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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|423 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||423 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||331|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 103|
|- Pharaoh||Darius II of Persia, 1|
|Ancient Greek era||89th Olympiad, year 2|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||丁巳年 (Fire Snake)|
2274 or 2214
— to —
戊午年 (Earth Horse)
2275 or 2215
|Coptic calendar||−706 – −705|
|Ethiopian calendar||−430 – −429|
|- Vikram Samvat||−366 – −365|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2678–2679|
|Iranian calendar||1044 BP – 1043 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1076 BH – 1075 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2334 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||120–121|
−296 or −677 or −1449
— to —
−295 or −676 or −1448
Year 423 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Atratinus and Ambustus (or, less frequently, year 331 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 423 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Ochus, satrap of Hyrcania and son of Artaxerxes I and a Babylonian concubine, seizes the Persian throne from his half brother Secydianus (or Sogdianus), whom he has executed. The new king rules as Darius II.
- The Athenian general, Laches, successfully moves in the Athenian Assembly for an armistice with Sparta to check the progress of Sparta's most effective general, Brasidas. However, the "Truce of Laches" has little impact on Brasidas and collapses within a year.
- Brasidas ignores the proposed year-long truce and proceeds to take Scione and Mende in the hope of reaching Athens and freeing Spartan prisoners. Athens sends reinforcements under Nicias who retakes Mende.
- Gaius Sempronius Atratinus and Quintus Fabius Vibulanus are elected as consuls
- Sextus Tempanius, Aulus Sellius, Sextus Antistius, and Spurius Icilius are chosen by the commons as tribunes
- Aristophanes' play The Clouds is performed as is Sophocles' play Maidens of Trachi and The Putine (The Bottle), by Cratinus.
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- ^ Livius, Titus. The Early History of Rome. the Penguin Group. p. 331. ISBN 978-0-140-44809-2.
- ^ Livius, Titus. The Early History of Rome. the Penguin Group. p. 337. ISBN 978-0-140-44809-2.
Frey, Wendy, and Diane Hart. History Alive! Palo Alto, CA: TCI, 2004. Print.