". The Daily Targum (Rutgers University: College Media Network). Retrieved June 16, 2009. At the ceremony, a time capsule was revealed containing several items from today to leave for the University in 2109, at the building’s tricentennial commemoration. 
  14. ^ York Civic Centre. Freebase (2006-10-23). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  15. ^ Chinook Centre - Time Capsule, accessed February 29, 2012
  16. ^ HM Nautical Almanac Office: 2117 Transit of Venus. Astro.ukho.gov.uk (2011-05-03). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  17. ^ Articles – Occultation – OPT Telescopes. Optcorp.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  18. ^ HM Nautical Almanac Office: 2125 Transit of Venus. Astro.ukho.gov.uk (2011-05-03). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  19. ^ Occultation - Mutual planetary transits and occultations - Encyclopedia II at the Wayback Machine (archived December 13, 2013)
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  21. ^ Griffith Observatory (non accessible)
  22. ^ Solar eclipse of May 5, 2600
  23. ^ Solar eclipse of June 14, 2151
  24. ^ a b Mutual Planetary Transits; Fifteen millennium catalog; Period 2 001 AD - 3 000 AD
  25. ^ a b Baalke, Ron (2003-08-22). "Mars Makes Closest Approach In Nearly 60,000 Years". Retrieved 2015-11-15. 
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  28. ^ Dunham, Will. "Melting Sea Ice May Doom Emperor Penguins, Study Finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2008. 
  29. ^ Nevans-Pederson, Mary (2008-03-13). "No St. Pat's Day Mass allowed in Holy Week". Dubuque Telegraph Herald. Woodward Communications, Inc. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
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