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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|439 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||439 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||315|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 87|
|- Pharaoh||Artaxerxes I of Persia, 27|
|Ancient Greek era||85th Olympiad, year 2|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||辛丑年 (Metal Ox)|
2258 or 2198
— to —
壬寅年 (Water Tiger)
2259 or 2199
|Coptic calendar||−722 – −721|
|Ethiopian calendar||−446 – −445|
|- Vikram Samvat||−382 – −381|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2662–2663|
|Iranian calendar||1060 BP – 1059 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1093 BH – 1092 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2350 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||104–105|
−312 or −693 or −1465
— to —
−311 or −692 or −1464
Year 439 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Lanatus and Barbatus (or, less frequently, year 315 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 439 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- As a result of Persian assistance to Samos, it takes the Athenian army nine months to successfully complete its siege of Samos and force the Samians to surrender. Samos becomes a tributary of Athens.
- Spurius Maelius, a wealthy Roman plebeian, tries to buy popular support with the aim of making himself king. During the severe famine affecting Rome, he buys up a large store of grain and sells it at a low price to the people of Rome – the first time this had been done in Rome. This leads Lucius Minucius, the patrician praefectus annonae ("president of the market"), to accuse Maelius of seeking to take over the government.
- Maelius is summoned before Cincinnatus (who has again become dictator of the Roman Republic, to put down a revolt by the plebeians), but refuses to appear. Shortly thereafter, Maelius is killed by Gaius Servilius Ahala and his house is burnt to the ground.