43rd United States Congress

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43rd United States Congress
42nd ← → 44th
United States Capitol (1869)

Duration: March 4, 1873 – March 4, 1875

Senate President: Henry Wilson
Senate Pres. pro tem: Matthew H. Carpenter
Henry B. Anthony
House Speaker: James G. Blaine
Members: 74 Senators
292 Representatives
10 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Republican
House Majority: Republican

Special: March 4, 1873 – March 26, 1873
1st: December 1, 1873 – June 23, 1874
2nd: December 7, 1874 – March 4, 1875

The Forty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1873 to March 4, 1875, during the fifth and sixth years of Ulysses Grant's presidency . The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. Both chambers had a Republican majority.


Major events[edit]

Major legislation[edit]


  • March 18, 1874: Hawaii signed a treaty with the United States granting exclusive trading rights.

Party summary[edit]

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.


Senators of the 43rd United States Congress
Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)

Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 17 1 54 0 72 2
Begin 19 3 50 0 72 2
End 20 2 51 73 1
Final voting share 30.1% 69.9% 0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 26 0 46 (Independent Republican)
73 1

House of Representatives[edit]

Before this Congress, the 1870 United States Census and resulting reapportionment changed the size of the House to 292 members.

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)


Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 97 0 3 141 (Independent Republican)
242 1
Begin 91 6 4 189 0 290 2
End 95 7 199
Final voting share 36.6% 63.4% 0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 177 1 0 102 (Independent Republican

287 5


President of the Senate
Henry Wilson


House of Representatives[edit]


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.


Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1874; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1876; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1878.

House of Representatives[edit]

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership[edit]

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • replacements: 5
  • deaths: 3
  • resignations: 3
  • interim appointments: 1
  • vacancy: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 7

Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Massachusetts (2) Vacant Henry Wilson resigned in previous congress after becoming Vice President of the United States George S. Boutwell (R) March 17, 1873
Mississippi (1) Adelbert Ames (R) Resigned March 17, 1873 after being elected Governor of Mississippi Henry R. Pease (R) February 3, 1874
Kansas (2) Alexander Caldwell (R) Resigned March 24, 1873 Robert Crozier (R) November 24, 1873
California (1) Eugene Casserly (D) Resigned November 29, 1873 John S. Hager (D) December 23, 1873
Kansas (2) Robert Crozier (R) Successor elected February 2, 1874 James M. Harvey (R) February 2, 1874
Massachusetts (1) Charles Sumner (LR) Died March 11, 1874 William B. Washburn (R) April 17, 1874
Connecticut (1) William A. Buckingham (R) Died February 5, 1875 William W. Eaton (D) February 5, 1875

House of Representatives[edit]

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
Louisiana 4th Vacant Rep-elect Samuel Peters died before taking seat George L. Smith (R) November 24, 1873
Georgia 8th Vacant Rep-elect Ambrose R. Wright died before taking seat Alexander H. Stephens (D) December 1, 1873
Pennsylvania 23rd Ebenezer McJunkin (R) Resigned some time during this congress John M. Thompson (R)  ??????
New York 6th James Brooks (D) Died April 30, 1873 Samuel S. Cox (D) November 4, 1873
Massachusetts 3rd William Whiting (R) Died June 29, 1873 Henry L. Pierce (R) December 1, 1873
Oregon At-large Joseph G. Wilson (R) Died July 2, 1873 James Nesmith (D) December 1, 1873
Michigan 5th Wilder D. Foster (R) Died September 20, 1873 William B. Williams (R) December 1, 1873
Virginia 5th Alexander Davis (D) Lost contested election March 5, 1874 Christopher Thomas (R) March 5, 1874
Georgia 1st Morgan Rawls (D) Lost contested election March 24, 1874 Andrew Sloan (R) March 24, 1874
New York 9th David B. Mellish (R) Died May 23, 1874 Richard Schell (D) December 7, 1874
Arkansas 3rd William W. Wilshire (R) Lost contested election June 16, 1874 Thomas M. Gunter (D) June 16, 1874
Ohio 12th Hugh J. Jewett (D) Resigned June 23, 1874 after becoming President of the Erie Railroad William E. Finck (D) December 7, 1874
New York 3rd Stewart L. Woodford (R) Resigned July 1, 1874 Simeon B. Chittenden (IR) November 3, 1874
South Carolina 3rd Robert B. Elliott (R) Resigned November 1, 1874 Lewis C. Carpenter (R) November 3, 1874
Illinois 1st John B. Rice (R) Died December 17, 1874 Bernard G. Caulfield (D) February 1, 1875
Massachusetts 10th Alvah Crocker (R) Died December 26, 1874 Charles A. Stevens (R) January 27, 1875
Florida At-large William J. Purman (R) Resigned January 25, 1875 Vacant Not filled this term
Maine 4th Samuel F. Hersey (R) Died February 3, 1875 Vacant Not filled this term
Louisiana 1st J. Hale Sypher (R) Lost contested election March 3, 1875 Effingham Lawrence (D) March 3, 1875



House of Representatives[edit]


  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links[edit]