449 Hamburga

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449 Hamburga
Discovery [1][2]
Discovered byM. F. Wolf
A. Schwassmann
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date31 October 1899
MPC designation(449) Hamburga
Named after
(German city)
1899 EU · 1947 OA
1948 TO · A901 EA
main-belt · (middle)[4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc117.91 yr (43,066 days)
Aphelion2.9931 AU
Perihelion2.1097 AU
2.5514 AU
4.08 yr (1,489 days)
0° 14m 30.48s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions55.09±14.25 km[6]
63.61±0.75 km[7]
66.76 ± 4.82 km[8]
77.90±22.29 km[9]
80.83±17.91 km[10]
85.59±1.9 km[11]
Mass(1.57±1.40)×1018 kg[8]
18.145±0.005 h[12]
18.263±0.004 h[13]
Tholen = C[1][4] · C[14]
B–V = 0.701[1]
U–B = 0.378[1]
9.43±0.01[4][15][16] · 9.47[1][7][9][11] · 9.79[6] · 9.79±0.07[17] · 9.80[10]

Hamburga (minor planet designation: 449 Hamburga) is a carbonaceous asteroid from the background population of the intermediate asteroid belt, approximately 75 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered by German astronomers Max Wolf and Friedrich Schwassmann at Heidelberg Observatory on 31 October 1899, and later named after the city of Hamburg in Germany.[3][2]

449 was a proposed target for the 1980s-1990s space probe mission proposal CRAF.


Hamburga is classified as a C-type asteroid and is probably composed of carbonaceous material. It is named for the city of Hamburg in Germany.[3] The name was announced in 1901 during a festival held by the Mathematical Society of Hamburg.[3]

449 Hamburga was identified as one of three asteroids that were likely to be a parent body for chondrites along with 304 Olga and 335 Roberta.[18] All three asteroids were known to have low-albedo (not reflect as much light) and be close to "meteorite producing resonances".[18] Chrondrites are the most common type of meteor found on Earth, accounting for over 80% of all meteors.[19] They are named for the tiny spherical silicate particles that are found inside them (those particles are called chondrules).[19]

Proposed spacecraft visit[edit]

In the 1980s and 1990s, NASA considered a spacecraft mission to the asteroid.[20] The mission plan called for a launch in 1995 and a flyby of Hamburga in early 1998. The McDonald's chain of restaurants expressed an interest in sponsoring the mission which was discussed in exploratory meetings between themselves and NASA.[21][22] (Hamburga was named for the European city of Hamburg, but also sounds like the food item the Hamburger)

In August 1988 in the United States' city of Baltimore, P. Weissman addressed the International Astronomical Union on a mission to this asteroid (449), a mission which also include a rendezvous with Comet Kopf.[23] See Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby for more on the mission to the comet. This mission can also be compared to Rosetta, which successfully flew by two minor planets and orbited a Comet during its approach to the Sun in the early 21st century. P. Weissman later worked on the Rosetta mission.[24]


It was predicted that 449 occulted the star HIP 1424 in July 2013.[25] Stellar occultations can allow a chord to be calculated

An asteroid occulation was predicted for 18 Oct 2018 with the magnitude 12 star UCAC4-557-042266.[26]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 449 Hamburga (1899 EU)" (2017-09-30 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  2. ^ a b "449 Hamburga (1899 EU)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(449) Hamburga". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (449) Hamburga. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 51. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_450. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  4. ^ a b c "LCDB Data for (449) Hamburga". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  5. ^ "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  6. ^ a b c Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  7. ^ a b c Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  8. ^ a b Carry, B. (December 2012), "Density of asteroids", Planetary and Space Science, 73 (1): 98–118, arXiv:1203.4336, Bibcode:2012P&SS...73...98C, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.03.009 See Table 1.
  9. ^ a b c Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  10. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  11. ^ a b c Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  12. ^ Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (449) Hamburga". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  13. ^ Brinsfield, James W. (April 2010). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Via Capote Observatory: 4th Quarter 2009". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 37 (2): 50–53. Bibcode:2010MPBu...37...50B. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  14. ^ Belskaya, I. N.; Fornasier, S.; Tozzi, G. P.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cellino, A.; Antonyuk, K.; et al. (March 2017). "Refining the asteroid taxonomy by polarimetric observations". Icarus. 284: 30–42. Bibcode:2017Icar..284...30B. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.11.003. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  15. ^ Pravec, Petr; Harris, Alan W.; Kusnirák, Peter; Galád, Adrián; Hornoch, Kamil (September 2012). "Absolute magnitudes of asteroids and a revision of asteroid albedo estimates from WISE thermal observations". Icarus. 221 (1): 365–387. Bibcode:2012Icar..221..365P. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2012.07.026. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  16. ^ Harris, A. W.; Young, J. W.; Dockweiler, Thor; Gibson, J.; Poutanen, M.; Bowell, E. (January 1992). "Asteroid lightcurve observations from 1981". Icarus. 95 (1): 115–147.ResearchsupportedbyLowellObservatoryEndowmentandNASA. Bibcode:1992Icar...95..115H. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(92)90195-D. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  17. ^ Warner, Brian D. (December 2007). "Initial Results of a Dedicated H-G Project". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 34 (4): 113–119. Bibcode:2007MPBu...34..113W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  18. ^ a b Lunar and planetary science: abstracts of papers submitted to the ... Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Volume 27, Part 1 - Lunar and Planetary Institute, Jan 1, 1996
  19. ^ a b ASU - Chondrites
  20. ^ Mars rover Curiosity’s other mission: publicity machine - December 5, 2012
  21. ^ Transactions of the International Astronomical Union: Proceedings of the ... edited by Derek McNally (Google Books link)
  22. ^ Glancey, Jonathan. "The strange story of the world's most famous logo". Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  23. ^ Transactions of the International Astronomical Union: Proceedings of the ... edited by Derek McNally (Google Books link)]
  24. ^ Planetary Ices: People Archived 2015-09-08 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Asteroid Occultation Updates Archived 2013-01-07 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "(449) Hamburga / UCAC4-557-042266 event on 2018 Oct 18, 13:40 UT".

External links[edit]