4332 Milton

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4332 Milton
Discovery [1]
Discovered by C. Shoemaker
Discovery site Palomar Obs.
Discovery date 5 September 1983
MPC designation (4332) Milton
Named after
Daniel J. Milton [1]
(American astrogeologist)
1983 RC · 1933 SH1
1989 ET4
main-belt[1][2] · (middle)
Orbital characteristics[2]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 84.44 yr (30,841 d)
Aphelion 3.3990 AU
Perihelion 1.7701 AU
2.5846 AU
Eccentricity 0.3151
4.16 yr (1,518 d)
0° 14m 13.92s / day
Inclination 19.169°
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
11.26 km (derived)[4]
11.500±3.014 km[5]
11.54±0.6 km[6]
3.295±0.005 h[7]
3.2978±0.0003 h[8]
0.1158 (derived)[4]
SMASS = Xe[2] · C[9]

4332 Milton, provisional designation 1983 RC, is a background asteroid from the central regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 5 September 1983, by American astronomer Carolyn Shoemaker at the Palomar Observatory in California.[1] The Xe-subtype has a rotation period of 3.3 hours.[4] It was named after Daniel Milton, American geologist with the USGS.[1]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Milton is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population.[3] It orbits the Sun in the central asteroid belt at a distance of 1.8–3.4 AU once every 4 years and 2 months (1,518 days; semi-major axis of 2.58 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.32 and an inclination of 19° with respect to the ecliptic.[2]

The asteroid was first observed as 1933 SH1 at Heidelberg Observatory in September 1933. The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Palomar in September 1983.[1]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the SMASS classification, Milton is a Xe-subtype that transitions between the X-type and E-type asteroids.[2] It has also been characterized as a carbonaceous C-type by Pan-STARRS' large-scale survey.[9]

Rotation period[edit]

In September 2008, a rotational lightcurve of Milton was obtained from photometric observations by Julian Oey at the Kingsgrove (E19) and Leura (E17) observatories. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 3.2978 hours with a brightness variation of 0.30 magnitude (U=2+).[8] In August 2012, a refined period of 3.295 hours and an amplitude of 0.16 magnitude was measured by Afşar Kabaş at the Çanakkale University Observatory in Turkey (U=3-).[7]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Milton measures between 11.500 and 11.54 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.1002 and 0.2306.[5][6]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.1158 and a diameter of 11.26 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.7.[4]


This minor planet was named after Daniel J. Milton (born 1934), American geologist with the United States Geological Survey, known for his geological studies of the Moon and Mars, as well as for research on impact craters and features in Australia.[1] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 30 January 1991 (M.P.C. 17656).[10]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "4332 Milton (1983 RC)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 27 April 2018. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 4332 Milton (1983 RC)" (2018-02-23 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 27 April 2018. 
  3. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 27 April 2018. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (4332) Milton". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 27 April 2018. 
  5. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Nugent, C.; Mainzer, A. K.; Wright, E. L.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; et al. (October 2017). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 154 (4): 10. arXiv:1708.09504Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017AJ....154..168M. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa89ec. Retrieved 27 April 2018. 
  6. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 27 April 2018. 
  7. ^ a b Kabas, Afsar (June 2016). "The synodic rotational period of asteroid 4332 Milton". Icarus. 271: 279–282. Bibcode:2016Icar..271..279K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.02.017. Retrieved 27 April 2018. 
  8. ^ a b Oey, Julian (October 2009). "Lightcurve Analysis of Asteroids from Leura and Kingsgrove Observatory in the Second Half of 2008". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 36 (4): 162–164. Bibcode:2009MPBu...36..162O. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 27 April 2018. 
  9. ^ a b c Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results" (PDF). Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 27 April 2018. 
  10. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 27 April 2018. 

External links[edit]