400 metres

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Athletics
400 metres
400m CIF San Diego Championship 2007.jpg
The closing stages of a men's 400 m race
Men's records
World South Africa Wayde van Niekerk 43.03 (2016)
Olympic South Africa Wayde van Niekerk 43.03 (2016)
Women's records
World East Germany Marita Koch 47.60 (1985)
Olympic France Marie-José Pérec 48.25 (1996)

The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a common sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1964 for women. On a standard outdoor running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes previously competed in the 440 yard dash (402.336 m)—which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the 'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m (437.445 yards), though this distance is now obsolete. An athlete who competes in the 400 m may still be referred to as 'quarter-miler'; the distance or event might still be called the "quarter."[citation needed]

Maximum sprint speed capability is a significant contributing factor to success in the event, but athletes also require substantial speed endurance and the ability to cope well with high amounts of lactic acid to sustain a fast speed over a whole lap. While considered to be predominantly an anaerobic event, there is some aerobic involvement and the degree of aerobic training required for 400 metre athletes is open to debate.[1]

The current men's world record is held by Wayde van Niekerk, with a time of 43.03 seconds; van Niekerk is also the reigning world and Olympic champion. The world indoor record holder is Kerron Clement, in 44.57 seconds. The current women's world record is held by Marita Koch, with a time of 47.60 seconds. Allyson Felix is the reigning women's world champion, while Shaunae Miller holds the women's Olympic title. The men's T43 (classification) Paralympic world record of 45.07 seconds is held by Oscar Pistorius.[2]

An Olympic double of 200 metres and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, and later by Michael Johnson from the United States and Marie-José Pérec of France both in 1996. Alberto Juantorena of Cuba at the 1976 Summer Olympics became the first and so far the only athlete to win both the 400 m and 800 m Olympic titles.

The Olympic champion has frequently won a second gold medal in the 4 × 400 metres relay. This has been accomplished 14 times by men; Charles Reidpath, Ray Barbuti, Bill Carr, George Rhoden, Charles Jenkins, Otis Davis, Mike Larrabee, Lee Evans, Viktor Markin, Alonzo Babers, Steve Lewis, Quincy Watts, Jeremy Wariner and LaShawn Merritt; and 4 times by women; Monika Zehrt, Valerie Brisco-Hooks, Olga Bryzgina and Sanya Richards-Ross.

From 31 appearances in the Olympic Games, the men's gold medallist came from the USA 19 times.

Continental records[edit]

Area Men Women
Time (s) Athlete Nation Time (s) Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 43.03 WR Wayde van Niekerk  South Africa 49.10 Falilat Ogunkoya  Nigeria
Asia (records) 43.93 Yousef Ahmed Masrahi  Saudi Arabia 49.81 Ma Yuqin  China
Europe (records) 44.33 Thomas Schönlebe  East Germany 47.60 WR Marita Koch  East Germany
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
43.18 Michael Johnson  United States 48.70 Sanya Richards  United States
Oceania (records) 44.38 Darren Clark  Australia 48.63 Cathy Freeman  Australia
South America (records) 44.29 Sanderlei Parrela  Brazil 49.64 Ximena Restrepo  Colombia

All-time top 25[edit]

  • A = affected by altitude

Men[edit]

  • Correct as of January 2017.[3]
Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 43.03 Wayde van Niekerk  South Africa 14 August 2016 Rio de Janeiro [4]
2 43.18 Michael Johnson  United States 26 August 1999 Seville
3 43.29 Harry 'Butch' Reynolds  United States 17 August 1988 Zürich
4 43.45 Jeremy Wariner  United States 31 August 2007 Osaka
5 43.50 Quincy Watts  United States 5 August 1992 Barcelona
6 43.65 LaShawn Merritt  United States 26 August 2015 Beijing [5]
7 43.72 Isaac Makwala  Botswana 5 July 2015 La Chaux-de-Fonds [6]
8 43.74 Kirani James  Grenada 3 July 2014 Lausanne [7]
9 43.81 Danny Everett  United States 26 June 1992 New Orleans
10 43.86 A Lee Evans  United States 18 October 1968 Mexico City
11 43.87 Steve Lewis  United States 28 September 1988 Seoul
12 43.93 Yousef Ahmed Masrahi  Saudi Arabia 23 August 2015 Beijing [8]
Rusheen McDonald  Jamaica 23 August 2015 Beijing [9]
14 43.97 A Larry James  United States 18 October 1968 Mexico City
15 44.01 Machel Cedenio  Trinidad and Tobago 14 August 2016 Rio de Janeiro [10]
16 44.05 Angelo Taylor  United States 23 June 2007 Indianapolis
17. 44.09 Alvin Harrison  United States 19 June 1996 Atlanta
Jerome Young  United States 21 June 1998 New Orleans
19 44.10 Gary Kikaya  Democratic Republic of the Congo 9 September 2006 Stuttgart
20 44.11 Luguelín Santos  Dominican Republic 26 August 2015 Beijing [11]
21 44.13 Derek Mills  United States 4 June 1995 Eugene
22 44.14 Roberto Hernandez  Cuba 30 May 1990 Seville
23 44.15 Anthuan Maybank  United States 3 July 1996 Lausanne
24 44.16 Otis Harris  United States 23 August 2004 Athens
25 44.17 Innocent Egbunike  Nigeria 19 August 1987 Zurich

Notes[edit]

Below is a list of all other times equal or superior to 43.80:

Women[edit]

  • Correct as of November 2016.[12]
Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 47.60 Marita Koch  East Germany 6 October 1985 Canberra
2 47.99 Jarmila Kratochvílová  Czechoslovakia 10 August 1983 Helsinki
3 48.25 Marie-José Pérec  France 29 July 1996 Atlanta
4 48.27 Olga Vladykina  Soviet Union 6 October 1985 Canberra
5 48.59 Taťána Kocembová  Czechoslovakia 10 August 1983 Helsinki
6 48.63 Cathy Freeman  Australia 29 July 1996 Atlanta
7 48.70 Sanya Richards  United States 16 September 2006 Athens
8 48.83 Valerie Brisco-Hooks  United States 6 August 1984 Los Angeles
9 48.89 Ana Guevara  Mexico 27 August 2003 Paris Saint-Denis
10 49.05 Chandra Cheeseborough  United States 6 August 1984 Los Angeles
11 49.07 Tonique Williams-Darling  Bahamas 12 September 2004 Berlin
12 49.10 Falilat Ogunkoya  Nigeria 29 July 1996 Atlanta
13 49.11 Olga Nazarova  Soviet Union 25 September 1988 Seoul
14 49.16 Antonina Krivoshapka  Russia 5 July 2012 Cheboksary
15 49.19 Mariya Pinigina  Soviet Union 10 August 1983 Helsinki
16 49.24 Sabine Busch  East Germany June 1984 Erfurt
17 49.26 Allyson Felix  United States 27 August 2015 Beijing [13]
18 49.28 Irena Szewinska  Poland 29 July 1976 Montreal
Pauline Davis  Bahamas 29 July 1996 Atlanta
Yuliya Gushchina  Russia 5 July 2012 Cheboksary
21 49.29 Charity Opara  Nigeria 14 July 1998 Rome
22 49.30 Petra Muller  East Germany 3 June 1988 Jena
Lorraine Fenton  Jamaica 19 July 2002 Monaco
24 49.32 Shericka Williams  Jamaica 18 August 2009 Berlin
25 49.33 Amantle Montsho  Botswana 19 July 2013 Monaco

Notes[edit]

Below is a list of all other times superior to 48.80:

Fastest relay splits[edit]

Most successful athletes[edit]

Multiple (3 or more) 400 metres victories at the Olympic Games and World Championships:

  • 6 wins: Michael Johnson (USA) - Olympic Champion in 1996 and 2000, World Champion in 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999.
  • 4 wins: Marie-Jose Perec (FRA) - Olympic Champion in 1992 and 1996, World Champion in 1991 and 1995.
  • 3 wins: Cathy Freeman (AUS) - Olympic Champion in 2000, World Champion in 1997 and 1999
  • 3 wins: Jeremy Wariner (USA) - Olympic Champion in 2004, World Champion in 2005 and 2007.
  • 3 wins: Christine Ohuruogu (GBR) - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2007 and 2013.
  • 3 wins: LaShawn Merritt (USA) - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2009 and 2013.

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
 Thomas Burke (USA)  Herbert Jamison (USA)  Charles Gmelin (GBR)
1900 Paris
details
 Maxie Long (USA)  William Holland (USA)  Ernst Schultz (DEN)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Harry Hillman (USA)  Frank Waller (USA)  Herman Groman (USA)
1908 London
details
 Wyndham Halswelle (GBR) None awarded None awarded
1912 Stockholm
details
 Charles Reidpath (USA)  Hanns Braun (GER)  Edward Lindberg (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Bevil Rudd (RSA)  Guy Butler (GBR)  Nils Engdahl (SWE)
1924 Paris
details
 Eric Liddell (GBR)  Horatio Fitch (USA)  Guy Butler (GBR)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Ray Barbuti (USA)  James Ball (CAN)  Joachim Büchner (GER)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Bill Carr (USA)  Ben Eastman (USA)  Alex Wilson (CAN)
1936 Berlin
details
 Archie Williams (USA)  Godfrey Brown (GBR)  James LuValle (USA)
1948 London
details
 Arthur Wint (JAM)  Herb McKenley (JAM)  Mal Whitfield (USA)
1952 Helsinki
details
 George Rhoden (JAM)  Herb McKenley (JAM)  Ollie Matson (USA)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Charles Jenkins (USA)  Karl-Friedrich Haas (EUA)  Voitto Hellstén (FIN)
 Ardalion Ignatyev (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Otis Davis (USA)  Carl Kaufmann (EUA)  Malcolm Spence (RSA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Mike Larrabee (USA)  Wendell Mottley (TRI)  Andrzej Badeński (POL)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Lee Evans (USA)  Larry James (USA)  Ron Freeman (USA)
1972 Munich
details
 Vincent Matthews (USA)  Wayne Collett (USA)  Julius Sang (KEN)
1976 Montreal
details
 Alberto Juantorena (CUB)  Fred Newhouse (USA)  Herman Frazier (USA)
1980 Moscow
details
 Viktor Markin (URS)  Rick Mitchell (AUS)  Frank Schaffer (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Alonzo Babers (USA)  Gabriel Tiacoh (CIV)  Antonio McKay (USA)
1988 Seoul
details
 Steve Lewis (USA)  Butch Reynolds (USA)  Danny Everett (USA)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Quincy Watts (USA)  Steve Lewis (USA)  Samson Kitur (KEN)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Roger Black (GBR)  Davis Kamoga (UGA)
2000 Sydney
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Alvin Harrison (USA)  Greg Haughton (JAM)
2004 Athens
details
 Jeremy Wariner (USA)  Otis Harris (USA)  Derrick Brew (USA)
2008 Beijing
details
 LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Jeremy Wariner (USA)  David Neville (USA)
2012 London
details
 Kirani James (GRN)  Luguelín Santos (DOM)  Lalonde Gordon (TRI)
2016 Rio
details
 Wayde van Niekerk (RSA)  Kirani James (GRN)  LaShawn Merritt (USA)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1964 Tokyo
details
 Betty Cuthbert (AUS)  Ann Packer (GBR)  Judy Amoore (AUS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Colette Besson (FRA)  Lillian Board (GBR)  Natalya Pechonkina (URS)
1972 Munich
details
 Monika Zehrt (GDR)  Rita Wilden (FRG)  Kathy Hammond (USA)
1976 Montreal
details
 Irena Szewińska (POL)  Christina Brehmer (GDR)  Ellen Streidt (GDR)
1980 Moscow
details
 Marita Koch (GDR)  Jarmila Kratochvílová (TCH)  Christina Lathan (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Valerie Brisco-Hooks (USA)  Chandra Cheeseborough (USA)  Kathy Smallwood-Cook (GBR)
1988 Seoul
details
 Olga Bryzgina (URS)  Petra Müller (GDR)  Olga Nazarova (URS)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA)  Olga Bryzgina (EUN)  Ximena Restrepo (COL)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA)  Cathy Freeman (AUS)  Falilat Ogunkoya (NGR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Cathy Freeman (AUS)  Lorraine Graham (JAM)  Katharine Merry (GBR)
2004 Athens
details
 Tonique Williams-Darling (BAH)  Ana Guevara (MEX)  Natalya Antyukh (RUS)
2008 Beijing
details
 Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)  Shericka Williams (JAM)  Sanya Richards (USA)
2012 London
details
 Sanya Richards-Ross (USA)  Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)  DeeDee Trotter (USA)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
 Shaunae Miller (BAH)  Allyson Felix (USA)  Shericka Jackson (JAM)

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Bert Cameron (JAM)  Michael Franks (USA)  Sunder Nix (USA)
1987 Rome
details
 Thomas Schönlebe (GDR)  Innocent Egbunike (NIG)  Harry Reynolds (USA)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Antonio Pettigrew (USA)  Roger Black (GBR)  Danny Everett (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Butch Reynolds (USA)  Samson Kitur (KEN)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Butch Reynolds (USA)  Greg Haughton (JAM)
1997 Athens
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Davis Kamoga (UGA)  Tyree Washington (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 Michael Johnson (USA)  Sanderlei Parrela (BRA)  Alejandro Cárdenas (MEX)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Avard Moncur (BAH)  Ingo Schultz (GER)  Greg Haughton (JAM)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Tyree Washington (USA)  Marc Raquil (FRA)  Michael Blackwood (JAM)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Jeremy Wariner (USA)  Andrew Rock (USA)  Tyler Christopher (CAN)
2007 Osaka
details
 Jeremy Wariner (USA)  LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Angelo Taylor (USA)
2009 Berlin
details
 LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Jeremy Wariner (USA)  Renny Quow (TRI)
2011 Daegu
details
 Kirani James (GRN)  LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Kevin Borlée (BEL)
2013 Moscow
details
 LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Tony McQuay (USA)  Luguelín Santos (DOM)
2015 Beijing
details
 Wayde van Niekerk (RSA)  LaShawn Merritt (USA)  Kirani James (GRN)

Women[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Jarmila Kratochvílová (TCH)  Taťána Kocembová (TCH)  Mariya Pinigina (URS)
1987 Rome
details
 Olga Bryzgina (URS)  Petra Muller (GDR)  Kirsten Emmelmann (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA)  Grit Breuer (GER)  Sandra Myers (ESP)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Jearl Miles (USA)  Natasha Kaiser-Brown (USA)  Sandie Richards (JAM)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Marie-José Pérec (FRA)  Pauline Davis (BAH)  Jearl Miles (USA)
1997 Athens
details
 Cathy Freeman (AUS)  Sandie Richards (JAM)  Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 Cathy Freeman (AUS)  Anja Rücker (GER)  Lorraine Graham-Fenton (JAM)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Amy Mbacké Thiam (SEN)  Lorraine Fenton (JAM)  Ana Guevara (MEX)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Ana Guevara (MEX)  Lorraine Fenton (JAM)  Amy Mbacké Thiam (SEN)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Tonique Williams-Darling (BAH)  Sanya Richards (USA)  Ana Guevara (MEX)
2007 Osaka
details
 Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)  Nicola Sanders (GBR)  Novlene Williams (JAM)
2009 Berlin
details
 Sanya Richards (USA)  Shericka Williams (JAM)  Antonina Krivoshapka (RUS)
2011 Daegu
details
 Amantle Montsho (BOT)  Allyson Felix (USA)  Anastasiya Kapachinskaya (RUS)
2013 Moscow
details
 Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)  Amantle Montsho (BOT)  Antonina Krivoshapka (RUS)
2015 Beijing
details
 Allyson Felix (USA)  Shaunae Miller (BAH)  Shericka Jackson (JAM)

World Indoor Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]  Thomas Schönlebe (GDR)  Todd Bennett (GBR)  Mark Rowe (USA)
1987 Indianapolis
details
 Antonio McKay (USA)  Roberto Hernández (CUB)  Michael Franks (USA)
1989 Budapest
details
 Antonio McKay (USA)  Ian Morris (TTO)  Cayetano Cornet (ESP)
1991 Seville
details
 Devon Morris (JAM)  Samson Kitur (KEN)  Cayetano Cornet (ESP)
1993 Toronto
details
 Butch Reynolds (USA)  Sunday Bada (NGR)  Darren Clark (AUS)
1995 Barcelona
details
 Darnell Hall (USA)  Sunday Bada (NGR)  Mikhail Vdovin (RUS)
1997 Paris
details
 Sunday Bada (NGR)  Jamie Baulch (GBR)  Shunji Karube (JPN)
1999 Maebashi
details
 Jamie Baulch (GBR)  Milton Campbell (USA)  Alejandro Cárdenas (MEX)
2001 Lisbon
details
 Daniel Caines (GBR)  Milton Campbell (USA)  Danny McFarlane (JAM)
2003 Birmingham
details
 Tyree Washington (USA)  Daniel Caines (GBR)  Paul McKee (IRL)
 Jamie Baulch (GBR)
2004 Budapest
details
 Alleyne Francique (GRN)  Davian Clarke (JAM)  Gary Kikaya (COD)
2006 Moscow
details
 Alleyne Francique (GRN)  California Molefe (BOT)  Chris Brown (BAH)
2008 Valencia
details
 Tyler Christopher (CAN)  Johan Wissman (SWE)  Chris Brown (BAH)
2010 Doha
details
 Chris Brown (BAH)  William Collazo (CUB)  Jamaal Torrance (USA)
2012 Istanbul
details
 Nery Brenes (CRC)  Demetrius Pinder (BAH)  Chris Brown (BAH)
2014 Sopot
details
 Pavel Maslák (CZE)  Chris Brown (BAH)  Kyle Clemons (USA)
2016 Portland
details
 Pavel Maslák (CZE)  Abdalelah Haroun (QAT)  Deon Lendore (TTO)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]  Diane Dixon (USA)  Regine Berg (BEL)  Charmaine Crooks (CAN)
1987 Indianapolis
details
 Sabine Busch (GDR)  Lillie Leatherwood (USA)  Judit Forgács (HUN)
1989 Budapest
details
 Helga Arendt (FRG)  Diane Dixon (USA)  Jillian Richardson (TTO)
1991 Seville
details
 Diane Dixon (USA)  Sandra Myers (ESP)  Anita Protti (SUI)
1993 Toronto
details
 Sandie Richards (JAM)  Tatyana Alekseyeva (RUS)  Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
1995 Barcelona
details
 Irina Privalova (RUS)  Sandie Richards (JAM)  Daniela Georgieva (BUL)
1997 Paris
details
 Jearl Miles Clark (USA)  Sandie Richards (JAM)  Helena Fuchsová (CZE)
1999 Maebashi
details
 Grit Breuer (GER)  Falilat Ogunkoya (NGR)  Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
2001 Lisbon
details
 Sandie Richards (JAM)  Olga Kotlyarova (RUS)  Olesya Zykina (RUS)
2003 Birmingham
details
 Natalya Nazarova (RUS)  Christine Amertil (BAH)  Grit Breuer (GER)
2004 Budapest
details
 Natalya Nazarova (RUS)  Olesya Forsheva (RUS)  Tonique Williams-Darling (BAH)
2006 Moscow
details
 Olesya Forsheva (RUS)  Vania Stambolova (BUL)  Christine Amertil (BAH)
2008 Valencia
details
 Olesya Zykina (RUS)  Natalya Nazarova (RUS)  Shareese Woods (USA)
2010 Doha
details
 Debbie Dunn (USA)  Tatyana Firova (RUS)  Vania Stambolova (BUL)
2012 Istanbul
details
 Sanya Richards-Ross (USA)  Aleksandra Fedoriva (RUS)  Natasha Hastings (USA)
2014 Sopot
details
 Francena McCorory (USA)  Kaliese Spencer (JAM)  Shaunae Miller (BAH)
2016 Portland
details
 Kemi Adekoya (BHR)  Ashley Spencer (USA)  Quanera Hayes (USA)
  • A Known as the World Indoor Games

Season's bests[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, "Aerobic versus anaerobic training for success in various athletic events" by Shepard, R. J., 1978
  2. ^ http://www.flightunit.com/uncategorized/who-oscar-pistorius-is/
  3. ^ "All-time men's best 400m". alltime-athletics.com. 8 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  4. ^ "Men's 400m Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 14 August 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  5. ^ "400m Results". IAAF. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
  6. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). www.sep-olympic.ch. 5 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  7. ^ http://www.diamondleague-lausanne.com/en/Live-StartlistsResults/Overview/400m/
  8. ^ "400m Men - Heats Results". IAAF. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015. 
  9. ^ "400m Men - Heats Results". IAAF. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015. 
  10. ^ "Men's 400m Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 14 August 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  11. ^ "400m Results". IAAF. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
  12. ^ "All-time women's best 400m". alltime-athletics.com. 26 November 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  13. ^ "400m Results". IAAF. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015. 
  14. ^ https://smsprio2016-a.akamaihd.net/_odf-documents/A/T/ATM404101_Results_2016_08_20_3f946dd6_c984_4e33_bf39_31afec5beb68.pdf

External links[edit]