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Ball-and-stick model of the PTAD molecule
IUPAC name
Other names
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.021.993
Molar mass 175.15
Appearance red solid
Melting point 165 °C (329 °F; 438 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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4-Phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) is an azodicarbonyl compound. PTAD is one of the strongest dienophiles and reacts rapidly with dienes in Diels-Alder reactions.[1] The most prominent use of PTAD was the first successful synthesis of prismane in 1973.[2]


The compound was first synthesized in 1894 by Johannes Thiele and O. Stange. The oxidation of 4-Phenylurazol with lead tetroxide in sulfuric acid yielded small quantities of the substance.[3] It took until 1971 when a practical synthesis was published. The synthesis starts from hydrazine and diethyl carbonate. The product of this step is reacted with phenyl isocyanate and subsequently transformed to the 4-Phenylurazol. Cyclization and subsequent oxidation yields PTAD (6).[4]

Synthesis of PTAD


  1. ^ Korobitsyna, I. K.; Khalikova, A. V.; Rodina, L. L.; Shusherina, N. P. (1983). "4-Phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione in organic synthesis (review)". Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds. 19 (2): 117–136. doi:10.1007/BF00506417.
  2. ^ Katz T. J., Acton N. (1973). "Synthesis of Prismane". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 95 (8): 2738–2739. doi:10.1021/ja00789a084.
  3. ^ Thiele, J.; Stange, O. (1894). "Ueber Semicarbazid". Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie. 283 (1–2): 1–43. doi:10.1002/jlac.18942830102.
  4. ^ Cookson, R. C. (1971). "4-Phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione" (PDF). Organic Syntheses: 121. doi:10.1002/0471264180.os051.30. ISBN 0471264229. Also Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 6, p.936 (1988)