|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|41 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||41 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||713|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 283|
|- Pharaoh||Cleopatra VII, 11|
|Ancient Greek era||184th Olympiad, year 4|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)|
2656 or 2596
— to —
庚辰年 (Metal Dragon)
2657 or 2597
|Coptic calendar||−324 – −323|
|Ethiopian calendar||−48 – −47|
|- Vikram Samvat||16–17|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||3060–3061|
|Iranian calendar||662 BP – 661 BP|
|Islamic calendar||682 BH – 681 BH|
|Julian calendar||41 BC|
|Minguo calendar||1952 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||271/272 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||502–503|
86 or −295 or −1067
— to —
87 or −294 or −1066
Year 41 BC was either a common year starting on Wednesday or Thursday or a leap year starting on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Antonius and Vatia (or, less frequently, year 713 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 41 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Consuls: Lucius Antonius and Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus.
- Perusine War: An armed resistance breaks out across Italy; the Umbrian city of Sentinum is captured and destroyed by Quintus Salvidienus Rufus.
- Lucius Antonius occupies Perusia; he accepted the appeal of the local population. Lucius and Fulvia are defeated by Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian in the Battle of Perugia.
- Mark Antony meets Cleopatra VII in Tarsus (Cilicia) and formed an alliance. He returned to Alexandria with her and they become lovers in the winter of 41–40 BC. To safeguard herself and Caesarion, she had Antony order the execution of her (half) sister Arsinoe IV, who is living at the temple of Artemis in Ephesus.