4D film or 4-D film is a marketing term for an entertainment presentation system combining a 3D film with physical effects that occur in the theatre in synchronization with the film. Effects simulated in a 4D film may include rain, wind, strobe lights, and vibration. Seats in 4D venues may vibrate or move a few centimeters during the presentations. Other common chair effects include air jets, water sprays, and leg and back ticklers. Hall effects may include smoke, rain, lightning, air bubbles, and smell.
Because physical effects can be expensive to install, 4D films are most often presented in custom-built theatres at special venues such as theme parks and amusement parks. However, some movie theatres have the ability to present 4D versions of wide-release 3D films. The films Journey to the Center of the Earth (2008) and Avatar (2009) are among the films that have received a 4D treatment in certain theatres.
There is no consistent standard for using the term "4D" when describing the presentation of a film. 4D films have also occasionally been marketed as 5D, 6D, 7D, 8D, 9D, 11D, 15D and so on in order to emphasize the variety or uniqueness of their theatre effects. This is scientifically different from actual fourth dimensional space. Notable formats for providing different aspects of a "fourth dimension" to films include Human 4D, Sensurround, Smell-O-Vision and 4DX. As of June 2015, about 530 screens worldwide have installed the technology.
List of 4D screening formats for film theatres
The following is a list of 4D screening formats developed for film theatres.
|Name (launch year)||Developed by|
|4DX||CJ 4D Plex|
|Title||Year||Release venue/ Country||Notes|
|The Scent of Mystery||1960||Specially outfitted general-release theaters||Smell-O-Vision|
|The Sensorium||1984||Six Flags Power Plant, Baltimore, MD||The first 4D film|
|Captain EO||1986||Epcot, Disneyland, Disneyland Paris and Tokyo Disneyland||Closed in the mid-late 1990s. Reopened in 2010 as a tribute to the late Michael Jackson, who stars in the film and Died in 2009.|
|Muppet*Vision 3D||1991||Disney's Hollywood Studios and Disney California Adventure Park||Directed by Jim Henson|
|Honey, I Shrunk the Audience||1994||Epcot, Disneyland, Disneyland Paris and Tokyo Disneyland||Sponsored by Kodak. Closed in all locations in May 2010 and Replaced with Captain EO Tribute.|
|ExtraTERRORestrial Alien Encounter||1995||Magic Kingdom, Bay Lake, FL|
|Terminator 2 3D: Battle Across Time||1996||Universal Studios Florida, and Universal Studios Japan||Directed by James Cameron|
|Pirates 4D||1997||SeaWorld Ohio, Busch Gardens Williamsburg, Thorpe Park in the UK, Busch Gardens Tampa Bay||Produced by Busch Entertainment, Directed by Keith Melton.|
|It's Tough to Be a Bug!||1998||Disney's Animal Kingdom and Disney California Adventure Park||Based on the Pixar film A Bug's Life; animated portion produced by Rhythm and Hues Studios|
|The Amazing Adventures of Spider-man||1999||Islands of Adventure, Universal Studios Japan,||Water,smoke,strobe,and vibration.|
|PandaDroom||2002||The Efteling, Netherlands||Same film released in other parks without 4D effects|
|Mickey's PhilharMagic||2003||Magic Kingdom, Hong Kong Disneyland and Tokyo Disneyland||In collaboration with Walt Disney Feature Animation|
|SpongeBob SquarePants 4-D||2002, 2006||Six Flags over Texas, Moody Gardens, Shedd Aquarium, Adventure Dome, Six Flags Great Adventure, Movie Park Germany, Adventure Aquarium, Kings Dominion, (formerly at Paramount Parks), Indianapolis Zoo, Carowinds, Camden Aquarium (Camden, NJ), Nickelodeon Suites Resort in Orlando, Florida, Flamingo Land Theme Park and Zoo and other locations|
|Haunted Lighthouse, (aka R.L. Stine's Haunted Lighthouse 4-D)||2003||Flamingo Land Theme Park and Zoo|
|Shrek 4-D||2003||Universal Studios Florida, Warner Bros. Movie World, Universal Studios Hollywood, Universal Studios Japan, and Universal Studios Singapore||Released in an anaglyph version as Shrek 3-D on DVD|
|Borg Invasion||2004||Star Trek: The Experience, at Las Vegas Hilton, USA||Closed in 2008, to be reopened in Neonopolis, Las Vegas|
|Fly Me to the Moon||2008||Six Flags over Texas|
|Journey to the Center of the Earth 4-D Adventure||2008||Vibrant 5D, Raipur (Installed by Modern 5D, India) Stone Mountain Park, Dollywood, Warner Bros. Movie World|
|Pokémon 4-D: Pikachu's Ocean Adventure||2008||Comcast IMAX 3D Theater in Avon, Massachusetts, as well as in Japan||Produced by Shogakukan Production Co., Ltd. Distributed by Sarai Inc|
|Avatar in 4-D||2009||South Korea, Hong Kong|
|London Eye 4D Experience||2009||London Eye|
|Beyond All Boundaries||2009||WWII Museum New Orleans||Produced by Tom Hanks|
|ENERGIA The Spirit of the Earth||2009||Cité de l'énergie, Shawinigan (Quebec)||Spectators are seated on a revolving platform. Features wind, snow, smoke, rain, vibration and lighting effects.|
|Marvel Super Heroes 4D||2010||Madame Tussauds London|
|Rabid Rider||2010||Cincinnati Zoo|
|Star Tours—The Adventures Continue||2011||Disneyland, Disney's Hollywood Studios, Tokyo Disneyland, & Disneyland Paris (Coming in 2017)||Replaced/Replacing Star Tours in all locations. Will be updated in late 2015 to add an adventure themed to Star Wars: The Force Awakens|
|Shalem||2011?||Jerusalem Time Elevator, Jerusalem||A 3000-year-old guide to Jerusalem's history at the Jerusalem Time Elevator, Jerusalem. It includes moving and tilting seats on a moving stage, air conditioning and smell enhancements, along with a 'light and sound' show highlighting real artifacts. A similar system, 'The Time Mine', has been installed at the Timna Valley park near Eilat, and another at the main hall of the Herzl Museum in Jerusalem.|
|Spy Kids: All the Time in the World||2011||United States, India, Canada and UK||Smell was achieved by using scratch and sniff cards|
|Transformers: The Ride||2011||Universal Studios Singapore, Universal Studios Hollywood, Universal Studios Florida|
|Despicable Me: Minion Mayhem||2012||Universal Studios Florida and Universal Studios Hollywood||14-minute simulator ride, starring Gru, Margo, Edith, Agnes and the Minions; setting is 1 year after the events of the original film in 2010.|
|Tallgrass Prairie: Tides of Time||2012||Flint Hills Discovery Center, Manhattan, Kansas||Features wind, snow, smoke, and lightning effects |
|Prometheus||2012||Cinepolis Galerias Guadalajara, Mexico|
|Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs||2012||Shedd Aquarium, Warner Bros. Movie World, North Carolina Zoo, San Diego Zoo and Alton Towers||14 minute condensed version of the film.|
|Iron Man 3||2013||Korona World Theatre Nagoya, Japan, Seoul, South Korea||Labeled as 4DX featuring strobe lights, tilting seats, blowing wind and fog, and odor effects.|
|Rio||2014||San Diego Zoo, Kentucky Kingdom||12 minute condensed version of the film.|
|Temple Run 7D||2014||India||9 minute ride to various Indian temples like Kedarnath, Badrinath, Gangotri, Rameshwaram & Dwarka produced by Modern Techno Projects Private Ltd..|
|Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice||2016||Seoul, Korea and New York City, New York||Labeled as 4DX including fog, wind, motion, rain, lightning, vibrations and scents.|
|The Jungle Book||2016||Taguig City, Philippines||Labeled as 4DX including fog, wind, motion, rain, lightning, vibrations and scents.|
|Mass Effect: New Earth 4D||2016||California's Great America||4 1/2 minute film, 60 foot screen with 4K resolution, live performers, wind, water, leg pokers, neck ticklers, 80-channel surround sound|
|LEGO Nexo Knights 4D: The Book of Creativity||2016||Legoland parks and Legoland Discovery Centre parks worldwide||12 1/2 minute 4D film of LEGO Nexo Knights shown at Legoland, alongside with The LEGO Movie 4D Produced by Alexander Lentjes for M2Film and Merlin Entertainments|
- Han Sunhee (February 5, 2010). "'Avatar' goes 4D in Korea". Variety. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- Alex Ritman (June 21, 2015). "Will 4D Ever Catch on?". The Hollywood Reporter. (Prometheus Global Media). Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "Big Movie Zone -- Pikachu's Ocean Adventure". Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- Glover, Erin. "Star Wars Enhancements, New Experiences Coming Soon to Walt Disney World and Disneyland Resorts". Disney Parks Blog. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- Jerusalem Time Elevator Tickets GoJerusalem.com
- Marah Eakin (18 April 2013), Iron Man 3 getting sniff-worthy 4D screenings in Japan, Onion Inc., retrieved 28 February 2014