|Synonyms||3β-Androsta-4,16-dien-3-ol, androsta-4,16-dien-3β-ol, androstadienol|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||272.43 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
4-Androstadienol (developmental code name PH94B; tentative commercial name Aloradine or Aloradine IN), also known as 4,16-androstadien-3β-ol, is a pherine or synthetic pheromone which is under development by Pherin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in a nasal spray formulation for the acute (p.r.n.) treatment of social anxiety disorder in women. It is also being investigated by Pherin Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in women. The pherine is a positional isomer of the endogenous pheromone androstadienol (5-androstadienol or 5,16-androstadien-3β-ol). As of 2015, it is in phase III clinical trials.
The pheromone androstenol has been found to act as a potent positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor, and it has been proposed that this action may mediate its pheromone effects. It produces anxiolytic-like effects in animals. Androstadienol, androstadienone, and androstenone, all of which are also pheromones, have been found to be converted into androstenol, and as such, it may be responsible for their pheromone effects. As 4-androstadienol is very closely related structurally to androstadienol, 4-androstadienol might be converted into androstenol similarly and hence potentiation of the GABAA receptor could contribute to its mechanism of action.
- Laird Harrison (11 April 2014). "Could a New Nasal Spray Help Combat Social Anxiety?". Healthline. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Griebel, Guy; Holmes, Andrew (2013). "50 years of hurdles and hope in anxiolytic drug discovery" (PDF). Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 12 (9): 667–687. doi:10.1038/nrd4075. ISSN 1474-1776. PMC . PMID 23989795.
- Monti-Bloch, L.; Jennings-White, C.; Dolberg, D.S.; Berliner, D.L. (1994). "The human vomeronasal system". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 19 (5–7): 673–686. doi:10.1016/0306-4530(94)90049-3. ISSN 0306-4530. PMID 7938363.
- Edmund T. Rolls (November 2013). Emotion and Decision Making Explained. Oxford University Press. pp. 356–. ISBN 978-0-19-965989-0.
- BioScan. Oryx Press. 2009.
- Liebowitz, Michael R.; Salman, Ester; Nicolini, Humberto; Rosenthal, Norman; Hanover, Rita; Monti, Louis (2014). "Effect of an Acute Intranasal Aerosol Dose of PH94B on Social and Performance Anxiety in Women With Social Anxiety Disorder" (PDF). American Journal of Psychiatry. 171 (6): 675–682. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.12101342. ISSN 0002-953X. PMID 24700254.
- US patent 8722652, Louis Monti-Bloch, "Acute Treatment of Social Phobia", published 13 November 2012, assigned to Pherin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
- Kaminski, R. M. (2006). "The Pheromone Androstenol (5 -Androst-16-en-3 -ol) Is a Neurosteroid Positive Modulator of GABAA Receptors". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 317 (2): 694–703. doi:10.1124/jpet.105.098319. ISSN 0022-3565. PMID 16415088.
|This article about a steroid is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
|This drug article relating to the nervous system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|