400 metres hurdles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from 400 metre hurdles)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Athletics
400 metres hurdles
Naisten 400 m aidat.jpg
Women's 400m hurdles.
World records
MenNorway Karsten Warholm 45.94 (2021)
WomenUnited States Sydney McLaughlin 51.46 (2021)
Olympic records
MenNorway Karsten Warholm 45.94 (2021)
WomenUnited States Sydney McLaughlin 51.46 (2021)
World Championship records
MenUnited States Kevin Young 47.18 (1993)
WomenUnited States Dalilah Muhammad 52.16 (2019)

The 400 metres hurdles is a track and field hurdling event. The event has been on the Olympic athletics programme since 1900 for men and since 1984 for women.

On a standard outdoor track, 400 metres is the length of the inside lane, once around the stadium. Runners stay in their lanes the entire way after starting out of the blocks and must clear ten hurdles that are evenly spaced around the track. The hurdles are positioned and weighted so that they fall forward if bumped into with sufficient force, to prevent injury to the runners. Although there is no longer any penalty for knocking hurdles over, runners prefer to clear them cleanly, as touching them during the race slows runners down.

The best male athletes can run the 400 m hurdles in a time of around 46 seconds, while the best female athletes achieve a time of around 52 seconds. The current men's and women's world record holders are Karsten Warholm with 45.94 seconds and Sydney McLaughlin with 51.46 seconds. Compared to the 400 metres run, the hurdles race takes the men about three seconds longer and the women four seconds longer.

The 400 m hurdles was held for both sexes at the inaugural IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The first championship for women came at the 1980 World Championships in Athletics – being held as a one-off due to the lack of a race at the 1980 Summer Olympics.

History[edit]

The first awards in a 400 m hurdles race were given in 1860 when a race was held in Oxford, England, over a course of 440 yards (402.336 m). While running the course, participants had to clear twelve wooden hurdles, over 100 centimetres tall, that had been spaced in even intervals.

To reduce the risk of injury, somewhat more lightweight constructions were introduced in 1895 that runners could push over. However, until 1935 runners were disqualified if they pushed over more than three hurdles in a race and records were only officially accepted if the runner in question had cleared all hurdles clean and left them all standing.

The 400 m hurdles became an Olympic event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. At the same time, the race was standardized; thus, virtually identical races could be held and the finish times compared to one other. As a result, the official distance was fixed to 400 metres, or one lap of the stadium, and the number of hurdles was reduced to ten. The official height of the hurdles was set to 91.4 cm (3 feet). The hurdles are now placed on the course with a run-up to the first hurdle of 45 metres, distance between the hurdles of 35 metres each, and home stretch from the last hurdle to finish line of 40 metres.

The first documented 400 m hurdles race for women took place in 1971. In 1974, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF), now known as World Athletics, introduced the event officially as a discipline, with hurdles at the lower height of 76.20 cm (2 ft, 6 inches). The women's race was not run at the Olympics until the 1984 Summer Games in Los Angeles where it was first staged with the first Men's World Champion having been crowned the year before at the inaugural World Athletics Championships. A special edition of the Women's 400m Hurdles took place in the 1980 IAAF World Championships in Athletics in response to the Women's 400m Hurdles not being included at the boycotted 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, and Liberty Bell Classic.

Many athletic commentators and officials have often brought up the idea of lifting the height of the women's 400 m hurdles to incorporate a greater requirement of hurdling skill. This is a view held by German athletic coach Norbert Stein, "All this means that the women's hurdles for specialists, who are the target group to be dealt with in this discussion, is considerably depreciated in skill demands when compared to the men's hurdles. It should not be possible in the women's hurdles that the winner is an athlete whose performance in the flat sprint is demonstrably excellent but whose technique of hurdling is only moderate and whose anthropometric characteristics are not optimal. This was the case at the World Championships in Seville and the same problem can often be seen at international and national meetings."[citation needed]

Hurdling technique[edit]

In terms of technique and endurance, the 400-metre hurdles is arguably the most demanding event in the sprints and hurdles group.[1]: 4169 [2]: 9  Athletes must be able to run a fast 400-metre flat time, maintain a good hurdling technique, and have a unique awareness of stride pattern between hurdles.[2]: 9  Furthermore, athletes must possess anaerobic endurance over the final 150 to 100 metres of the race as, at this point, lactate (the conjugate base of lactic acid) will accumulate in the body from anaerobic glycolysis.[3]: 43 

Block start[edit]

When preparing to hurdle, the blocks should be set so that the athlete arrives at the first hurdle leading on the desired leg without inserting a stutter step. A stutter step is when the runner has to chop his or her stride down to arrive on the "correct" leg for take off. Throughout the race, any adjustments to stride length stride speed should be made several strides out from the hurdle because a stutter or being too far from the hurdle at takeoff will result in loss of momentum and speed.

Hurdling[edit]

At the beginning of the take-off, the knee must be driven toward the hurdle and the foot then extended. The leg position when extended must be stretched out, in a position of a split. The knee should be slightly bent when crossing the hurdle. Unless an athlete's body has great flexibility, the knee must be slightly bent to allow a forward body lean. Unlike the 110m hurdles, a significant forward body lean is not that necessary due to the hurdles being lower. However, the trail leg must be kept bent and short to provide a quick lever action allowing a fast hurdle clearance. The knee should pull through under the armpit and should not be flat across the top of the hurdle.

It is also important that the hurdler does not reach out on the last stride before the hurdle as this will result in a longer bound being made to clear the hurdle. This will also result in a loss of momentum if the foot lands well in front of the center of gravity.

Stride length[edit]

Using a left lead leg on the bends allows the hurdler to run closer to the inside of the lane and cover a shorter distance. Additionally, if the left leg is used for the lead, then the athlete's upper body can be leaned to the left, making it easier to bring the trail leg through. Additionally, an athlete hurdling with a right leg lead around the bends must take care that they do not inadvertently trail their foot or toe around the hurdle rather than passing over the top, which would lead to a disqualification from the race. Depending on the height and strength of the athlete, men work toward a stride pattern of 13 to 15 steps between each hurdle, and women work toward a stride pattern of 15 to 17. This does not include the landing step from the previous hurdle. Ed Moses was the first man to keep 13 strides throughout an entire race. Weaker athletes will typically hold a longer step pattern throughout the race so that they do not bound or reach with each step, which also results in a loss of speed. These patterns are ideal because it allows the hurdler to take off from their predominant leg throughout the race without switching legs. However, fatigue from the race will knock athletes off their stride pattern and force runners to switch legs. At an early age, many coaches train their athletes to hurdle with both legs. This is a useful skill to learn since as a runner tires, their stride length may decrease, resulting in the need either to add a stutter stride, or to take a hurdle on the other leg.

All-time top 25[edit]

Men[edit]

  • Correct as of 20 November 2021.[4][5]
Ath.# Perf.# Time (s) Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
1 1 45.94 Karsten Warholm  Norway 03 AUG 2021 Tokyo [6]
2 2 46.17 Rai Benjamin  United States 03 AUG 2021 Tokyo [6]
3 46.70 Warholm #2 01 JUL 2021 Oslo
3 4 46.72 Alison dos Santos  Brazil 03 AUG 2021 Tokyo [6]
4 5 46.78 Kevin Young  United States 06 AUG 1992 Barcelona
6 46.83 Benjamin #2 27 JUN 2021 Eugene
7 46.87 Warholm #3 23 AUG 2020 Stockholm
8 46.92 Warholm #4 29 AUG 2019 Zürich
5 9 46.98 Abderrahman Samba  Qatar 30 JUN 2018 Paris [7]
9 46.98 Benjamin #3 29 AUG 2019 Zürich
6 11 47.02 Edwin Moses  United States 31 AUG 1983 Koblenz
11 47.02 Benjamin #4 08 JUN 2018 Eugene
7 13 47.03 Bryan Bronson  United States 21 JUN 1998 New Orleans
14 47.07 Warholm #5 17 SEP 2020 Rome
15 47.08 Warholm #6 13 SEP 2020 Berlin
Warholm #7 09 JUL 2021 Monaco [8]
8 15 47.08 Kyron McMaster  British Virgin Islands 03 AUG 2021 Tokyo [6]
9 18 47.10 Samuel Matete  Zambia 07 AUG 1991 Zürich
18 47.10 Warholm #8 14 AUG 2020 Monaco
20 47.12 Warholm #9 20 JUL 2019 London
Samba #2 03 AUG 2021 Tokyo [6]
22 47.13 Moses #2 03 JUL 1980 Milan
Benjamin #5 09 MAY 2021 Walnut
23 47.14 Moses #3 14 JUL 1981 Lausanne
24 47.16 Benjamin #6 30 JUN 2019 Palo Alto
25 47.17 Moses #4 08 AUG 1980 Berlin
10 47.19 Andre Phillips  United States 25 SEP 1988 Seoul
11 47.23 Amadou Dia Ba  Senegal 25 SEP 1988 Seoul
12 47.24 Kerron Clement  United States 26 JUN 2005 Carson
13 47.25 Félix Sánchez  Dominican Republic 29 AUG 2003 Paris
Angelo Taylor  United States 18 AUG 2008 Beijing
15 47.30 Bershawn Jackson  United States 09 AUG 2005 Helsinki
16 47.37 Stéphane Diagana  France 05 JUL 1995 Lausanne
17 47.38 Danny Harris  United States 10 JUL 1991 Lausanne
18 47.43 James Carter  United States 09 AUG 2005 Helsinki
19 47.48 Harald Schmid  West Germany 08 SEP 1982 Athens
20 47.53 Hadi Soua'an Al-Somaily  Saudi Arabia 27 SEP 2000 Sydney
21 47.54 Derrick Adkins  United States 05 JUL 1995 Lausanne
Fabrizio Mori  Italy 10 AUG 2001 Edmonton
23 47.60 Winthrop Graham  Jamaica 04 AUG 1993 Zürich
24 47.63 Johnny Dutch  United States 26 JUN 2010 Des Moines
25 47.66 L. J. van Zyl  South Africa 25 FEB 2011 Pretoria

Women[edit]

  • Correct as of 8 September 2021.[9]
Ath.# Perf.# Time (s) Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
1 1 51.46 Sydney McLaughlin  United States 04 AUG 2021 Tokyo [10]
2 2 51.58 Dalilah Muhammad  United States 04 AUG 2021 Tokyo [10]
3 51.90 McLaughlin #2 27 JUN 2021 Eugene [11]
3 4 52.03 Femke Bol  Netherlands 04 AUG 2021 Tokyo [10]
5 52.16 Muhammad #2 04 OCT 2019 Doha [12]
6 52.20 Muhammad #3 28 JUL 2019 Des Moines
7 52.23 McLaughlin #3 04 OCT 2019 Doha [12]
4 8 52.34 Yuliya Pechonkina  Russia 08 AUG 2003 Tula
9 52.37 Bol #2 04 JUL 2021 Stockholm [13]
5 10 52.39 Shamier Little  United States 04 JUL 2021 Stockholm [13]
6 11 52.42 Melaine Walker  Jamaica 20 AUG 2009 Berlin
11 52.42 Muhammad #4 27 JUN 2021 Eugene [14]
7 13 52.47 Lashinda Demus  United States 01 SEP 2011 Daegu
8 14 52.61 Kim Batten  United States 11 AUG 1995 Gothenburg
9 15 52.62 Tonja Buford-Bailey  United States 11 AUG 1995 Gothenburg
16 52.63 Demus #2 28 JUL 2009 Monaco
17 52.64 Walker #2 20 AUG 2008 Beijing
Muhammad #5 25 JUN 2017 Sacramento
10 19 52.70 Natalya Antyukh  Russia 08 AUG 2012 London [15]
20 52.73 Walker #2 01 SEP 2011 Daegu
11 21 52.74 Sally Gunnell  Great Britain 19 AUG 1993 Stuttgart
21 52.74 Batten #2 08 AUG 1998 Monaco
23 52.75 Little #2 25 JUN 2017 Sacramento
McLaughlin #4 13 MAY 2018 Knoxville
12 25 52.77 Fani Halkia  Greece 22 AUG 2004 Athens
25 52.77 Muhammad #6 21 AUG 2021 Eugene [16]
13 52.79 Sandra Farmer-Patrick  United States 19 AUG 1993 Stuttgart
Kaliese Spencer  Jamaica 05 AUG 2011 London
15 52.82 Deon Hemmings  Jamaica 31 JUL 1996 Atlanta
16 52.83 Zuzana Hejnová  Czech Republic 15 AUG 2013 Moscow
17 52.89 Daimí Pernía  Cuba 25 AUG 1999 Seville
18 52.90 Nezha Bidouane  Morocco 25 AUG 1999 Seville
19 52.94 Marina Stepanova  Soviet Union 17 SEP 1986 Tashkent
20 52.95 Sheena Johnson  United States 11 JUL 2004 Sacramento
Kori Carter  United States 25 JUN 2017 Sacramento
22 52.96 Anna Ryzhykova  Ukraine 04 JUL 2021 Stockholm [13]
23 53.02 Irina Privalova  Russia 27 SEP 2000 Sydney
24 53.08 Janieve Russell  Jamaica 04 AUG 2021 Tokyo [10]
25 53.11 Tatyana Ledovskaya  Soviet Union 29 AUG 1991 Tokyo
Ashley Spencer  United States 25 JUN 2017 Sacramento [17]

Milestones[edit]

Most successful athletes[edit]

American athlete Glenn Davis had a prodigious start to his hurdling career, running his first race in April 1956 in 54.4 s. Two months later, he ran a new world record with 49.5 s and later that year he won the 400 m hurdles at the Olympics, and was also the first to repeat that feat in 1960.

In terms of success and longevity in competition, Edwin Moses' record is significant: he won 122 races in a row between 1977 and 1987 plus two gold medals, at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montréal and the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. He was undefeated for exactly nine years nine months and nine days, from 26 August 1977 until 4 June 1987. He finished third in the 1988 Olympic final, the last race of his career. He also held the world record for sixteen years from when he first broke it at the Olympics on 25 July 1976 until it was finally broken by Kevin Young at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.

Edwin Moses


* Note: Edwin Moses, Kevin Young and Karsten Warholm are the only male 400 m hurdlers to have been Olympic Champion, World Champion, and broken the World Record.
* Note: Sally Gunnell and Dalilah Muhammad are the only female 400 m hurdlers to have been Olympic Champion, World Champion, and broken the World Record.

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1900 Paris
details
Walter Tewksbury
 United States
Henri Tauzin
 France
George Orton
 Canada
1904 St. Louis
details
Harry Hillman
 United States
Frank Waller
 United States
George Poage
 United States
1908 London
details
Charles Bacon
 United States
Harry Hillman
 United States
Jimmy Tremeer
 Great Britain
1912 Stockholm not included in the Olympic program
1920 Antwerp
details
Frank Loomis
 United States
John Norton
 United States
August Desch
 United States
1924 Paris
details
Morgan Taylor
 United States
Erik Wilén
 Finland
Ivan Riley
 United States
1928 Amsterdam
details
David Burghley
 Great Britain
Frank Cuhel
 United States
Morgan Taylor
 United States
1932 Los Angeles
details
Bob Tisdall
 Ireland
Glenn Hardin
 United States
Morgan Taylor
 United States
1936 Berlin
details
Glenn Hardin
 United States
John Loaring
 Canada
Miguel White
 Philippines
1948 London
details
Roy Cochran
 United States
Duncan White
 Ceylon
Rune Larsson
 Sweden
1952 Helsinki
details
Charles Moore
 United States
Yuriy Lituyev
 Soviet Union
John Holland
 New Zealand
1956 Melbourne
details
Glenn Davis
 United States
Eddie Southern
 United States
Josh Culbreath
 United States
1960 Rome
details
Glenn Davis
 United States
Clifton Cushman
 United States
Dick Howard
 United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Rex Cawley
 United States
John Cooper
 Great Britain
Salvatore Morale
 Italy
1968 Mexico City
details
David Hemery
 Great Britain
Gerhard Hennige
 West Germany
John Sherwood
 Great Britain
1972 Munich
details
John Akii-Bua
 Uganda
Ralph Mann
 United States
David Hemery
 Great Britain
1976 Montreal
details
Edwin Moses
 United States
Michael Shine
 United States
Yevgeniy Gavrilenko
 Soviet Union
1980 Moscow
details
Volker Beck
 East Germany
Vasyl Arkhypenko
 Soviet Union
Gary Oakes
 Great Britain
1984 Los Angeles
details
Edwin Moses
 United States
Danny Harris
 United States
Harald Schmid
 West Germany
1988 Seoul
details
André Phillips
 United States
Amadou Dia Ba
 Senegal
Edwin Moses
 United States
1992 Barcelona
details
Kevin Young
 United States
Winthrop Graham
 Jamaica
Kriss Akabusi
 Great Britain
1996 Atlanta
details
Derrick Adkins
 United States
Samuel Matete
 Zambia
Calvin Davis
 United States
2000 Sydney
details
Angelo Taylor
 United States
Hadi Al-Somaily
 Saudi Arabia
Llewellyn Herbert
 South Africa
2004 Athens
details
Félix Sánchez
 Dominican Republic
Danny McFarlane
 Jamaica
Naman Keïta
 France
2008 Beijing
details
Angelo Taylor
 United States
Kerron Clement
 United States
Bershawn Jackson
 United States
2012 London
details
Félix Sánchez
 Dominican Republic
Michael Tinsley
 United States
Javier Culson
 Puerto Rico
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Kerron Clement
 United States
Boniface Mucheru Tumuti
 Kenya
Yasmani Copello
 Turkey
2020 Tokyo
details
Karsten Warholm
 Norway
Rai Benjamin
 United States
Alison dos Santos
 Brazil

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1984 Los Angeles
details
Nawal El Moutawakel
 Morocco
Judi Brown
 United States
Cristieana Cojocaru
 Romania
1988 Seoul
details
Debbie Flintoff-King
 Australia
Tatyana Ledovskaya
 Soviet Union
Ellen Fiedler
 East Germany
1992 Barcelona
details
Sally Gunnell
 Great Britain
Sandra Farmer-Patrick
 United States
Janeene Vickers
 United States
1996 Atlanta
details
Deon Hemmings
 Jamaica
Kim Batten
 United States
Tonja Buford-Bailey
 United States
2000 Sydney
details
Irina Privalova
 Russia
Deon Hemmings
 Jamaica
Nezha Bidouane
 Morocco
2004 Athens
details
Fani Halkia
 Greece
Ionela Târlea-Manolache
 Romania
Tetyana Tereshchuk-Antipova
 Ukraine
2008 Beijing
details
Melaine Walker
 Jamaica
Sheena Tosta
 United States
Tasha Danvers
 Great Britain
2012 London
details
Natalya Antyukh
 Russia
Lashinda Demus
 United States
Zuzana Hejnová
 Czech Republic
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Dalilah Muhammad
 United States
Sara Petersen
 Denmark
Ashley Spencer
 United States
2020 Tokyo
details
Sydney McLaughlin
 United States
Dalilah Muhammad
 United States
Femke Bol
 Netherlands

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Edwin Moses (USA)  Harald Schmid (FRG)  Aleksandr Kharlov (URS)
1987 Rome
details
 Edwin Moses (USA)  Danny Harris (USA)  Harald Schmid (FRG)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Samuel Matete (ZAM)  Winthrop Graham (JAM)  Kriss Akabusi (GBR)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Kevin Young (USA)  Samuel Matete (ZAM)  Winthrop Graham (JAM)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Derrick Adkins (USA)  Samuel Matete (ZAM)  Stéphane Diagana (FRA)
1997 Athens
details
 Stéphane Diagana (FRA)  Llewellyn Herbert (RSA)  Bryan Bronson (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 Fabrizio Mori (ITA)  Stéphane Diagana (FRA)  Marcel Schelbert (SUI)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Félix Sánchez (DOM)  Fabrizio Mori (ITA)  Dai Tamesue (JPN)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Félix Sánchez (DOM)  Joey Woody (USA)  Periklis Iakovakis (GRE)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Bershawn Jackson (USA)  James Carter (USA)  Dai Tamesue (JPN)
2007 Osaka
details
 Kerron Clement (USA)  Félix Sánchez (DOM)  Marek Plawgo (POL)
2009 Berlin
details
 Kerron Clement (USA)  Javier Culson (PUR)  Bershawn Jackson (USA)
2011 Daegu
details
 Dai Greene (GBR)  Javier Culson (PUR)  L. J. van Zyl (RSA)
2013 Moscow
details
 Jehue Gordon (TRI)  Michael Tinsley (USA)  Emir Bekrić (SRB)
2015 Beijing
details
 Nicholas Bett (KEN)  Denis Kudryavtsev (RUS)  Jeffery Gibson (BAH)
2017 London
details
 Karsten Warholm (NOR)  Yasmani Copello (TUR)  Kerron Clement (USA)
2019 Doha
details
 Karsten Warholm (NOR)  Rai Benjamin (USA)  Abderrahman Samba (QAT)

Women[edit]

  • The official World Athletics Championships began in 1983 as the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, but in 1980, the women's 3000 metres and 400 metres hurdles events had a World Championship competition in Sittard, Netherlands. This was due to these events not yet being on the Olympic program (the same had happened in 1976 for the men's 50 km walk).[19]


Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1980 Sittard
details
 Bärbel Broschat (GDR)  Ellen Neumann (GDR)  Petra Pfaff (GDR)
1983 Helsinki
details
 Yekaterina Fesenko (URS)  Ana Ambrazienė (URS)  Ellen Neumann-Fiedler (GDR)
1987 Rome
details
 Sabine Busch (GDR)  Debbie Flintoff (AUS)  Cornelia Feuerbach (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Tatyana Ledovskaya (URS)  Sally Gunnell (GBR)  Janeene Vickers (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Sally Gunnell (GBR)  Sandra Farmer-Patrick (USA)  Margarita Ponomaryova (RUS)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Kim Batten (USA)  Tonja Buford (USA)  Deon Hemmings (JAM)
1997 Athens
details
 Nezha Bidouane (MAR)  Deon Hemmings (JAM)  Kim Batten (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 Daimí Pernía (CUB)  Nezha Bidouane (MAR)  Deon Hemmings (JAM)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Nezha Bidouane (MAR)  Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)  Daimí Pernía (CUB)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Jana Pittman (AUS)  Sandra Glover (USA)  Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)  Lashinda Demus (USA)  Sandra Glover (USA)
2007 Osaka
details
 Jana Rawlinson (AUS)  Yuliya Pechenkina (RUS)  Anna Jesień (POL)
2009 Berlin
details
 Melaine Walker (JAM)  Lashinda Demus (USA)  Josanne Lucas (TRI)
2011 Daegu
details
 Lashinda Demus (USA)  Melaine Walker (JAM)  Natalya Antyukh (RUS)
2013 Moscow
details
 Zuzana Hejnová (CZE)  Dalilah Muhammad (USA)  Lashinda Demus (USA)
2015 Beijing
details
 Zuzana Hejnová (CZE)  Shamier Little (USA)  Cassandra Tate (USA)
2017 London
details
 Kori Carter (USA)  Dalilah Muhammad (USA)  Ristananna Tracey (JAM)
2019 Doha
details
 Dalilah Muhammad (USA)  Sydney McLaughlin (USA)  Rushell Clayton (JAM)

Season's bests[edit]

Men's
Year Time Athlete Place
1971 48.9  Ralph Mann (USA) Helsinki
1972 47.82  John Akii-Bua (UGA) Munich
1973 48.54  John Akii-Bua (UGA) Lagos
1974 48.1  Jim Bolding (USA) Milan
1975 48.4  Jim Bolding (USA) Milan
1976 47.63  Edwin Moses (USA) Montreal
1977 47.45  Edwin Moses (USA) Westwood
1978 47.94  Edwin Moses (USA) Zürich
1979 47.53  Edwin Moses (USA) Montreal
1980 47.13  Edwin Moses (USA) Milan
1981 47.14  Edwin Moses (USA) Lausanne
1982 47.48  Harald Schmid (FRG) Athens
1983 47.02  Edwin Moses (USA) Koblenz
1984 47.32  Edwin Moses (USA) Koblenz
1985 47.63  Danny Harris (USA) Zürich
1986 47.38  Edwin Moses (USA) Lausanne
1987 47.46  Edwin Moses (USA) Rome
1988 47.19  Andre Phillips (USA) Seoul
1989 47.86  Kevin Young (USA) Berlin
1990 47.49  Danny Harris (USA) Lausanne
1991 47.10  Samuel Matete (ZAM) Zürich
1992 46.78  Kevin Young (USA) Barcelona
1993 47.18  Kevin Young (USA) Stuttgart
1994 47.70  Derrick Adkins (USA) Linz
1995 47.37  Stéphane Diagana (FRA) Lausanne
1996 47.54  Derrick Adkins (USA) Atlanta
1997 47.64  Bryan Bronson (USA) Monaco
1998 47.03  Bryan Bronson (USA) New Orleans
1999 47.72  Fabrizio Mori (ITA) Seville
2000 47.50  Angelo Taylor (USA) Sydney
2001 47.38  Félix Sánchez (DOM) Zürich
2002 47.35  Félix Sánchez (DOM) Zürich
2003 47.25  Félix Sánchez (DOM) Saint-Denis
2004 47.63  Félix Sánchez (DOM) Athens
2005 47.24  Kerron Clement (USA) Carson
2006 47.39  Kerron Clement (USA) Indianapolis
2007 47.61  Kerron Clement (USA) Osaka
2008 47.25  Angelo Taylor (USA) Beijing
2009 47.91  Kerron Clement (USA) Berlin
2010 47.32  Bershawn Jackson (USA) Des Moines
2011 47.66  L. J. van Zyl (RSA) Pretoria; Ostrava
2012 47.63  Félix Sánchez (DOM) London
2013 47.69  Jehue Gordon (TRI) Moscow
2014 48.03  Javier Culson (PUR) New York City
2015 47.79  Nicholas Bett (KEN) Beijing
2016 47.73  Kerron Clement (USA) Rio de Janeiro
2017 47.80  Kyron McMaster (IVB) Kingston
2018 46.98  Abderrahman Samba (QAT) Paris
2019 46.92  Karsten Warholm (NOR) Zürich
2020 46.87  Karsten Warholm (NOR) Stockholm
2021 45.94  Karsten Warholm (NOR) Tokyo
2022 47.24  Alison Dos Santos (BRA) Doha
Women's
Year Time Athlete Place
1971
1972
1973 56.7  Danuta Piecyk (POL) Warsaw
1974 56.51  Krystyna Kacperczyk (POL) Augsburg
1975
1976
1977 55.63  Karin Roßley (GDR) Helsinki
1978 54.89  Tatyana Zelentsova (URS) Prague
1979 54.78  Marina Stepanova (URS) Moscow
1980 54.28  Karin Roßley (GDR) Jena
1981 54.79  Ellen Fiedler (GDR) Jena
1982 54.57  Ann-Louise Skoglund (SWE) Athens
1983 54.02  Anna Ambrazienė (URS) Moscow
1984 53.58  Margarita Ponomaryova (URS) Kyiv
1985 53.55  Sabine Busch (GDR) Berlin
1986 52.94  Marina Stepanova (URS) Tashkent
1987 53.24  Sabine Busch (GDR) Potsdam
1988 53.17  Debbie Flintoff-King (AUS) Seoul
1989 53.37  Sandra Farmer-Patrick (USA) New York City
1990 53.62  Tatyana Ledovskaya (URS) Split
1991 53.11  Tatyana Ledovskaya (URS) Tokyo
1992 53.23  Sally Gunnell (GBR) Barcelona
1993 52.74  Sally Gunnell (GBR) Stuttgart
1994 53.33  Sally Gunnell (GBR) Helsinki
1995 52.61  Kim Batten (USA) Gothenburg
1996 52.82  Deon Hemmings (JAM) Atlanta
1997 52.97  Kim Batten (USA) Indianapolis
 Nezha Bidouane (MAR) Athens
1998 52.74  Kim Batten (USA) Monaco
1999 52.89  Daimí Pernía (CUB) Seville
2000 53.02  Irina Privalova (RUS) Sydney
2001 53.34  Nezha Bidouane (MAR) Edmonton
2002 53.10  Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS) Tula
2003 52.34  Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS) Tula
2004 52.77  Faní Halkiá (GRE) Athens
2005 52.90  Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS) Helsinki
2006 53.02  Lashinda Demus (USA) Athens
2007 53.28  Tiffany Williams (USA) Indianapolis
2008 52.64  Melaine Walker (JAM) Beijing
2009 52.42  Melaine Walker (JAM) Berlin
2010 52.82  Lashinda Demus (USA) Rome
2011 52.47  Lashinda Demus (USA) Daegu
2012 52.70  Natalya Antyukh (RUS) London
2013 52.83  Zuzana Hejnová (CZE) Moscow
2014 53.41  Kaliese Spencer (JAM) Kingston
2015 53.50  Zuzana Hejnová (CZE) Beijing
2016 52.88  Dalilah Muhammad (USA) Eugene
2017 52.64  Dalilah Muhammad (USA) Sacramento
2018 52.75  Sydney McLaughlin (USA) Knoxville
2019 52.16  Dalilah Muhammad (USA) Doha
2020 53.79  Femke Bol (NED) Arnhem
2021 51.46  Sydney McLaughlin (USA) Tokyo
2022 54.37  Britton Wilson (USA) Austin

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Lindeman, Ralph (1995). McGill, Kevin (ed.). "400 Meter Hurdle Theory". Track Coach. El Camino Real: Track & Field News (131): 4169–4171, 4196. ISSN 0041-0314. OCLC 477310277. Retrieved 3 August 2021. Formerly Track Technique. Spring 1995 edition. Reprinted from the October 1994 edition of the Hurdle Times newsletter published by the USATF Men's Development Committee.
  2. ^ a b Schiffer, Jürgen (2012). International Amateur Athletic Federation. "The 400m Hurdles". New Studies in Athletics. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer Sport. 27 (1–2): 9–25. ISSN 0961-933X. OCLC 751170802. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  3. ^ Iskra, Janus (1991). International Amateur Athletic Federation. "Endurance in the 400 metres Hurdles". New Studies in Athletics. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer Sport. 6 (2): 43–50. ISSN 0961-933X. OCLC 751170802. Archived from the original on 4 August 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  4. ^ Larsson, Peter (10 August 2019). "All-time men's best 400m hurdles". Track and Field all-time Performances. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  5. ^ "All time Top Lists: Senior Outdoor, 400 Metres Hurdles, Men". World Athletics. Retrieved 21 November 2021. (select the "All" option when filtering by athlete)
  6. ^ a b c d e "Men's 400m Hurdles Results" (PDF). olympics.com. 3 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  7. ^ "400m Hurdles Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 30 June 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  8. ^ "400m Hurdles Result" (PDF). sportresult.com. 9 July 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  9. ^ "400 Metres Hurdles Women All Time". IAAF. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d "Athletics - Final Results". olympics.com. Archived from the original on 31 July 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021.[dead link]
  11. ^ Ron Dicker (28 June 2021). "Sydney McLaughlin Shatters World Record in 400-Meter Hurdles at U.S. Olympic Trials". HuffPost. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  12. ^ a b "400m Hurdles Results" (PDF). IAAF. 4 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  13. ^ a b c Jess Whittington (4 July 2021). "Duplantis soars over meeting record in Stockholm". World Athletics. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  14. ^ Roy Jordan (28 June 2021). "McLaughlin smashes world 400m hurdles record in Eugene with 51.90". World Athletics. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  15. ^ "400 Metres Hurdles Results". IAAF. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  16. ^ "Prefontaine Classic 2021 Complete Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 21 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  17. ^ Roy Jordan (25 June 2017). "Muhammad wins historic 400m hurdles race at US Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  18. ^ Abrahamson, Alan (3 August 2021). "Abrahamson: Warholm, Benjamin deliver greatest 400m hurdle race in human history | NBC Olympics". nbcolympics.com. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  19. ^ IAAF World Championships in Athletics. GBR Athletics.