|World||Christian Coleman 4.12 (2017)|
|World||Christie Pearce 4.70|
The 40-yard dash is a sprint covering 40 yards (36.58 m). It is primarily run to evaluate the speed and acceleration of American football players by scouts, particularly for the NFL Draft but also for collegiate recruiting. A player's recorded time can have a heavy impact on his prospects in college or professional football. This was traditionally only true for the "skill" positions such as running back, wide receiver, and defensive back, although now a fast 40-yard dash time is considered important for almost every position. The 40-yard dash is not an official race in track and field athletics and is not an IAAF-recognized event.
The origin of timing football players for 40 yards comes from the average distance of a punt and the time it takes to reach that distance. Punts average around 40 yards in distance from the line of scrimmage, and the hangtime (time of flight) averages approximately 4.5 seconds. Therefore, if a coach knows that a player runs 40 yards in 4.5 seconds, he will be able to leave the line of scrimmage when a punt is kicked, and reach the point where the ball comes down just as it arrives.
Timing method and track comparisons
In terms of judging a person's speed, the best method of timing is through lasers which start and stop the times when passed through. A laser start (from a stationary position) is more accurate for measuring pure speed as it does not register a runner's reaction time. However, the method of timing a 40-yard dash can affect the accuracy by as much as 0.5 seconds (with the manual stopwatch method). The National Football League (NFL) did not begin using partial electronic timing (started by hand, stopped electronically) at the NFL Scouting Combine until 1999.  For purposes of measurement at the Combine, the run is made along the lower sideline from the 40 yard-line to the end zone, which has built-in rundown space.
In track and field races, the runner must react to the starting gun, which takes approximately 0.24 seconds, based on FAT timing. A runner with a reaction time less than .100 is subject to disqualification as that is deemed too fast of a reaction time. In contrast, for electronically timed 40-yard dashes, the runner is allowed to start when he wishes, and a timer hand-starts the clock. This aspect means that comparisons with track times are impossible given that a reaction time is not factored in. Furthermore, the use of hand-timing in the 40-yard dash can considerably alter a runner's time; the methods are not comparable to the rigorous electronic timing used in track and field.
Jacoby Ford, who ran a 4.28 s in the 2010 NFL Combine, had a collegiate best of 6.51 s in the 60-meter dash (outside the top-40 of the all-time lists). This highlights the difficulties in comparing track running times to football 40-yard times due to the different timing methods.
Auburn's Bo Jackson claims to have run a 40-yard dash with a time of 4.13 s. A time of 4.18 run by Jackson within the same week added some support to the legitimacy of the times. Texas Tech's Jakeem Grant was hand-timed by a New Orleans Saints scout as running a 4.10 in 2016, potentially beating Jackson's record. Deion Sanders ran a 4.27-second 40-yard dash in 1989.
Records at the NFL Scouting Combine
This is a list of the official 40-yard dash results of 4.30 seconds or better recorded at the NFL Scouting combine since 1999, the first year electronic timing was implemented at the NFL Scouting Combine.
|4.22||John Ross||5 ft 11 in (180 cm)||190 lb (86 kg)||Wide receiver||Washington||2017||No. 9 overall by Cincinnati Bengals|||
|4.24||Rondel Menendez||5 ft 9 in (175 cm)||192 lb (87 kg)||Wide receiver||Eastern Kentucky||1999||No. 247 overall by Atlanta Falcons|
|Chris Johnson||5 ft 11 in (180 cm)||192 lb (87 kg)||Running back||East Carolina||2008||No. 24 overall by Tennessee Titans|
|4.26||Jerome Mathis||5 ft 11 in (180 cm)||184 lb (83 kg)||Wide receiver||Hampton||2005||No. 114 overall by Houston Texans|
|Dri Archer||5 ft 8 in (173 cm)||173 lb (78 kg)||Running back||Kent State||2014||No. 97 overall by Pittsburgh Steelers|
|4.27||Stanford Routt||6 ft 2 in (188 cm)||193 lb (88 kg)||Cornerback||Houston||2005||No. 38 overall by Oakland Raiders|
|Marquise Goodwin||5 ft 10 in (178 cm)||181 lb (82 kg)||Wide receiver||Texas||2013||No. 78 overall by Buffalo Bills|
|4.28||Champ Bailey||6 ft 0 in (183 cm)||192 lb (87 kg)||Cornerback||Georgia||1999||No. 7 overall by Washington Redskins|
|Jacoby Ford||5 ft 9 in (175 cm)||190 lb (86 kg)||Wide receiver||Clemson||2010||No. 108 overall by Oakland Raiders|
|Jalen Myrick||5 ft 10 in (178 cm)||200 lb (91 kg)||Cornerback||Minnesota||2017||No. 222 overall by Jacksonville Jaguars|||
|J. J. Nelson||5 ft 10 in (178 cm)||156 lb (71 kg)||Wide receiver||UAB||2015||No. 159 overall by Arizona Cardinals|||
|DeMarcus Van Dyke||6 ft 1 in (185 cm)||187 lb (85 kg)||Cornerback||Miami||2011||No. 81 overall by Oakland Raiders|
|4.29||Fabian Washington||5 ft 11 in (180 cm)||188 lb (85 kg)||Cornerback||Nebraska||2005||No. 23 overall by Oakland Raiders|
|4.30||Darrent Williams||5 ft 9 in (175 cm)||176 lb (80 kg)||Cornerback||Oklahoma State||2005||No. 56 overall by Denver Broncos|
|Tye Hill||5 ft 10 in (178 cm)||185 lb (84 kg)||Cornerback||Clemson||2006||No. 15 overall by St. Louis Rams|
|Yamon Figurs||5 ft 11 in (180 cm)||174 lb (79 kg)||Wide receiver||Kansas State||2007||No. 74 overall by Baltimore Ravens|
|Darrius Heyward-Bey||6 ft 2 in (188 cm)||210 lb (95 kg)||Wide receiver||Maryland||2009||No. 7 overall by Oakland Raiders|||
Average time by position
According to a five-year NFL combine report, wide receivers and cornerbacks had the fastest average times at 4.48, followed by running backs at 4.49. The following average times were measured between 2000 and 2012 at the NFL combine for players who played at least 5 games.
- MacCambridge, Michael (2005). America's Game: The Epic Story of How Pro Football Captured a Nation (1st ed.). New York: Anchor Books. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-375-72506-7.
Intent on building a fast team, [Paul Brown in the mid-1940s] began timing players in the 40-yard dash, rather than the 100, reasoning that the 40 was a more meaningful measure of true football speed, about the distance a player would cover on a punt.
- "isbn:0345545141 - Google Search". books.google.com.
- Davenport, Gary. "How Are 40-Yard Dash Times Recorded?". bleacherreport.com.
- 60 Metres - men - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2013-05-29.
- Rothstein, Matthew (February 29, 2016). "Bo Jackson Talking About His 4.13 40-Yard-Dash Is A Reminder Of How Superhuman He Was". Uproxx.com.
- Tanier, Mike (July 16, 2015). "NFL Urban Legends: Bo Jackson and the Too-Fast-to-Be-True 40-Yard Dash". BleacherReport.com.
- Based on Cooney, Frank (23 February 2008). "Combine 40-yard times -- Nothing is official". The Sports Xchange. Archived from the original on 19 August 2009. Retrieved 3 March 2010., plus updates.
- Cooney, Frank (24 Feb 2008). "With 40-yard dash times, nothing's quite 'official'". USA Today.
- Haislop, Tadd (11 March 2016). "Texas Tech's Jakeem Grant clocked at 4.10 in 40-yard dash". SportingNews. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- Hessler, Warner (23 April 1989). "NFL General Managers Moan About Another Diluted Draft". Daily Press. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
- "Detroit Lions sign rugby player Carlin Isles to practice squad". Daily News. New York. 26 Dec 2013.
- "Olympic sprinter shows up John Ross". USA Today. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- "Top Performers 2006-2011". 16 July 2011.
- Cooney, Frank (1 Mar 2011). "Officially, Van Dyke is combine's fastest player". USA Today.
- "John Ross III runs 40-yard dash in record 4.22 seconds at NFL Combine". Sportsnet. March 4, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "Jalen Myrick Combine Profile". NFL.com. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- "NFL on Twitter". Twitter. February 21, 2015. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
- "Darrius Heyward-Bey - WR - Maryland - 2009 NFL Combine Results". NFL Combine Results.
- Topher Doll (February 12, 2013). "Some Clarification is in Order: Average Speed by Position". MileHighReport.com. Archived from the original on 2018-11-11. Retrieved 2018-11-11.