40 mm grenade

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Box full of 40×53mm high velocity grenades.
40×46mm low velocity training round being fired from a M203 grenade launcher.

40 mm grenade (alternative spelling: 40mm grenade) is a common design for grenade launcher ammunition. It consists of a low velocity shell (a grenade) with a caliber of 40 mm (1.57 in).[1]

NATO[edit]

NATO currently uses three standardized 40 mm grenade families: 40 mm low velocity (LV), 40 mm medium velocity (MV) and 40 mm high velocity (HV). Low and medium velocity cartridges are used for different hand-held grenade launchers, while the high velocity cartridge is used for automatic grenade launchers.

40 mm low velocity[edit]

40×46mm low velocity cartridge being loaded into an M203 grenade launcher.
High-low system casing for the 40×46mm low velocity cartridge.
Fired 40 mm low velocity M781 showing its orange signal chalk.

40×46mm LV (low velocity),[2] is a NATO-standard[3] high-low grenade launcher cartridge meant for hand-held grenade launchers, such as the M79, M203, Milkor MGL, Heckler & Koch AG36, and many more.

The propellant has low pressure and gives the projectile an average velocity of 78–84 m/s (256–276 ft/s) depending on the ammunition type.[4]

40 mm low velocity ammunition types (NATO)[edit]

Low velocity 40mm grenades.jpg
HE, High Explosive
M381
HE, High Explosive[5]
Basic high explosive shell.[5]
40mm grenade.png
M386
HE, High Explosive[6]
Basic high explosive shell.[6]
Missing image
M406
HE, High Explosive[7]
Basic high explosive shell.[7]
Cross Section of 40mm HE Round.jpg
M441
HE, High Explosive[8]
Basic high explosive shell.[8]
Missing image
AB, Air Burst
M397, M397A1

AB, Air Burst[9][10]
Octol filled fragmentation grenade with a time fuze.[9] The A1 has a different fuze from the regular M397.[10]

Missing image
DP, Dual Purpose
M433
HEDP, High Explosive Dual Purpose[11]
Shaped charge with ability to damage soft targets and penetrate armor.[11]
M433 HEDP cutaway.png
MP, Multiple Projectile
M576
MP-APERS, Multiple Projectile Anti PERSonel
Buckshot cartridge with twenty 24-grain bullets.[12]
Missing image
IL, Illumination
M583A1
Illumination/Signal Flare, Parachute Star[13] (white flare)
Flare grenade with parachute for illumination and signaling.[13]
The low velocity m583A1 40mm grenades deploys an illumination flare from a parachute, when fired into the air.jpg
M585
Illumination/Signal Flare, Cluster Star[14] (white flare)
Grenade containing 5 nose ejected, free falling pyrotechnic star pellets used for signaling.[14]
Missing image
M661
Illumination/Signal Flare, Parachute Star[13] (green flare)
Flare grenade with parachute for illumination and signaling.[13]
Missing image
M662
Illumination/Signal Flare, Parachute Star[13] (red flare)
Flare grenade with parachute for illumination and signaling.[13]
Missing image
M992
Infra-red illumination flare
Flare grenade with parachute for infrared illumination.
M992 infrared illumination grenades -a.jpg
S, Smoke
M676
Smoke canopy (yellow smoke)[15]
Smoke grenade with parachute for signaling and marking.[15]
Missing image
M680
Smoke canopy (white smoke)[16]
Smoke grenade with parachute for signaling and marking.[16]
Missing image
M682
Smoke canopy (red smoke)[17]
Smoke grenade with parachute for signaling and marking.[17]
Missing image
M713
Ground marker (red smoke)
Smoke grenade for signaling and marking.[18]
Missing image
M714
Ground marker (white smoke)
Smoke grenade for signaling and marking.
Missing image
M715
Ground marker (green smoke)[19]
Smoke grenade for signaling and marking.[19]
Missing image
M716
Ground marker (yellow smoke)[20]
Smoke grenade for signaling and marking.[20]
Missing image
G, Gas
M651
CS gas[21]
Tear gas grenade.[21]
Missing image
TB, Thermobaric
XM1060
Thermobaric[22]
The XM1060 is a 40 mm thermobaric grenade developed by Picatinny Arsenal.[22]
Missing image
P, Practice
M781
P, Practice[23]
Training ammunition consisting of a steel body filled with orange signal chalk capped with a plastic ogive cap.[23]
US Navy 040529-N-8796S-043 40mm Practice grenades are lined up for loading.jpg

Besides combat ammo there also exist crowd control ammunition like sponge grenades.

40 mm low velocity ammunition types (Sweden)[edit]

Sweden currently operates the M203 grenade launcher (designated Granattillsats 40 mm Automatkarbin in Sweden) and thus uses the 40 mm low velocity cartridge.[24][25][4] Going against Swedish military tradition, the 40 mm high velocity cartridge currently lacks a specified indigenous designation in Swedish service.[25][4] Instead only the projectile types have designations.

Currently these projectile types can be found in Swedish service manuals.[4]

Sweden HE, High Explosive
40 GSGR
HE, High Explosive
Name: 40 GSGR, abbreviation for 40 mm gevärsspränggranat, Swedish for 40 mm rifle high explosive grenade. The fuze is designated ÖHKBAR 40 GSGR, abbreviation for Ögonblickligt HögKänsligt BasAnslagsRör + shell designation, Swedish for instant high sensitivity base impact fuze.[25][4]
Description: The type is a high-explosive grenade meant against soft targets.
Construction: The shell consists of a fragmentation body outfitted with internal steel balls for extra fragmentation damage. The fuze is a highly sensetive fuze without delay and is placed at the bottom of the shell.[25][4]
Marking: The shell has a yellow head and green body. The side of the shell features the marking "ST" in yellow, which stands for STålkulor ("Steel balls").[25][4]
40 GSGR data
Cartridge weight 0.264 kg (0.58 lb)
Shell weight 0.19 kg (0.42 lb)
Primary charge 3 g (0.11 oz) PETN
Main charge 23 g (0.81 oz) RDX
Propellant 0.35 g (0.012 oz) NCGL
High pressure 70 MPa
Low pressure 15 MPa
Muzzle velocity 84 m/s (280 ft/s)
NEM[a] 26 g (0.92 oz)
Sources [25][4]
Missing image
Sweden DP, Dual Purpose
40 GPSGR
HEDP, High Explosive Dual Purpose
Name: 40 GPSGR, abbreviation for 40 mm gevärspansarspränggranat, Swedish for 40 mm rifle high explosive anti tank grenade.[25][4]
Description: The type is a high-explosive dual-purpose grenade meant against both soft and lightly protected targets. It is probably equivalent to the American 40 mm M433.[11]
Construction: The shell consists of a fragmentation body, a high explosive charge and a shaped charge.[25][4]
Marking: The shell has a green head and green body. The side of the shell features the marking "RSV" in yellow, which stands for Riktad SprängVerkan ("Shaped charge").[25][4]
40 GPSGR data
Cartridge weight 0.26 kg (0.57 lb)
Shell weight 0.19 kg (0.42 lb)
Primary charge 0.33 g (0.012 oz) CH-6
Main charge 43.5 g (1.5 oz) Comp A5[b]
Propellant 0.34 g (0.012 oz) NCGL
High pressure 70 MPa
Low pressure 15 MPa
Muzzle velocity 78 m/s (260 ft/s)
NEM[c] 44.3 g (1.6 oz)
Sources [25][4]
Missing image
Sweden P, Practise
40 GÖVNGR 07
P, Practise
Name: 40 GÖVNGR 07, abbreviation for 40 mm gevärsövningsgranat 07, Swedish for 40 mm rifle practise grenade 07.[25][4]
Description: The type is a practise shell for combat training and practise shooting.
Construction: The shell has a steel body with a plastic cap and is filled with red signal chalk.[25][4]
Marking: The shell is colored in NATO blue training color.[25][4]
40 GÖVNGR 07 data
Cartridge weight 0.26 kg (0.57 lb)
Shell weight 0.19 kg (0.42 lb)
Primary charge -
Main charge Red signal chalk
Propellant 0.47 g (0.017 oz) NCGL
High pressure 70 MPa
Low pressure 15 MPa
Muzzle velocity 78 m/s (260 ft/s)
NEM[d] 5 g (0.18 oz)
Sources [25][4]
Missing image

Mockups and inert types also exists for loading excersies and educational purposes.

40 mm low velocity ammunition types (Romania)[edit]

Romanian arms producer ROMARM has made a version of their 40 mm rifle-mounted grenade launcher AG-40 chambered in 40×46mm NATO (then designated AG-40PN). Production of Romanian 40 mm low velocity ammunition is handled by the arms factory Uzina Mecanica Plopeni,[26] a subsidiary of ROMARM. Projectiles seems to be of Romanian origin based on available information.[26]

Romania HE, High Explosive
Grenade 40 NATO Exploziva
HE, High Explosive
Description: Romanian 40×46mm low velocity high explosive cartridge.[26]
Construction: The shell is made of steel and has a point fuze. The main explosive charge is located at the bottom of the shell. Below the main explosive charge is a layer of metal balls for extra fragmentation damage.[26]
Grenade 40 NATO Exploziva data
Cartridge length 112 mm (4.4 in)
Cartridge weight 370 g (13 oz)
Shell weight 245 g (8.6 oz)
Muzzle velocity 75 m/s (250 ft/s)
Leathal radius 10 m (33 ft)
Self-destruct 16-23 s
Sources [26]
Missing image
Romania P, Practice
Grenade 40 NATO Inerta
P, Practice
Name: The Cartridge is named Inerta (Inert), however the cartridge is live. Inert refers to the projectile which is a solid material projectile.[26]
Description: Romanian 40×46mm low velocity practice cartridge.[26]
Construction: The shell is solid in construction and made of duralumin.[26]
Grenade 40 NATO Exploziva data
Cartridge length 112 mm (4.4 in)
Cartridge weight 370 g (13 oz)
Shell weight 245 g (8.6 oz)
Muzzle velocity 75 m/s (250 ft/s)
Leathal radius -
Self-destruct -
Sources [26]
Missing image

SAGM fuze[edit]

The United States Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) began development of a 40 mm smart airburst fuze (proximity fuze) in 2011 to improve the ability of grenade launchers like the M203 and M320 to engage targets in defilade. Called small arms grenade munitions (SAGMs), they double the lethality of the standard M433 grenade round by adding a small "smart" fuze sensor that detonates in the air to hit targets in cover or behind obstacles. The airburst function is similar to the XM25 CDTE, which has an onboard laser system to determine the distance to the target, but SAGMs are considered complementary to the XM25 rather than competing against it, as the XM25 provides low-angle fire while 40 mm launchers fire a lobbing trajectory. Integrated sensors and logic devices scan and filter the environment and then autonomously airburst the fuze without needing to be told to by the firer, thereby not requiring the soldier to carry extra weapon accessories. SAGMs enable soldiers to accurately incapacitate personnel targets in defilade at ranges between 50 and 500 meters. The round is engineered with three firing modes: airburst; point detonation; and self-destruct. A successful demonstration occurred in November 2013.[27] Although the SAGM sensor does not need a laser rangefinder or any pre-fire programming sequence, it does require some skill by the user to aim and fire the round correctly so that it can detect the wall or obstruction to detonate in the air. The SAGM was to undergo evaluation in July 2015 and, if successful, transition into an official Army program of record by the end of the year.[28] Not only does the fuze burst over walls, but it can detonate when passing cover like trees, bursting just as it senses and passes the trunk. The sort of sensor SAGMs use to differentiate clutter from triggering obstacles is highly classified, but shows airburst reliability of 76 percent.[29]

40 mm medium velocity[edit]

40×51mm MV (medium velocity),[2] also known as 40×51mm Extended Range Low Pressure (ERLP),[30] is a NATO-standard[31][32] high-low grenade launcher cartridge meant for hand-held grenade launchers. Its purpose is to be an intermediate cartridge between the 40×46mm low velocity and 40×53mm high velocity cartridges and is thus referred to as 40 mm medium velocity.[2]

The propellant has medium pressure and gives the projectile an average velocity of 100 m/s (328 ft/s) depending on the ammunition type.[2] It has a maximum range of 800 meters, exceeding conventional extended range low-velocity variants by up to 375 meters.[2]

The 40×51mm MV cartrdige was designed by Rheinmetall Denel Munitions for the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) after a 2008 requirement for enhanced range and lethality from hand-held 40 mm grenades.[33] Rheinmetall answered by developing a new family of 40 mm grenades named 40 mm medium velocity[33] and by 2019 the cartridge was undergoing NATO qualification.[31]

Besides NATO the cartridge has been ordered by the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) as the cartridge for their next generation multiple grenade launcher, the Milkor Y4.[2][30] SANDF approved acquisition in February 2018 but deliveries could not be finished until the end of 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[30]

40 mm high velocity[edit]

40 mm high velocity high explosive dual purpose M430A1 cartrdige.
40×53 mm high velocity ammunition belt.

40×51mm HV (high velocity),[2] is a NATO-standard[3] high-low grenade launcher cartridge meant for mounted or crew-served automatic grenade launchers, such as the Mk.19 AGL, Mk 47 Striker, HK GMG, STK 40 AGL, Daewoo K4 and many more.

The propellant has high pressure and gives the projectile an average velocity of 241 m/s (791 ft/s) depending on the ammunition type.[4]

40 mm high velocity ammunition types (NATO)[edit]

High velocity 40mm grenades.jpg
HE, High Explosive
M383
HE, High Explosive[34]
High explosive shell filled with Composition A5.[34] (Comp 5A = Hexogen + graphite according to Swedish manuals).[4]
Missing image
M384
HE, High Explosive[35]
High explosive shell filled with Composition A5.[34] (Comp 5A = Hexogen + graphite according to Swedish manuals).[4]
Missing image
DP, Dual Purpose
M430, M430A1
HEDP, High Explosive Dual Purpose[36]
M430: Shaped charge with ability to damage soft targets and penetrate armor. Armor penetration: 2 inches (51 millimetres).[36]
M430A1: Has a longer shaped charge than the M430 and penetrates more armor. Armor penetration: 3 inches (76 millimetres).[36]
M430A1 HEDP cutaway.png
CA, Canister
M1001
HVCC, High Velocity Canister Cartridge[37]
Canister shot containing several flechette's. Produces a 3 to 4 ft (0.91 to 1.2 m) wide dispersion pattern at 50 m (164 ft).[37]
Missing image
AB, Air Burst
XM1176
HEDP-AB, High Explosive Dual Purpose Air Burst[38]
Dual purpose shaped charge with programmable fuze for air burst functionality.[38]
XM1176 high explosive dual purpose 40mm grenades.jpg
MK285
PPHE/SD, Programmable Prefragmented High Explosive/Self-Destructible
The MK285 is an anti personel cartridge designed for the Mk 47 Striker automatic grenade launcher.
It consists of an electronic programmable fuze, a pre-fragmented warhead and a propulsion system.
The fuze is programmed through the fire control of the gun. The fuze is mechanically armed at approximately 23 meters.
The round is programmed to airburst over the target and the fuze counts down the programmed time via its built in electronics.
If an unprogrammed round is fired, it will detonate on impact.
The projectile has a built in self-destruct and can be fired by any automatic grenade launcher.
Missing image
P, Practice
M385, M385A1
P, Practice[39][40]
M385: Training round featuring a solid metal projectile.[39]
M385A1: Updated M385 featuring an ogive equal to the M430 HEDP round.[40]
Missing image
M918
P, Practice.[41]
Training round featuring a flash charge.[41]
Missing image
M922, M922A1
Dummy round[42][43]
Missing image
MK281 Mod 0, MK281 Mod 1
P, Practice[44]
MK281 Mod 0: Training round featuring an impact marker.[44]
MK281 Mod 1: Training round featuring a day/night marker.[44]
Missing image

40 mm high velocity ammunition types (Sweden)[edit]

Sweden currently operates the Mk 19 grenade launcher (designated 40 mm granatspruta 92 in Sweden) and thus uses the 40 mm high velocity cartridge.[45][25][4] Going against Swedish military tradition, the 40 mm high velocity cartridge currently lacks a specified indigenous designation in Swedish service.[25][4] Instead only the projectile types have designations.

Currently these projectile types can be found in Swedish service manuals.[4]

Sweden DP, Dual Purpose
40 PSGR
HEDP, High Explosive Dual Purpose
Name: 40 PSGR, abbreviation for 40 mm pansarspränggranat, Swedish for 40 mm high explosive anti tank grenade. The fuze is designated ÖHKSAR PSGR, abbreviation for Ögonblickligt HögKänsligt SpetsAnslagsRör + shell designation, Swedish for instant high sensitivity point impact fuze.[25][4]
Description: The type is a high-explosive dual-purpose grenade meant against both soft and lightly protected targets.[25][4] It is probably equivalent to the American 40 mm M430.[36]
Construction: The shell consists of a fragmentation body, a high explosive charge, and a shaped charge. The fuze is a highly sensetive fuze without delay and is placed at the top of the shell.[25][4]
Marking: The shell has a green head and green body. The side of the shell features the marking "RSV" in yellow, which stands for Riktad SprängVerkan ("Shaped charge").[25][4]
40 PSGR data
Cartridge weight 0.34 kg (0.75 lb)
Shell weight 0.25 kg (0.55 lb)
Primary charge 0.3 g (0.011 oz) Comp A3[e]
Main charge 33 g (1.2 oz) Comp A5[f]
Propellant 4.45 g (0.16 oz) NCGL M2
High pressure 286 MPa
Low pressure 94 MPa
Muzzle velocity 241 m/s (790 ft/s)
Shaped charge penetration 50 mm (2 in) of steel at 0 degrees obliquity at any range.[36][46]
NEM[g] 38 g (1.3 oz)
Sources [25][4]
40 mm psgr.png
Sweden P, Practise
40 ÖVNGR
P, Practise
Name: 40 ÖVNGR, abbreviation for 40 mm övningsgranat, Swedish for 40 mm practise grenade.[25][4]
Description: The type is a practise shell for combat training and practise shooting.[25][4] It is probably equivalent to the American 40 mm M918.[41]
Construction: The shell has a flash charge instead of a combat charge.[25][4]
Marking: The shell is colored in NATO blue training color at the top.[25][4]
40 ÖVNGR data
Cartridge weight 0.37 kg (0.82 lb)
Shell weight 0.25 kg (0.55 lb)
Primary charge -
Main charge 1.8 g (0.063 oz) flash charge
Propellant 3.5 g (0.12 oz) NC A/S 0200
High pressure 286 MPa
Low pressure 94 MPa
Muzzle velocity 241 m/s (790 ft/s)
NEM[h] 5.6 g (0.20 oz)
Sources [25][4]
40 mm övngr.png
40 ÖVNGR 07
P, Practise
Name: 40 ÖVNGR 07, abbreviation for 40 mm övningsgranat 07, Swedish for 40 mm practise grenade 07.[25][4]
Description: The type is a practise shell for combat training and practise shooting.[25][4]
Construction: The shell has a steel body with a plastic cap and is filled with orange signal chalk.[25][4]
Marking: The shell is colored in NATO blue training color. The side of the shell features a marking of the cartridges designation in whilte.[25][4]
40 ÖVNGR 07 data
Cartridge weight 0.37 kg (0.82 lb)
Shell weight 0.25 kg (0.55 lb)
Primary charge -
Main charge Orange signal chalk
Propellant 4 g (0.14 oz) NCGL
High pressure 286 MPa
Low pressure 94 MPa
Muzzle velocity 241 m/s (790 ft/s)
NEM[i] 4.8 g (0.17 oz)
Sources [25][4]
40 mm övngr 07.png

Mockups and inert types also exists for loading excersies and educational purposes.

Green ammunition[edit]

The MK281 is a new type of 40 mm target practice grenade ammunition that has been accepted for use into the United States Marine Corps and the United States Army. It is "green" because it is non-toxic and non-dud producing (since it is a training round), meaning that there is no unexploded ordnance left to clean up on the range and heavy metals in the fuze do not leak into the ground. The MK281 was introduced into parts of the U.S. Armed Forces because of an executive order mandating that they buy green ammunition. The MK281 is manufactured by an American subsidiary of the Rheinmetall Group.

The United States Army has a requirement for a non-dud producing 40 mm training ammunition in both high and low velocity variants. The Army awarded four contracts to three United States companies to test designs. The resulting ammunition will not contain explosive energetics and have day and night visible, infrared, and thermal signatures.

Other[edit]

40×47mm (Poland)[edit]

Pallad-D wz. 83

40×47mm is a cartridge caliber produced in Poland for their Pallad wz. 74 rifle-mounted grenade launchers (used with the AK family of rifles in the Polish Army, like the AKM/AKMS, Tantal and Beryl) and Pallad-D wz. 83 grenade launcher (standalone variant fitted with standard pistol grip and folding stock from the AKMS assault rifle). The construction is similar to the one used in 40×46mm grenades, but they are not interchangeable.

40×47mm (Romania)[edit]

PA md. 86 assault rifle with 40×47mm AG-40 grenade launcher.

40×47mm is a cartridge caliber produced in Romania for their AG-40 model 77 and model 80 (today AG-40P) rifle-mounted grenade launchers.[26] It features a casing with a high-low system. The propellant has low pressure and gives the projectile an average velocity of 78–120 m/s (256–394 ft/s) depending on the ammunition type.[26]

Production was originally handled by the arms factory Uzina Mecanica Filiasi, however production was later moved to the arms factory Uzina Mecanica Tohan Zărnești,[26] today more commonly known as S. Tohan S.A.,[47] a subsidiary of ROMARM.

Several types of the Romanian 40×47mm exist:

Tohan currently (2021) offers a 40×47mm high explosive type called GETZ (Grenadă Explozivă Tohan Zărnești) and an inert version called GITZ (Grenadă Inertă Tohan Zărnești). Both cartridges are 105 mm (4.13 in) long, with GETZ weighing 0.260 kg (0.573 lb) and GITZ 0.200 kg (0.441 lb).[26][47]

40×74.5mm (Romania)[edit]

40×74.5mm is a cartridge caliber produced in Romania for their AGA-40 Model 85 automatic grenade launcher.[26] It features a casing with a high-low system. The propellant has high pressure and gives the projectile an average velocity of 216–223 m/s (709–732 ft/s) depending on the ammunition type.[26]

Production is handled by the arms factory Uzina Mecanica Plopeni,[26] a subsidiary of ROMARM.

Three ammunition types are known:

  • A high explosive grenade producing 150 fragments weighing 0.2 g (0.0071 oz) each, creating a deadly radius of 10 meters (33 feet) upon impact.[26]
  • A high explosive dual purpose grenade capable of penetrating 50 mm (2.0 in) of steel armor.[26]
  • An inert cartridge for loading exercise.[26]

Caseless ammunition[edit]

40 mm VOG-25 (Russia)[edit]

VOG-25

40 mm VOG-25 (Russian Cyrillic: ВОГ-25) (GRAU-Index: 7P17 (Russian Cyrillic: 7П17)) is a unique type of 40 mm grenade designed in the Soviet Union for hand-held grenade launchers, such as the Soviet GP-25 Kostyor and GP-30 Obuvka.[48] Instead of a casing, the VOG-25 is a caseless ammunition, featuring its propellant in an expansion chamber at the base of the projectile, functioning more like a mortar round than conventional cased ammunition.[48]

Today it is used primarily by the Russian Armed Forces in weapons such as the GP-34, BG-15 Mukha and RG-6. Several types exist but the most common version is the default VOG-25 high explosive version.[48]

VOG-25 is 103 mm (4.1 in) long, weighs 250 g (8.8 oz), and features a 48 g (1.7 oz) explosive charge. It has a muzzle velocity of 76 m/s (250 ft/s) and will self-destruct after 14 seconds.[48]

40 mm Metal Storm (Australia)[edit]

During its time (1994-2012), Metal Storm Limited in Australia designed several automatic caseless 40 mm grenade launcher systems[49][50] based on their own caseless ammunition weapon design.[51] Unlike common caseless ammunition and their weapon systems the Metal Storm design lacked a feeding magazine and instead stacked the projectiles in front of each other in the barrel with the propellant in between the projectiles.[51] The system lacked moving parts and the propellant was electronically primed,[51] allowing for rates of fire up to one million rounds per minute.[52]

The 40 mm grenades used in the systems were off the shelf existing warheads converted to function in the design.[49]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ NEM = Net Explosive Mass
  2. ^ Comp A5 = Composition A5. Comp A5 is Hexogen + graphite according to Swedish manuals.
  3. ^ NEM = Net Explosive Mass
  4. ^ NEM = Net Explosive Mass
  5. ^ Comp A3 = Composition A3. Comp A3 is Hexogen + wax according to Swedish manuals.
  6. ^ Comp A5 = Composition A5. Comp A5 is Hexogen + graphite according to Swedish manuals.
  7. ^ NEM = Net Explosive Mass
  8. ^ NEM = Net Explosive Mass
  9. ^ NEM = Net Explosive Mass

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Grenade Launchers and their Ammunition: International Developments". Small Arms Defense Journal. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Rheinmetall supplies South African National Defence Force with new 40mm medium-velocity ammunition". rheinmetall-defence.com. 13 November 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  3. ^ a b "C.I.P. 40 x 46" (PDF). 30 September 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak AMKAT: Ammunitionskatalog, data och bild, 2014. (AMCAT: ammunition catalogue, data and picture, 2014). Sweden: FMV: Försvarets materielverk (The Swedish Defence Materiel Administration). 2014.
  5. ^ a b "M381". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  6. ^ a b "M386". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  7. ^ a b "M406". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  8. ^ a b "M441". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  9. ^ a b "M397". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  10. ^ a b "M397A1". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  11. ^ a b c "M433". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  12. ^ "M576". bulletpicker. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "M583A1". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  14. ^ a b "M585". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  15. ^ a b "M676". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  16. ^ a b "M680". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  17. ^ a b "M682". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  18. ^ "M713". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  19. ^ a b "M715". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  20. ^ a b "M716". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  21. ^ a b "M651". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  22. ^ a b "XM1060". globalsecurity.org. 12 June 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  23. ^ a b "M781". bulletpicker.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  24. ^ "Granatspruta 92 (Grsp92)". soldf.com. 9 December 2020.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae AMKAT: Ammunitionskatalog, data och bild, del 1, 2001. (AMCAT: ammunition catalogue, data and picture, part 1, 2001). Sweden: FMV: Försvarets materielverk (The Swedish Defence Materiel Administration). 2001.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "munitie ag 40 Archives - Romania Military". Romania Military. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  27. ^ Enhanced grenade lethality: On target even when enemy is concealed - Army.mil, 4 September 2014
  28. ^ ARDEC's airburst round to begin evaluation this summer - Army.mil, 8 December 2014
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