437th Operations Group
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|437th Operations Group|
Emblem of the 437th Operations Group
|Branch||United States Air Force Reserve|
The 437th Operations Group (437 OG) is an active United States Air Force unit. It is the flying component of the Twenty-First Air Force 437th Airlift Wing, stationed at Charleston Air Force Base, South Carolina.
The unit's World War II predecessor unit, the 437th Troop Carrier Group was a C-47 Skytrain transport unit assigned to Ninth Air Force in Western Europe. During the Normandy campaign, the group released gliders over Cherbourg and carried troops, weapons, ammunition, rations, and other supplies for the 82nd Airborne Division in Operation NEPTUNE. For these actions, the group received a Distinguished Unit Citation.
The 437 OG is responsible for flying the C-17 Globemaster III jet cargo aircraft, the newest aircraft in the AMC airlift system.
The group consists of the following units:
- 14th Airlift Squadron
- 15th Airlift Squadron
- 16th Airlift Squadron
- 17th Airlift Squadron
- 437th Operations Support Squadron
- For additional lineage and history, see 437th Airlift Wing
World War II
From May–December 1943, the 437th Troop Carrier Group trained with cargo planes in Indiana, Missouri, and North Carolina. In January 1944, the group deployed to England, where it prepared for the invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe. During the Normandy campaign, the group released gliders over Cherbourg and carried troops, weapons, ammunition, rations, and other supplies for the 82nd Airborne Division in Operation Neptune. For these actions, the group received a Distinguished Unit Citation.
The air echelon deployed to Italy in July 1944 and participated in the Allied invasion of southern France in August 1944 dropping paratroops of the 1st Airborne Task Force. During Operation Market Garden in September 1944, the group released gliders carrying troops and equipment for the airborne attack in the occupied Netherlands. In December 1944, the group re-supplied the 101st Airborne Division in the Bastogne area of Belgium during the Battle of the Bulge. After moving to France in February 1945, the unit released gliders in support of an American crossing of the Rhine River called Operation Varsity in March 1945. The 437th continued to supply the offensive forces in April, while also evacuating wounded personnel to rear-zone hospitals. After V-E Day, the group evacuated prisoners of war and displaced persons to relocation centers. The group then returned to the United States and was inactivated.
Trained as a reserve unit until August 1950, when it was ordered to active duty because of the outbreak of war in Korea and later moved to Japan in November 1950. Between December 1950 and June 1952, the group airlifted ammunition, rations, aircraft parts, gasoline, and other war supplies from Japan to United Nations bases in Korea, while evacuating wounded troops from Korea to hospitals in Japan. During 1951, the 437th also dropped paratroops and flew re-supply and reinforcement missions in support of the Eighth Army in Korea. Between January–June 1952, the group transported battlefield replacements and evacuated troops on leave. From June 1952 – November 1957, the group again served as Reserve training organization flying C-46s.
Activated as part of Objective Organization adoption by 437 AW in October 1991. Assumed control of operational squadrons. Routinely deployed aircraft and aircrews in support of humanitarian and contingency operations in the Balkans, Southwest Asia, Africa, Russia, and provided disaster relief support, 1992–2001. Supported Global War on Terrorism contingencies from October 2001–.
- Established as 437 Troop Carrier Group on 15 April 1943
- Activated on 1 May 1943
- Inactivated on 15 November 1945
- Redesignated 437 Troop Carrier Group, Medium, on 10 May 1949
- Activated in the Reserve on 27 June 1949
- Ordered to active duty on 10 August 1950
- Inactivated on 10 June 1952
- Activated in the Reserve on 15 June 1952
- Inactivated on 16 November 1957
- Redesignated: 437 Military Airlift Group on 31 July 1985 (Remained inactive)
- Redesignated: 437 Operations Group on 24 September 1991
- Activated on 1 October 1991.
- 14th Airlift Squadron: 1 April 1992–present
- 15th Airlift Squadron: 1 October 1993–present
- 16th Airlift Squadron: 1 October 1993 – 29 September 2000; 1 July 2002–present
- 17th Airlift Squadron: 1 October 1991–present
- 20th Airlift Squadron: 1 October 1991 – 1 October 1993
- 36th Airlift Squadron: 1 December 1991 – 1 October 1993
- 76th Airlift Squadron: 1 October 1991 – 1 October 1993
- 41st Tactical Airlift Squadron: 1 October 1991 – 1 April 1992
- 83d Troop Carrier Squadron (T2): 1 May 1943 – 15 November 1945; 27 June 1949 – 10 June 1952; 15 June 1952 – 16 November 1957
- 84th Troop Carrier Squadron (Z8): 1 May 1943 – 15 November 1945; 27 June 1949 – 10 June 1952; 15 June 1952 – 16 November 1957
- 85th Troop Carrier Squadron (90): 1 May 1943 – 15 November 1945; 27 June 1949 – 10 June 1952; 15 June 1952 – 1 July 1957
- 86th Troop Carrier Squadron (5K): 1 May 1943 – 15 November 1945; 27 June 1949 – 1 August 1950; 26 January 1951 – 10 June 1952.
- Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-89201-092-4
- Johnson, David C. (1988), U.S. Army Air Forces Continental Airfields (ETO), D-Day to V-E Day; Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center, Maxwell AFB, Alabama.
- , 437th Operations Group