4031 Mueller

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4031 Mueller
Discovery [1]
Discovered byC. Shoemaker
Discovery sitePalomar Obs.
Discovery date12 February 1985
MPC designation(4031) Mueller
Named after
Jean Mueller
(American astronomer)[2]
1985 CL · 1969 EN1
main-belt · Hungaria[3][4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc32.13 yr (11,734 days)
Aphelion2.1291 AU
Perihelion1.7394 AU
1.9342 AU
2.69 yr (983 days)
0° 21m 59.04s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions3.875±0.101 km[5][6]
5.56 km (calculated)[3]
2.9420±0.0002 h[7]
2.942±0.001 h[a]
2.943±0.001 h[8]
2.944±0.001 h[9][b]
0.30 (assumed)[3]
E[3][5] · X[10]
13.2[1][3] · 13.34±0.29[10] · 13.7[5]

4031 Mueller, provisional designation 1985 CL, is a Hungaria asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 4 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 12 February 1985, by American astronomer Carolyn Shoemaker at Palomar Observatory, California, and named after astronomer Jean Mueller.[11][2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Mueller is a member of the Hungaria family, which form the innermost dense concentration of asteroids in the Solar System.[4] It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.7–2.1 AU once every 2 years and 8 months (983 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.10 and an inclination of 19° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body was first identified as 1969 EN1 at Crimea–Nauchnij on 13 March 1969, yet the observation remained unused for the asteroid's observation arc.[11]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Mueller's spectral type is that of an E-type asteroid, typical for members of the Hungaria family.[3] It has also been characterized as a X-type asteroid by PanSTARRS' photometric survey.[3][10]

Rotation period[edit]

Four rotational lightcurves for this asteroid were obtained from photometric observations made by American astronomer Brian Warner at his Palmer Divide Observatory (716) between 2008 and 2016. They all gave a concurring, well-defined rotation period of 2.942 to 2.944 hours with a brightness variation between 0.14 and 0.19 magnitude (U=3/3-/3-/3).[a][7][8][9][b]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the survey carried out by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, the asteroid measures 3.9 kilometers in diameter and its surface has a high albedo of 0.389,[5][6] while the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.30 and calculates a diameter of 5.56 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 13.2.[3]


This minor planet was named after American astronomer Jean Mueller (b. 1950), discoverer of minor planets, comets and supernovae during the course of the Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS II) using the Oschin Telescope at Palomar Observatory in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 12 December 1989 (M.P.C. 15576).[12]


  1. ^ a b Warner (2016) web-published rotation period of 2.942±0.001 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.17 mag- LCDB quality code of 3. Summary figures for (4031) Mueller at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL)
  2. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of 4031 Mueller with a period of 2.944, Palmer Divide Observatory, B. D. Warner (2012)


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 4031 Mueller (1985 CL)" (2017-03-30 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(4031) Mueller". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (4031) Mueller. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 344. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_4014. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "LCDB Data for (4031) Mueller". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  4. ^ a b Spratt, Christopher E. (April 1990). "The Hungaria group of minor planets". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 84 (2): 123–131. Bibcode:1990JRASC..84..123S. ISSN 0035-872X.
  5. ^ a b c d e Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  6. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  7. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (April 2009). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: 2008 September-December". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 36 (2): 70–73. Bibcode:2009MPBu...36...70W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  8. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (April 2014). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2013 September-December". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 41 (2): 102–112. Bibcode:2014MPBu...41..102W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  9. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (July 2012). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: 2011 December - 2012 March". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 39 (3): 158–167. Bibcode:2012MPBu...39..158W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  10. ^ a b c Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  11. ^ a b "4031 Mueller (1985 CL)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  12. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 15 November 2016.

External links[edit]