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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|416 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||416 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||338|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 110|
|- Pharaoh||Darius II of Persia, 8|
|Ancient Greek era||91st Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||甲子年 (Wood Rat)|
2281 or 2221
— to —
乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
2282 or 2222
|Coptic calendar||−699 – −698|
|Ethiopian calendar||−423 – −422|
|- Vikram Samvat||−359 – −358|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2685–2686|
|Iranian calendar||1037 BP – 1036 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1069 BH – 1068 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2327 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||127–128|
−289 or −670 or −1442
— to —
−288 or −669 or −1441
Year 416 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Tribunate of Atratinus, Ambustus, Mugillanus and Rutilus (or, less frequently, year 338 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 416 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- With the encouragement of Alcibiades, the Athenians take the island of Melos (which has remained neutral during the Peloponnesian War). Its inhabitants are treated with great cruelty by the Athenians, with all the men capable of bearing arms being killed, while the women and children are made slaves.
- In Sicily, the Ionian city of Segesta asks for Athenian help from the Dorian city of Selinus (which is supported by the powerful Sicilian city of Syracuse). The people of Syracuse are ethnically Dorian (as are the Spartans), while the Athenians, and their allies in Sicily, are Ionian. The Athenians feel obliged to assist their ally and therefore prepare an armada to attack Sicily.
- Agathon along with Alcibiades and Socrates and Aristophanes and others attend a symposium described by Plato.