4045 Lowengrub

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4045 Lowengrub
Discovery [1]
Discovered byIndiana University
(Indiana Asteroid Program)
Discovery siteGoethe Link Obs.
Discovery date9 September 1953
MPC designation(4045) Lowengrub
Named after
Morton Lowengrub [2]
(American mathematician)
1953 RG · 1948 VE
1953 RM · 1959 TT
1961 AJ
main-belt · (outer)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc68.89 yr (25,163 days)
Aphelion3.5607 AU
Perihelion2.9011 AU
3.2309 AU
5.81 yr (2,121 days)
0° 10m 10.92s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions29.61±0.64 km[5]
31.322±0.337 km[6]
32.369±0.319 km[7]
32.78 km (derived)[3]
37.07±1.16 km[8]
9.764 h[9]
0.057 (assumed)[3]
C (assumed)[3]
11.00[8] · 11.17[3][6][9] · 11.2[1] · 11.30[5]

4045 Lowengrub, provisional designation 1953 RG, is a dark Alauda asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt, approximately 32 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 9 September 1953, by astronomers during the Indiana Asteroid Program at Goethe Link Observatory in Brooklyn, Indiana, United States.[10] The asteroid was named after American mathematician Morton Lowengrub, dean at Indiana University and one of the fathers of the WIYN Observatory.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Lowengrub is a member of the Alauda family (902),[4] a large family of carbonaceous asteroids and named after its parent body, 702 Alauda.[11]:23

It orbits the Sun in the outermost main-belt at a distance of 2.9–3.6 AU once every 5 years and 10 months (2,121 days; semi-major axis of 3.23 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.10 and an inclination of 21° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The body's observation arc begins with its first identification as 1948 VE at Uccle Observatory in November 1948, almost five years prior to its official discovery observation at Goethe.[10]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Lowengrub is an assumed C-type asteroid.[3]

Rotation period[edit]

A rotational lightcurve of Lowengrub was reported in 1996 and obtained from photometric observations by group of French astronomers in the early 1990s. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 9.764 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.40 magnitude (U=3).[9]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Lowengrub measures between 29.61 and 37.07 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.051 and 0.062.[5][6][7][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for carbonaceous asteroids of 0.057 and derives a diameter of 32.78 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.17.[3]


This minor planet was named after American mathematician Morton Lowengrub, dean, professor and administrator at Indiana University. The naming took place on the occasion of the completion of the WIYN Observatory with its 3.5-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona. Lowengrub was instrumental for the planning and construction of the WIYN and was a charter member of the WIYN Board of Governors [2]

Lowengrub has authored several books on mathematics including "Crack problems in the classical theory of elasticity" (1969) together with Scottish mathematician Ian Sneddon. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 14 May 1995 (M.P.C. 25229).[12]


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 4045 Lowengrub (1953 RG)" (2017-10-01 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(4045) Lowengrub". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (4045) Lowengrub. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 345. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_4025. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (4045) Lowengrub". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  7. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  9. ^ a b c Angeli, C. A.; Barucci, M. A. (March 1996). "CCD observations: rotational properties of 13 small asteroids". Planetary and Space Science. 44 (3): 181–186. Bibcode:1996P&SS...44..181A. doi:10.1016/0032-0633(95)00124-7. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  10. ^ a b "4045 Lowengrub (1953 RG)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  11. ^ Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.
  12. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 November 2017.

External links[edit]