3rd millennium

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In contemporary history, the third millennium is a period of time that according to official sources, such as the United States Naval Observatory, began on January 1, 2001, and will end on December 31, 3000, of the Gregorian calendar.[1][2] It is the third period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini or Common Era.

Stephen Jay Gould argued that it is not possible to decide if the millennium began January 1, 2000, or January 1, 2001.[2][3] The Associated Press reported that the third millennium began January 1, 2001, and also reported that celebrations in the US were generally more subdued at the beginning of 2001, compared to the beginning of 2000.[2][4]

As this millennium is currently in progress, its first two decades, the past 2000s and the current 2010s, are the subject of the historian's attention. The remaining part of the 21st century and longer-term trends are researched in futures studies.

Civilizations[edit]

The civilizations in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Civilizations of the 3rd millennium AD
Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania

Events[edit]

The events in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Events of the 3rd millennium AD
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
21st century 2010 Arab Spring[5] 2001 September 11 attacks[6] 2001 Beginning of War on Terror[7]
2013 Savar building collapse
2013 Persecution of Muslims in Burma
2009 Greek government-debt crisis
2013 Ukraine crisis[8][9]

Predicted events[edit]

As this millennium is currently in progress, its first two decades of 21st century (the past 2000s and the current 2010s), are the subject of the historian's attention. The remaining part of the 21st century (2020s to 2090s) and longer-term trends (22nd to 30th century) are researched in futures studies. Here are some possible events that will happen in those particular years:

Time capsules[edit]

  • September 1, 2061 - A time capsule at St. Gabriel School in Biggar, Saskatchewan, Canada is scheduled to be opened for its 150th anniversary of its school division (Greater Saskatoon Catholic Schools). It was sealed on September 11, 2011 (was not buried.) .
  • March 19, 2094 - A time capsule sealed exactly one hundred years before is scheduled to be opened at Denver International Airport.
  • 2068 - The Helium Centennial Time Columns Monument is expected to be opened 100 years after it was locked in 1968.
  • April 27, 2109 – A time capsule placed under the floor boards of the Old Queens Building at Rutgers University, in New Jersey, United States buried on April 27, 2009 is scheduled to be opened.[10]
  • September 19, 2110 – A time capsule at the Plaza de Armas in Santiago, Chile is intended to be opened on that date. It was buried in 2010.
  • November 18, 2112 – The City of Beaumont, California in the United States will open their time capsule in honor of its Bi-Centennial.
  • 2112 - a time capsule buried in Weavers Academy, Wellingborough, UK, will be opened after 100 years of being buried.
  • 2132 – A time capsule on Rideau Street in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada is intended to be opened that year. It was buried in 1982.
  • 2193 - A time capsule at the York Civic Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada is intended to be opened that year.[11] It was buried in 1997.
  • 2968 - The Helium Centennial Time Columns Monument in Amarillo, Texas, contains four separate time capsules, the last of which is intended to be opened 1000 years after the Time Columns Monument was locked in 1968.
  • December 31, 2999 - The Time Capsule in Chinook Centre in Calgary, Alberta, Canada is scheduled to open on December 31, 2999 after being sealed in 2000.[12]

Astronomical events[edit]

  • August 12, 2045 - A total solar eclipse will take place in the United States, producing a path from California to Florida. Some parts of Florida are predicted to experience totality for six minutes, the longest in US history.
  • November 11, 2069 – Transit of Mercury
  • October 27, 2088 - Mercury occults Jupiter, first time since 1708, but very close to the Sun and impossible to view with naked eye.
  • September 23, 2090 - Total Solar Eclipse in the UK. The next total eclipse visible in the UK follows a track similar to that of August 11, 1999, but shifted slightly further north and occurring very near sunset. Maximum duration in Cornwall will be 2 minutes and 10 seconds. Same day and month as the eclipse of September 23, 1699.
  • April 7, 2094 - Mercury occults Jupiter; it will be very close to the Sun and impossible to view with naked eye.
  • December 11, 2117 - Transit of Venus.[13]
  • September 14, 2123 - At 15:28 UTC, Venus will occult Jupiter.[14]
  • December 8, 2125 - Transit of Venus.[15]
  • July 29, 2126: At 16:08 UTC, Mercury will occult Mars.[16]
  • December 3, 2133 - At 14:14 UTC, Mercury will occult Venus.
  • September 2, 2197 - Venus occults Spica.
    Last occultation of Spica by Venus was on November 10, 1783.[citation needed]
  • December 24, 2197 - Earth's Moon will occult Neptune.
  • 2209 and 2284 - perihelion of Comet Halley.
  • May 27, 2221 - near-Earth asteroid (285263) 1998 QE2 will pass Earth at a distance of 0.038 AU (5,700,000 km; 3,500,000 mi).[17]
  • 2221 - Triple conjunction of Mars and Saturn.
  • December 2, 2223 - At 12:32 UTC Mars will occult Jupiter.
  • 2238/39 - Triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn (whose last triple conjunction was in 1981).
  • August 12, 2243 - At 04:52 UTC, Venus will occult Saturn.
  • June 11, 2247 - Transit of Venus.
  • March 4, 2251 - At 10:52 UTC, Venus will occult Uranus.
  • In 2252, the planetoid Orcus will have completed one orbit of the Sun since its discovery in 2004, based upon current orbital measurements which give it a period of 248 Earth years.
  • August 1, 2253 - Mercury occults Regulus (last occultation of Regulus by Mercury was on August 13, 364 BC).
  • June 9, 2255 - Transit of Venus.
  • 2256 to 2258 - Eris will reach perihelion for the first time since discovery.
  • October 6, 2271 - Close conjunction between Venus and Regulus, perhaps occultation of Regulus by Venus.
  • 2279 - Triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn.
  • 2281/82 - Grand Trine of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. This last occurred in 1769 and 1770.
  • Sunday, August 28, 2287 - Closest approach between Mars and Earth since Wednesday, August 27, 2003.
  • In 2288, the planetoid Quaoar will have completed one orbit of the Sun since its discovery in 2002, which, based upon current orbital measurements, gives it a period of 286 Earth years.
  • September 11, 2307 - At 22:50 UTC, Venus will occult Uranus.
  • 2313 - Triple conjunction MarsJupiter.
  • 2319 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
  • June 4, 2327 - At 00:54 UTC, Venus will occult Mars.
  • October 8, 2335 - At 14:51 UTC, Venus will occult Jupiter.
  • April 7, 2351 - At 17:22 UTC, Mercury will occult Uranus.
  • December 13, 2360 - Transit of Venus.
  • 2365 - Perihelion of Comet Halley.
  • December 10, 2368 - Transit of Venus.
  • 2388 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
  • May 11, 2391 - Partial transit of Mercury.
  • November 17, 2400 - Venus will occult Antares (last occultation of Antares by Venus was on September 17, 525 BC).
  • December 30, 2419 - At 01:38 UTC Venus will occult Uranus.
  • 2426 - Pluto's second orbit, since its discovery.
  • 2456 - Triple conjunction MarsJupiter.
  • August 29, 2478 - At 23:11 UTC Mars will occult Jupiter.
  • June 12, 2490 - Transit of Venus.
  • May 6, 2492 - Belgian astronomer Jean Meeus asserts that the orbits of all eight planets and Pluto will be within the same 90° arc of the Solar System. The last time this is believed to have occurred was on February 1, 949.[18]
  • June 10, 2498 - Transit of Venus.
  • May 5, 2600 - First total solar eclipse[19] visible from London since 2151.[20]
    The width of its path is predicted to be exceptionally wide at its maximum point.
  • April 7, 2515 - At 10:37 UTC, Mars will occult Neptune.[21]
  • January 25, 2518 - At 22:41 UTC, Venus will occult Saturn.[21]
  • 2562 - The dwarf planet Eris will have completed one orbit of the Sun, since its discovery in 2005.
  • 2599 - Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
  • December 16, 2603 - Transit of Venus.
  • May 13, 2608 - Grazing Transit of Mercury.
  • December 13, 2611 - Partial transit of Venus.
  • 2626/27 - Triple conjunction MarsSaturn.
  • 2629 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
  • February 16, 2649 - At 11:17 UTC Venus will occult Neptune.
  • September 3, 2650 - The distance between Mars and the Earth will arrive at a new remarkable minimum, at 55 651 582,118 km.
    It will be the closer encounter of perihelitic opposition slightly shorter (of next 37 000 km) than the previous one of the August 28, 2287.[22]
    The following closer encounter will be on September 8, 2729.
  • 2655/56 - Triple conjunction Jupiter-Saturn.
  • 2663 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
  • 2699/2700 - Triple conjunctions between Mars-Jupiter, Mars-Neptune and Jupiter-Neptune.
  • October 24, 2714 - Transit of Jupiter from Uranus. First one in 800 years since May 3, 1914, which, as of one year before now, is 700 years from now. Now is also 100 years from the previous transit.
  • September 8, 2729 - The distance between Mars and the Earth will arrive at a new remarkable minimum, at 55 651 033,122 km.
    It will be the closer encounter of perihelitic opposition slightly shorter (just of 549 km) than the previous one of the September 8, 2650.[23]
  • June 15, 2733 - Transit of Venus.
  • June 13, 2741 - Transit of Venus.
  • 2742 - Triple conjunction MarsJupiter.
  • 2744 - Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
  • 2761 - Triple conjunction Mars–Saturn.
  • December 3, 2781 - At 06:45 UTC Venus will occult Neptune.
  • 2791 - Triple conjunction Mars–Jupiter.
  • 2794/95 - Triple conjunction Jupiter–Saturn.
  • 29th century - The remnants of Comet Ikeya-Seki are expected to return to the inner solar system.
    It was last seen from Earth in 1965–1966, and broke into three pieces as it approached the Sun.
  • March 25, 2816 - At 15:47 UTC Mercury will occult Jupiter.
  • March 6, 2817 - At 9:36 UTC Venus will occult Saturn.
  • April 11, 2818 - At 20:41 UTC Mercury will occult Mars.
  • February 6, 2825 - At 10:50 UTC Mars will occult Uranus.
  • 2829/30 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
  • December 15, 2830 - At 09:40 UTC Venus will occult Mars.
  • 2842/43 - Triple conjunction Mars-Jupiter.
  • December 16, 2846 - Transit of Venus.
  • December 14, 2854 - Partial transit of Venus.
  • July 20, 2855 - At 05:15 UTC Mercury will occult Jupiter.
  • 2866 - Triple conjunction Mars-Saturn.
  • March 16, 2880 - Predicted possible impact date for asteroid (29075) 1950 DA, the near Earth object with the highest known probability of crashing into Earth.

Biological events[edit]

  • 2099 - According to one study, 83% of the Amazon rainforest may have been destroyed.[24]
  • By 2100, 12% (about 1250) of the bird species existing at the beginning of the 21st century are expected to be extinct or threatened with extinction.[25]
  • By 2100, emperor penguins could be pushed to the brink of extinction due to global climate change, according to a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution study from January 2009. The study applied mathematical models to predict how the loss of sea ice from climate warming would affect an Antarctica colony of emperor penguins, and they forecast a decline of 87% in the colony's population by the end of the century.[26]

Calendric predictions[edit]

  • January 19, 203832-bit computer clocks overflow to represent the date as December 31, 1969.
  • 2096 is the last leap year before 2100, which will not be a leap year.
  • On March 1, 2100 (which will be February 16, 2100 in the Julian calendar), the difference between the Julian calendar and the Gregorian calendar reaches 14 days. Since 14 is divisible by 7, this will be the first time in history since its inception that the Gregorian calendar will have the same day of the week for each day of the month for the whole year as the Julian calendar. This will last until February 28, 2200 of the Gregorian Calendar.
  • 2100 will not be a leap year since it qualifies as a year that is divisible by 100, but not by 400.
  • FAT file systems theoretically support dates up to December 31, 2107 (though officially only up to December 31, 2099).
  • On November 14, 2139, Bernie Madoff is scheduled to be released from prison, should he live to be 201 years old.
  • The Year type in MySQL supports dates up to December 31, 2155.
  • March 17, 2160 – Unless changes are made as to when Easter can be observed, this particular March 17 will fall within Holy Week for the first time since 2008 and fall on the same day (Monday) as it did in that year, likely requiring the movement of the Feast of Saint Patrick's Day to another date.[27]
  • Unless changes are made in the religious calendar, in 2285, the Western Easter will fall on March 22 for the first time since 1818, the earliest possible date on which Easter can occur.[28]

Technological predictions[edit]

Social predictions[edit]

Significant people[edit]

The people in this section are organized according to the UN geoscheme.

Significant people of the 3rd millennium AD
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
21st century Muammar Gaddafi
Hosni Mubarak
Nelson Mandela
George W. Bush
Barack Obama
Bill Gates
Steve Jobs
Mark Zuckerberg
Narendra Modi
Hu Jintao
Salman of Saudi Arabia
Ban Ki-Moon
Elizabeth II
Vladimir Putin
Mario Draghi
David Cameron
Kevin Rudd
Julia Gillard

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

Inventions, discoveries and introductions
Communication and Technology Math and Science Manufacturing Transportation and
Space exploration
Warfare
  1. iPad
  2. Android
  1. Poincaré conjecture[50]
  2. Higgs boson[51]
  1. Graphene
  1. Mangalyaan[52]

Centuries and decades[edit]

21st century 2000s[b][c] 2010s 2020s 2030s 2040s 2050s 2060s 2070s 2080s 2090s
22nd century 2100s 2110s 2120s 2130s 2140s 2150s 2160s 2170s 2180s 2190s
23rd century 2200s 2210s 2220s 2230s 2240s 2250s 2260s 2270s 2280s 2290s
24th century 2300s 2310s 2320s 2330s 2340s 2350s 2360s 2370s 2380s 2390s
25th century 2400s 2410s 2420s 2430s 2440s 2450s 2460s 2470s 2480s 2490s
26th century 2500s 2510s 2520s 2530s 2540s 2550s 2560s 2570s 2580s 2590s
27th century 2600s 2610s 2620s 2630s 2640s 2650s 2660s 2670s 2680s 2690s
28th century 2700s 2710s 2720s 2730s 2740s 2750s 2760s 2770s 2780s 2790s
29th century 2800s 2810s 2820s 2830s 2840s 2850s 2860s 2870s 2880s 2890s
30th century 2900s 2910s 2920s 2930s 2940s 2950s 2960s 2970s 2980s 2990s

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Partially recognised state
  2. ^ 2000 is generally considered the last year of the 2nd millennium, but there is some dispute.
  3. ^ 9 of the 10 years of the decade are in this millennium.

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States Naval Observatory, "The 21st Century and the 3rd Millennium:When Did They Begin?" (Washington, DC, June 14, 2011).
  2. ^ a b c "When and where did the new Millennium officially start, and why?". Royal Observatory Greenwich
  3. ^ Stephen Jay Gould, Questioning the Millennium: A Rationalist's Guide to a Precisely Arbitrary Countdown (New York: Harmony Books, 1999), ch 2.
  4. ^ Associated Press, "Y2K It Wasn't, but It Was a Party", Los Angeles Times, January 1, 2001.
  5. ^ *The Arab Spring—One Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met 2012's need to sustain its momentum. The CenSEI Report, 13 February 2012
  6. ^ "How much did the September 11 terrorist attack cost America?". 2004. Institute for the Analysis of Global Security. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  7. ^ Steve Schiffres (18 March 2003). "U S Names Coalition of the Willing". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-01-11. 
  8. ^ "Ukraine Opposition Vows To Continue Struggle After Yanukovych Offer". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 25 January 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  9. ^ "Ukraine crisis fuels secession calls in pro-Russian south". The Guardian. 24 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. 
  10. ^ Diduch, Mary (April 27, 2009). "U. celebrates Old Queens bicentennial". The Daily Targum (Rutgers University: College Media Network). Retrieved June 16, 2009. At the ceremony, a time capsule was revealed containing several items from today to leave for the University in 2109, at the building’s tricentennial commemoration. 
  11. ^ York Civic Centre. Freebase (2006-10-23). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  12. ^ Chinook Centre - Time Capsule, accessed February 29, 2012
  13. ^ HM Nautical Almanac Office: 2117 Transit of Venus. Astro.ukho.gov.uk (2011-05-03). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  14. ^ Articles – Occultation – OPT Telescopes. Optcorp.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  15. ^ HM Nautical Almanac Office: 2125 Transit of Venus. Astro.ukho.gov.uk (2011-05-03). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  16. ^ Occultation - Mutual planetary transits and occultations - Encyclopedia II at the Wayback Machine (archived December 13, 2013)
  17. ^ Dr. Lance A. M. Benner (May 28, 2013). "(285263) 1998 QE2 Goldstone Radar Observations Planning". NASA/JPL Asteroid Radar Research. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  18. ^ Griffith Observatory (non accessible)
  19. ^ Solar eclipse of May 5, 2600
  20. ^ Solar eclipse of June 14, 2151
  21. ^ a b Mutual Planetary Transits; Fifteen millennium catalog; Period 2 001 AD - 3 000 AD
  22. ^ [meteorite-list] Mars Makes Closest Approach In Nearly 60,000 Years, by Ron Baalke, on Friday August 22, 2003 at 09:04:54 -0700
  23. ^ [meteorite-list] Mars Makes Closest Approach In Nearly 60,000 Years, par Ron Baalke, on Friday August 22, 2003 at 09:04:54 -0700
  24. ^ "No rainforest, no monsoon: get ready for a warmer world". NewScientist. 
  25. ^ Pimm, Stuart et al. (2006). "Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions". PNAS 103 (29): 10941–10946. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604181103. PMC 1544153. PMID 16829570. 
  26. ^ Dunham, Will. "Melting Sea Ice May Doom Emperor Penguins, Study Finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2008. 
  27. ^ Nevans-Pederson, Mary (2008-03-13). "No St. Pat's Day Mass allowed in Holy Week". Dubuque Telegraph Herald. Woodward Communications, Inc. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  28. ^ http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/easter.php
  29. ^ Rebecca Boyle (2012-02-23). "Japanese Construction Company Plans Space Elevator By 2050". Australian Popular Science. Retrieved 2012-02-29. 
  30. ^ [1]
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  32. ^ Enoch, Nick (February 29, 2012). "World's oldest nuclear power station closes... but it will take 90 more years and £954m to clear it completely". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  33. ^ New Mega-City Challenge – Concept. Geekwidget (2010-03-29). Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  34. ^ city in pyramid on YouTube
  35. ^ "Stanford to host 100-year study on artificial intelligence". Stanford University. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
  36. ^ "Study to Examine Effects of Artificial Intelligence". The New York Times. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
  37. ^ "One-Hundred Year Study of Artificial Intelligence: Reflections and Framing". Eric Horvitz. 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
  38. ^ Wall, Mike (2012-05-11). "Dead Satellite Envisat May Be Space Junk for 150 Years". Huffington Post (Huffington Post). Retrieved 2012-05-13. 
  39. ^ Kaku, Michio (April 26, 2004). "How Advanced Could They Be?". Astrobiology Magazine. Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Total Midyear Population for the World: 1950-2050". U.S. Census Bureau. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  41. ^ Todd, Emmanuel (2003). After the Empire: The Breakdown of the American Order. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13102-X. 
  42. ^ Health and Science Correspondent Kate Kelland. "Who wants to live forever? Scientist sees aging cured". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-01-10. 
  43. ^ "World population to reach 9.1 billion in 2050, UN projects". UN News Center. 24 February 2005. 
  44. ^ Todd, Emmanuel (2003). After the Empire: The Breakdown of the American Order. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13102-X. 
  45. ^ "Britain 'biggest in EU by 2050'". BBC News. 12 March 2009. 
  46. ^ Wilson, Dominic; Stupnytska, Anna (March 28, 2007). "The N-11: More Than an Acronym" (PDF). Global Economics Paper 153. 
  47. ^ Laurance, Jeremy (2010-05-12). "Has the elixir of youth come of age?". The Independent (London: The Independent). Archived from the original on 15 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-15. 
  48. ^ World population in 2300. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2014-01-19.
  49. ^ Friedman, George (2009) The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century, Anchor, ISBN 0767923057.
  50. ^ Mackenzie, Dana (2006-12-22). "The Poincaré Conjecture--Proved". Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science) 314 (5807): 1848–1849. doi:10.1126/science.314.5807.1848. PMID 17185565. ISSN: 0036-8075. 
  51. ^ "Higgs boson-like particle discovery claimed at LHC". BBC News. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  52. ^ "India's Mars satellite successfully enters orbit, bringing country into space elite". The Guardian. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014. India has become the first nation to send a satellite into orbit around Mars on its first attempt, and the first Asian nation to do so.