In contemporary history, the third millennium is a period of time that according to official sources, such as the United States Naval Observatory, began on January 1, 2001, and will end on December 31, 3000, of the Gregorian calendar. It is the third period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini or Common Era.
Stephen Jay Gould argued that it is not possible to decide if the millennium began January 1, 2000, or January 1, 2001. The Associated Press reported that the third millennium began January 1, 2001, and also reported that celebrations in the US were generally more subdued at the beginning of 2001, compared to the beginning of 2000.
As this millennium is currently in progress, its first two decades, the past 2000s and the current 2010s, are the subject of the historian's attention. The remaining part of the 21st century and longer-term trends are researched in futures studies.
The civilizations in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
|21st century||2010 Arab Spring||2001 September 11 attacks||2001 Beginning of War on Terror
2013 Savar building collapse
2013 Persecution of Muslims in Burma
|2009 Greek government-debt crisis
2013 Ukraine crisis
As this millennium is currently in progress, its first two decades of 21st century (the past 2000s and the current 2010s), are the subject of the historian's attention. The remaining part of the 21st century (2020s to 2090s) and longer-term trends (22nd to 30th century) are researched in futures studies. Here are some possible events that will happen in those particular years:
- September 1, 2061 - A time capsule at St. Gabriel School in Biggar, Saskatchewan, Canada is scheduled to be opened for its 150th anniversary of its school division (Greater Saskatoon Catholic Schools). It was sealed on September 11, 2011 (was not buried.) .
- March 19, 2094 - A time capsule sealed exactly one hundred years before is scheduled to be opened at Denver International Airport.
- 2068 - The Helium Centennial Time Columns Monument is expected to be opened 100 years after it was locked in 1968.
- April 27, 2109 – A time capsule placed under the floor boards of the Old Queens Building at Rutgers University, in New Jersey, United States buried on April 27, 2009 is scheduled to be opened.
- September 19, 2110 – A time capsule at the Plaza de Armas in Santiago, Chile is intended to be opened on that date. It was buried in 2010.
- November 18, 2112 – The City of Beaumont, California in the United States will open their time capsule in honor of its Bi-Centennial.
- 2112 - a time capsule buried in Weavers Academy, Wellingborough, UK, will be opened after 100 years of being buried.
- 2132 – A time capsule on Rideau Street in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada is intended to be opened that year. It was buried in 1982.
- 2193 - A time capsule at the York Civic Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada is intended to be opened that year. It was buried in 1997.
- 2968 - The Helium Centennial Time Columns Monument in Amarillo, Texas, contains four separate time capsules, the last of which is intended to be opened 1000 years after the Time Columns Monument was locked in 1968.
- December 31, 2999 - The Time Capsule in Chinook Centre in Calgary, Alberta, Canada is scheduled to open on December 31, 2999 after being sealed in 2000.
- August 12, 2045 - A total solar eclipse will take place in the United States, producing a path from California to Florida. Some parts of Florida are predicted to experience totality for six minutes, the longest in US history.
- November 11, 2069 – Transit of Mercury
- October 27, 2088 - Mercury occults Jupiter, first time since 1708, but very close to the Sun and impossible to view with naked eye.
- September 23, 2090 - Total Solar Eclipse in the UK. The next total eclipse visible in the UK follows a track similar to that of August 11, 1999, but shifted slightly further north and occurring very near sunset. Maximum duration in Cornwall will be 2 minutes and 10 seconds. Same day and month as the eclipse of September 23, 1699.
- April 7, 2094 - Mercury occults Jupiter; it will be very close to the Sun and impossible to view with naked eye.
- December 11, 2117 - Transit of Venus.
- September 14, 2123 - At 15:28 UTC, Venus will occult Jupiter.
- December 8, 2125 - Transit of Venus.
- July 29, 2126: At 16:08 UTC, Mercury will occult Mars.
- December 3, 2133 - At 14:14 UTC, Mercury will occult Venus.
- September 2, 2197 - Venus occults Spica.
Last occultation of Spica by Venus was on November 10, 1783.
- December 24, 2197 - Earth's Moon will occult Neptune.
- 2209 and 2284 - perihelion of Comet Halley.
- May 27, 2221 - near-Earth asteroid (285263) 1998 QE2 will pass Earth at a distance of 0.038 AU (5,700,000 km; 3,500,000 mi).
- 2221 - Triple conjunction of Mars and Saturn.
- December 2, 2223 - At 12:32 UTC Mars will occult Jupiter.
- 2238/39 - Triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn (whose last triple conjunction was in 1981).
- August 12, 2243 - At 04:52 UTC, Venus will occult Saturn.
- June 11, 2247 - Transit of Venus.
- March 4, 2251 - At 10:52 UTC, Venus will occult Uranus.
- In 2252, the planetoid Orcus will have completed one orbit of the Sun since its discovery in 2004, based upon current orbital measurements which give it a period of 248 Earth years.
- August 1, 2253 - Mercury occults Regulus (last occultation of Regulus by Mercury was on August 13, 364 BC).
- June 9, 2255 - Transit of Venus.
- 2256 to 2258 - Eris will reach perihelion for the first time since discovery.
- October 6, 2271 - Close conjunction between Venus and Regulus, perhaps occultation of Regulus by Venus.
- 2279 - Triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn.
- 2281/82 - Grand Trine of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. This last occurred in 1769 and 1770.
- Sunday, August 28, 2287 - Closest approach between Mars and Earth since Wednesday, August 27, 2003.
- In 2288, the planetoid Quaoar will have completed one orbit of the Sun since its discovery in 2002, which, based upon current orbital measurements, gives it a period of 286 Earth years.
- September 11, 2307 - At 22:50 UTC, Venus will occult Uranus.
- 2313 - Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- 2319 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- June 4, 2327 - At 00:54 UTC, Venus will occult Mars.
- October 8, 2335 - At 14:51 UTC, Venus will occult Jupiter.
- April 7, 2351 - At 17:22 UTC, Mercury will occult Uranus.
- December 13, 2360 - Transit of Venus.
- 2365 - Perihelion of Comet Halley.
- December 10, 2368 - Transit of Venus.
- 2388 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- May 11, 2391 - Partial transit of Mercury.
- November 17, 2400 - Venus will occult Antares (last occultation of Antares by Venus was on September 17, 525 BC).
- December 30, 2419 - At 01:38 UTC Venus will occult Uranus.
- 2426 - Pluto's second orbit, since its discovery.
- 2456 - Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- August 29, 2478 - At 23:11 UTC Mars will occult Jupiter.
- June 12, 2490 - Transit of Venus.
- May 6, 2492 - Belgian astronomer Jean Meeus asserts that the orbits of all eight planets and Pluto will be within the same 90° arc of the Solar System. The last time this is believed to have occurred was on February 1, 949.
- June 10, 2498 - Transit of Venus.
- May 5, 2600 - First total solar eclipse visible from London since 2151.
The width of its path is predicted to be exceptionally wide at its maximum point.
- April 7, 2515 - At 10:37 UTC, Mars will occult Neptune.
- January 25, 2518 - At 22:41 UTC, Venus will occult Saturn.
- 2562 - The dwarf planet Eris will have completed one orbit of the Sun, since its discovery in 2005.
- 2599 - Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- December 16, 2603 - Transit of Venus.
- May 13, 2608 - Grazing Transit of Mercury.
- December 13, 2611 - Partial transit of Venus.
- 2626/27 - Triple conjunction Mars–Saturn.
- 2629 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- February 16, 2649 - At 11:17 UTC Venus will occult Neptune.
- September 3, 2650 - The distance between Mars and the Earth will arrive at a new remarkable minimum, at 55 651 582,118 km.
It will be the closer encounter of perihelitic opposition slightly shorter (of next 37 000 km) than the previous one of the August 28, 2287.
The following closer encounter will be on September 8, 2729.
- 2655/56 - Triple conjunction Jupiter-Saturn.
- 2663 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- 2699/2700 - Triple conjunctions between Mars-Jupiter, Mars-Neptune and Jupiter-Neptune.
- October 24, 2714 - Transit of Jupiter from Uranus. First one in 800 years since May 3, 1914, which, as of one year before now, is 700 years from now. Now is also 100 years from the previous transit.
- September 8, 2729 - The distance between Mars and the Earth will arrive at a new remarkable minimum, at 55 651 033,122 km.
It will be the closer encounter of perihelitic opposition slightly shorter (just of 549 km) than the previous one of the September 8, 2650.
- June 15, 2733 - Transit of Venus.
- June 13, 2741 - Transit of Venus.
- 2742 - Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- 2744 - Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- 2761 - Triple conjunction Mars–Saturn.
- December 3, 2781 - At 06:45 UTC Venus will occult Neptune.
- 2791 - Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
- 2794/95 - Triple conjunction Jupiter–Saturn.
- 29th century - The remnants of Comet Ikeya-Seki are expected to return to the inner solar system.
It was last seen from Earth in 1965–1966, and broke into three pieces as it approached the Sun.
- March 25, 2816 - At 15:47 UTC Mercury will occult Jupiter.
- March 6, 2817 - At 9:36 UTC Venus will occult Saturn.
- April 11, 2818 - At 20:41 UTC Mercury will occult Mars.
- February 6, 2825 - At 10:50 UTC Mars will occult Uranus.
- 2829/30 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- December 15, 2830 - At 09:40 UTC Venus will occult Mars.
- 2842/43 - Triple conjunction Mars-Jupiter.
- December 16, 2846 - Transit of Venus.
- December 14, 2854 - Partial transit of Venus.
- July 20, 2855 - At 05:15 UTC Mercury will occult Jupiter.
- 2866 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
- March 16, 2880 - Predicted possible impact date for asteroid (29075) 1950 DA, the near Earth object with the highest known probability of crashing into Earth.
- 2099 - According to one study, 83% of the Amazon rainforest may have been destroyed.
- By 2100, 12% (about 1250) of the bird species existing at the beginning of the 21st century are expected to be extinct or threatened with extinction.
- By 2100, emperor penguins could be pushed to the brink of extinction due to global climate change, according to a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution study from January 2009. The study applied mathematical models to predict how the loss of sea ice from climate warming would affect an Antarctica colony of emperor penguins, and they forecast a decline of 87% in the colony's population by the end of the century.
- January 19, 2038 – 32-bit computer clocks overflow to represent the date as December 31, 1969.
- 2096 is the last leap year before 2100, which will not be a leap year.
- On March 1, 2100 (which will be February 16, 2100 in the Julian calendar), the difference between the Julian calendar and the Gregorian calendar reaches 14 days. Since 14 is divisible by 7, this will be the first time in history since its inception that the Gregorian calendar will have the same day of the week for each day of the month for the whole year as the Julian calendar. This will last until February 28, 2200 of the Gregorian Calendar.
- 2100 will not be a leap year since it qualifies as a year that is divisible by 100, but not by 400.
- FAT file systems theoretically support dates up to December 31, 2107 (though officially only up to December 31, 2099).
- On November 14, 2139, Bernie Madoff is scheduled to be released from prison, should he live to be 201 years old.
- The Year type in MySQL supports dates up to December 31, 2155.
- March 17, 2160 – Unless changes are made as to when Easter can be observed, this particular March 17 will fall within Holy Week for the first time since 2008 and fall on the same day (Monday) as it did in that year, likely requiring the movement of the Feast of Saint Patrick's Day to another date.
- Unless changes are made in the religious calendar, in 2285, the Western Easter will fall on March 22 for the first time since 1818, the earliest possible date on which Easter can occur.
- Expected completion of a space elevator by 2050.
- Predictions have been made for commercial hypersonic air travel by 2050.
- Denmark's energy supply is planned to be supplied only by renewable energies in 2050.
- Work on cleaning up the site of the Oldbury Nuclear Power Station near Thornbury, South Gloucestershire, England, which was decommissioned on 29 February 2012, is scheduled to be complete between 2092 and 2101.
- According to the Discovery Channel documentary, Extreme Engineering, the Japanese proposed Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid could be complete by 2110.
- The One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence (AI100) initiated by Stanford University will be concluded in 2115.
- 2162 or later: The satellite Envisat, declared "dead" in 2012, is expected to deorbit and burn up in the atmosphere no earlier than 2162.
- By 2200, it is predicted that Earth will become a Type I civilization on the Kardashev scale, according to Nikolai Kardashev's extrapolation of 1% energy usage growth per year.
- As of December 2009[update], the United States Census Bureau projects a world population of 8.4 billion by 2030
- French demographist Emmanuel Todd predicts the level of literacy amongst the world population to reach near 100% by 2030
- Gerontologist Aubrey De Grey predicts there is a "50/50 chance" of curing aging by around the year 2036
- World population is predicted to reach 9.3 billion people, according to United Nations Population Division.
- French demographist Emmanuel Todd predicts worldwide zero population growth birth rates by 2050.
- The United Kingdom could have the largest population in Europe by 2050 and be the third biggest recipient of migrants in the world, UN projections suggest.
- 2050s - China, United States, India, Brazil and Mexico will be the largest economies in the world, according to a Goldman Sachs study.
- 2160 – Some scientists believe there are babies born in 2010 who may still be alive in 2160.
- According to the UN Population Bureau, life expectancy in 2200 will be around 100 for developed countries and the world population will be about 8.5 billion. However, the UN has warned that these projections could be invalidated by any change and progress in future life extension technology and discoveries, as well as changes in future birthrates.
- 22nd century - In his book The Next 100 Years, American political scientist George Friedman predicts that as the century begins, an ongoing confrontation between an increasingly powerful Mexico and the United States will be taking place. Mexico will be an economically and militarily powerful country capable of challenging the United States, while a Mexican majority in southern regions of the United States will have made them a de facto extension of Mexico, with increasing secessionist sentiment. Both countries will be competing for dominance over North America, which will remain the international centre of gravity throughout the next few centuries.
The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.
|21st century||Muammar Gaddafi
|George W. Bush
Salman of Saudi Arabia
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
|Communication and Technology||Math and Science||Manufacturing||Transportation and
Centuries and decades
- Partially recognised state
- 2000 is generally considered the last year of the 2nd millennium, but there is some dispute.
- 9 of the 10 years of the decade are in this millennium.
- United States Naval Observatory, "The 21st Century and the 3rd Millennium:When Did They Begin?" (Washington, DC, June 14, 2011).
- "When and where did the new Millennium officially start, and why?". Royal Observatory Greenwich
- Stephen Jay Gould, Questioning the Millennium: A Rationalist's Guide to a Precisely Arbitrary Countdown (New York: Harmony Books, 1999), ch 2.
- Associated Press, "Y2K It Wasn't, but It Was a Party", Los Angeles Times, January 1, 2001.
- *The Arab Spring—One Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met 2012's need to sustain its momentum. The CenSEI Report, 13 February 2012
- "How much did the September 11 terrorist attack cost America?". 2004. Institute for the Analysis of Global Security. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
- Steve Schiffres (18 March 2003). "U S Names Coalition of the Willing". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-01-11.
- "Ukraine Opposition Vows To Continue Struggle After Yanukovych Offer". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 25 January 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis fuels secession calls in pro-Russian south". The Guardian. 24 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014.
- Diduch, Mary (April 27, 2009). "U. celebrates Old Queens bicentennial". The Daily Targum (Rutgers University: College Media Network). Retrieved June 16, 2009.
At the ceremony, a time capsule was revealed containing several items from today to leave for the University in 2109, at the building’s tricentennial commemoration.
- York Civic Centre. Freebase (2006-10-23). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
- Chinook Centre - Time Capsule, accessed February 29, 2012
- HM Nautical Almanac Office: 2117 Transit of Venus. Astro.ukho.gov.uk (2011-05-03). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
- Articles – Occultation – OPT Telescopes. Optcorp.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
- HM Nautical Almanac Office: 2125 Transit of Venus. Astro.ukho.gov.uk (2011-05-03). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
- Occultation - Mutual planetary transits and occultations - Encyclopedia II at the Wayback Machine (archived December 13, 2013)
- Dr. Lance A. M. Benner (May 28, 2013). "(285263) 1998 QE2 Goldstone Radar Observations Planning". NASA/JPL Asteroid Radar Research. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Griffith Observatory (non accessible)
- Solar eclipse of May 5, 2600
- Solar eclipse of June 14, 2151
- Mutual Planetary Transits; Fifteen millennium catalog; Period 2 001 AD - 3 000 AD
- [meteorite-list] Mars Makes Closest Approach In Nearly 60,000 Years, by Ron Baalke, on Friday August 22, 2003 at 09:04:54 -0700
- [meteorite-list] Mars Makes Closest Approach In Nearly 60,000 Years, par Ron Baalke, on Friday August 22, 2003 at 09:04:54 -0700
- "No rainforest, no monsoon: get ready for a warmer world". NewScientist.
- Pimm, Stuart et al. (2006). "Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions". PNAS 103 (29): 10941–10946. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604181103. PMC 1544153. PMID 16829570.
- Dunham, Will. "Melting Sea Ice May Doom Emperor Penguins, Study Finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- Nevans-Pederson, Mary (2008-03-13). "No St. Pat's Day Mass allowed in Holy Week". Dubuque Telegraph Herald. Woodward Communications, Inc. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
- Rebecca Boyle (2012-02-23). "Japanese Construction Company Plans Space Elevator By 2050". Australian Popular Science. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
- "Our future energy" (PDF). The Danish government. The Danish Ministry of Climate and Energy. November 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-26.
- Enoch, Nick (February 29, 2012). "World's oldest nuclear power station closes... but it will take 90 more years and £954m to clear it completely". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- New Mega-City Challenge – Concept. Geekwidget (2010-03-29). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
- city in pyramid on YouTube
- "Stanford to host 100-year study on artificial intelligence". Stanford University. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "Study to Examine Effects of Artificial Intelligence". The New York Times. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "One-Hundred Year Study of Artificial Intelligence: Reflections and Framing". Eric Horvitz. 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Wall, Mike (2012-05-11). "Dead Satellite Envisat May Be Space Junk for 150 Years". Huffington Post (Huffington Post). Retrieved 2012-05-13.
- Kaku, Michio (April 26, 2004). "How Advanced Could They Be?". Astrobiology Magazine. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- "Total Midyear Population for the World: 1950-2050". U.S. Census Bureau. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
- Todd, Emmanuel (2003). After the Empire: The Breakdown of the American Order. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13102-X.
- Health and Science Correspondent Kate Kelland. "Who wants to live forever? Scientist sees aging cured". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- "World population to reach 9.1 billion in 2050, UN projects". UN News Center. 24 February 2005.
- Todd, Emmanuel (2003). After the Empire: The Breakdown of the American Order. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13102-X.
- "Britain 'biggest in EU by 2050'". BBC News. 12 March 2009.
- Wilson, Dominic; Stupnytska, Anna (March 28, 2007). "The N-11: More Than an Acronym" (PDF). Global Economics Paper 153.
- Laurance, Jeremy (2010-05-12). "Has the elixir of youth come of age?". The Independent (London: The Independent). Archived from the original on 15 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-15.
- World population in 2300. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
- Friedman, George (2009) The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century, Anchor, ISBN 0767923057.
- Mackenzie, Dana (2006-12-22). "The Poincaré Conjecture--Proved". Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science) 314 (5807): 1848–1849. doi:10.1126/science.314.5807.1848. PMID 17185565. ISSN: 0036-8075.
- "Higgs boson-like particle discovery claimed at LHC". BBC News. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "India's Mars satellite successfully enters orbit, bringing country into space elite". The Guardian. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
India has become the first nation to send a satellite into orbit around Mars on its first attempt, and the first Asian nation to do so.