44th Canadian Parliament

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44th Parliament of Canada
Minority parliament
22 November 2021 – present
Parliament leaders
Rt. Hon. Justin Trudeau
4 Nov 2015 – present
Cabinet29th Canadian Ministry
Leader of the
Hon. Erin O'Toole
24 Aug 2020 – 2 Feb 2022
Hon. Candice Bergen
2 Feb 2022 – 10 Sep 2022
Hon. Pierre Poilievre
10 Sep 2022 – present
Party caucuses
GovernmentLiberal Party
OppositionConservative Party
RecognizedBloc Québécois
New Democratic Party
Independent Senators Group*
Canadian Senators Group*
Progressive Senate Group*
UnrecognizedGreen Party
* Only in the Senate.
House of Commons
Speaker of the
Hon. Anthony Rota
5 December 2019 – present
House Leader
Hon. Mark Holland
October 26, 2021 – July 26, 2023
Hon. Karina Gould
July 26, 2023 – present
Members338 MP seats
List of members

Seating arrangements of the Senate
Speaker of the
Hon. George Furey
3 December 2015 – 12 May 2023
Hon. Raymonde Gagné
12 May 2023 – present
Senate Rep.
Hon. Marc Gold
24 January 2020 – present
Senate Leader
Hon. Don Plett
5 November 2019 – present
Senators105 senator seats
List of senators
MonarchElizabeth II
6 Feb 1952 – 8 Sep 2022
Charles III
8 Sep 2022 – present
HE Rt. Hon. Mary Simon
26 July 2021 – present
1st session
22 November 2021 – 21 June 2023
← 43rd → 45th

The 44th Canadian Parliament is the session of the Parliament of Canada which began on 22 November 2021, with the membership of the House of Commons, having been determined by the results of the 2021 federal election held on 20 September. Parliament officially resumed on 22 November with the re-election of Speaker Anthony Rota, and the Speech from the Throne read by Governor General Mary Simon the following day.

It is led by a Liberal Party minority government under the premiership of Justin Trudeau. Six months into the first session on 22 March 2022 it was announced that the New Democratic Party would henceforth support the government with confidence and supply measures.[1][2]

Current Leadership of the House of Commons[edit]

Presiding Officer[edit]

Office Photo Party Officer Riding Since
Speaker of the House of Commons Liberal Anthony Rota Nipissing—Timiskaming 5 December 2019

Liberal Leadership (Government)[edit]

Office Photo Officer Riding Since
Leader Justin Trudeau Justin Trudeau Papineau 14 April 2013
Deputy Leader Chrystia Freeland Chrystia Freeland University-Rosedale 20 November 2019
House Leader Karina Gould Karina Gould Burlington 26 July 2023
Whip Steven MacKinnon Gatineau 28 October 2021
Caucus Chair Brenda Shanahan Châteauguay—Lacolle 28 November 2021

Conservative Leadership (Opposition)[edit]

Office Photo Officer Riding Since
Leader Pierre Poilievre Pierre Poilivevre Carleton 10 September 2022
Deputy Leaders Melissa Lantsman Melissa Lantsman Thornhill 10 September 2022
Tim Uppal Tim Uppal Edmonton Mill Woods
House Leader Andrew Scheer Andrew Scheer Regina—Qu'Appelle 13 September 2022
Deputy House Leader Luc Berthold Luc Berthold Mégantic—L'Érable 13 September 2022
Whip Kerry-Lynne Findlay Kerry-Lynne Findlay South Surrey—White Rock 13 September 2022
Deputy Whip and question period Coordinator Chris Warkentin Chris Warkentin Grande Prairie—Mackenzie 13 September 2022
Caucus Chair Scott Reid Scott Reid Lanark—Frontenac—Kingston 13 September 2022
Caucus Party Liaison Eric Duncan Eric Duncan Stormont—Dundas—South Glengarry 13 September 2022
Caucus Committee Coordinator Jake Stewart Miramichi—Grand Lake 13 September 2022
Québec Lieutenant Pierre Paul-Hus Charlesbourg-Haute-Saint-Charles 13 September 2022

Current Leadership of the Senate[edit]

Presiding Officer[edit]

Office Photo Party Officer Province Since
Speaker of the Senate Non-affiliated Raymonde Gagné Manitoba 12 May 2023

Government Leadership (Non-Affiliated)[edit]

Office Officer Province Since
Government representative in the senate Marc Gold Quebec 24 January 2020
Legislative Deputy to the Government Representative in the Senate Patti LaBoucane-Benson Alberta N/A

Opposition Leadership (Conservative)[edit]

Office Photo Officer Province Since
Leader of the Opposition Don Plett Manitoba 5 November 2019
Deputy leader of the Opposition Yonah Martin British Columbia November 2015
Whip of the Opposition Judith Seidman Quebec N/A
Deputy Whip of the Opposition Leo Housakos Quebec N/A
Chair of the Conservative Caucus Rose-May Poirier New Brunswick December 2019





  • 31 March – Former Conservative Party leader Erin O'Toole announces that he will resign as Member of Parliament for Durham at the end of the spring season of the House of Commons and not seek re-election.[12][13]
  • 26 July – The Liberal government holds a major cabinet reshuffle.[14]
  • 26 September – After pressure from government cabinet ministers and Opposition parliamentary leaders, the Speaker of the House of Commons, Liberal MP Anthony Rota, announces that he will resign from that position effective September 27th, 2023, after erroneously inviting to the House gallery and honouring a 98-year-old Ukrainian war veteran, Yaroslav Hunka, who was found to have served in the armed forces of Nazi Germany during World War II. Rota's invitation of Hunka took place during a state visit and parliamentary address by Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy.[15]

Changes in MPs[edit]

Changes in seats held (2021–present)
Seat Before Change
Date Member Party Reason Date Member Party
Spadina—Fort York 22 November 2021 Kevin Vuong  Liberal Excluded from caucus[16]  Independent
Mississauga—Lakeshore 27 May 2022 Sven Spengemann  Liberal Resigned to accept a position with the United Nations[17][18] 2022-12-12[19] Charles Sousa  Liberal
Richmond—Arthabaska 13 September 2022 Alain Rayes  Conservative Left caucus[20]  Independent
Winnipeg South Centre 12 December 2022 Jim Carr  Liberal Died in office[21] 19 June 2023 Ben Carr  Liberal
Calgary Heritage 31 December 2022 Bob Benzen  Conservative Resigned to return to the private sector[22] 19 June 2023 Shuvaloy Majumdar  Conservative
Oxford 28 January 2023 Dave MacKenzie  Conservative Retiring[23] 24 July 2023 Arpan Khanna  Conservative
Portage—Lisgar 28 February 2023 Candice Bergen  Conservative Resignation[24] 19 June 2023 Branden Leslie  Conservative
Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount 8 March 2023 Marc Garneau  Liberal Retiring[25] 19 June 2023 Anna Gainey  Liberal
Don Valley North 22 March 2023 Han Dong  Liberal Left caucus[26]  Independent
Durham August 1, 2023 Erin O'Toole  Conservative Resignation


Standings in the 44th Canadian Parliament
Affiliation House members Senate members
2021 election
Current +/– On election
day 2021
Current +/–
Liberal 160 158 Decrease 2 Steady
Conservative 119 117 Decrease 2 18 15 Decrease 3
Bloc Québécois 32 32 Steady Steady
New Democratic 25 25 Steady Steady
Green 2 2 Steady Steady
Independent 0 3 Increase 3 9 10 Increase 1
Independent Senators Group Steady 40 39 Decrease 1
Progressive Senate Group Steady 14 11 Decrease 3
Canadian Senators Group Steady 13 15 Increase 2
Total members 338 337 Decrease 1 94 91 Decrease 3
Vacant 1 Increase 1 11 15 Increase 4
Total seats 338 105


With the Liberal Party and NDP entering into a confidence and supply agreement on budgetary items and motions of confidence, the final component of the 2021 budget (Bill C-8) was adopted in June 2022. Among other provisions, Bill C-8 enacted the Underused Housing Tax Act, created a new tax credit to return carbon tax paid by farmers, created the COVID-19 Air Quality Improvement Tax Credit, and expanded both the School Supplies Tax Credit and the northern residents deduction amount.[27] Similarly, the 2022 budget was implemented in Bills C-19 and C-32. Among other provisions, Bill C-19 doubled the Home Accessibility Tax Credit, created the Labour Mobility Deduction for tradespeople, made vaping products subject to excise duties, removed excise duties from low-alcohol beer, removed the excise duty exemption that had applied to Canadian wine as directed by the WTO, and amended the Copyright Act as agreed to in the Canada-United States–Mexico Agreement, and criminalized Holocaust denial. Bill C-19 also enacted the Civil Lunar Gateway Agreement Implementation Act; the Prohibition on the Purchase of Residential Property by Non-Canadians Act; and the Select Luxury Items Tax Act to create a new sales tax applicable to luxury cars, planes and boats; and also repealed the Safe Drinking Water for First Nations Act.[28] Bill C-32 created the First Home Savings Account as a new registered savings plan and the Multigenerational Home Renovation Tax Credit; made income derived from house-flipping into business income for taxation purposes; created a temporary 15% tax on the taxable income of banks that exceeded $1 billion; and, in response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, increased maximum financial assistance that can be provided to foreign states from US$5 billion to C$14 billion.[29] In other legislation, Bill C-11 adopted the Online Streaming Act.

On healthcare, the Canada Dental Benefit was created with Bill C-31 with the Liberals, NDP and Green Party in support, and Conservatives and Bloc opposed.[30] With all party support, Bill C-10 directed $2.5 billion be paid for COVID testing purposes; Bill C-12 amended guaranteed income supplements to exclude payments received from the Emergency Response Benefit, the Recovery Benefit and the Worker Lockdown Benefit.[31][32] With both the NDP and Conservatives opposing, Bill C-2 enacted the Canada Worker Lockdown Benefit Act and extended various other COVID-related benefit programs.[33] On public safety and crime, with all party support, Bill C-3 inserted a new offence into the Criminal Code regarding intimidation of a person seeking health services and obstruction of lawful access to a place at which health services are provided.[34] Bill C-28 was adopted in response to R v Brown (2022) addressing self-induced extreme intoxication.[35]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Blatchford, Andy (22 March 2022). "Trudeau will be prime minister until 2025". POLITICO.
  2. ^ Scherer, Steve; Shakil, Ismail (22 March 2022). "Canada's Trudeau strikes surprise deal to keep power until 2025". Reuters. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  3. ^ Tasker, John Paul (20 September 2021). "Canadians have re-elected a Liberal minority government". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  4. ^ Catharine Tunney (25 October 2021). "Anand to defence, Joly to foreign affairs: Trudeau announces major cabinet shakeup". CBC. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  5. ^ "NewsAlert: MPs re-elect Liberal Anthony Rota to be House of Commons Speaker". INFOnews. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  6. ^ Tasker, John Paul (2 February 2022). "Conservative MPs vote to remove Erin O'Toole as leader". CBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  7. ^ Major, Darren (21 February 2022). "Emergencies Act passes crucial House of Commons vote with NDP support". CBC News. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
  8. ^ "MOTION TO CONFIRM THE DECLARATION OF A PUBLIC ORDER EMERGENCY WITHDRAWN" (PDF). Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Canada: Senate of Canada. 23 February 2022. p. 686.
  9. ^ Aiello, Rachel (22 March 2022). "Liberals, NDP agree to confidence deal seeing Trudeau government maintain power until 2025". CTV News. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  10. ^ Tasker, John Paul (10 September 2022). "Conservative members pick MP Pierre Poilievre to be their new leader". CBC News. Archived from the original on 10 September 2022. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  11. ^ "Leadership Contest Announcement".
  12. ^ "Former Conservative leader Erin O'Toole not seeking re-election, leaving this spring". ctvnews.ca. 31 March 2023. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023.
  13. ^ @erinotoole (31 March 2023). "A statement from the Hon. Erin O'Toole, P.C., C.D., M.P." (Tweet). Archived from the original on 31 March 2023 – via Twitter.
  14. ^ "Trudeau overhauls his cabinet, drops 7 ministers and shuffles most portfolios". CBC. 26 July 2023. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  15. ^ "Anthony Rota resigns as Speaker after inviting former Ukrainian soldier with Nazi ties to Parliament". CBC News. 26 September 2023. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  16. ^ Burke, Ashley (22 September 2021). "Expelled Liberal candidate says he'll sit as an Independent as angry voters call for byelection". CBC News.
  17. ^ "Mississauga Liberal MP resigns to work for United Nations less than a year after re-election". Mississauga.com. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  18. ^ "Sven Spengemann - Member of Parliament - Members of Parliament". House of Commons of Canada. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  19. ^ "Liberal Charles Sousa wins federal byelection in Mississauga-Lakeshore, CBC News projects". CBC News. 12 December 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  20. ^ Connolly, Amanda; Boutilier, Alex. "Quebec MP Alain Rayes leaves Conservative caucus after Poilievre victory". Global News. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
  21. ^ Elections Canada (16 December 2022). "A Federal Seat is Vacant in Winnipeg South Centre". Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  22. ^ Elections Canada (5 January 2023). "A Federal Seat is Vacant in Calgary Heritage". Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  23. ^ Elections Canada (2 February 2023). "A Federal Seat is Vacant in Oxford". Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  24. ^ Elections Canada (2 March 2023). "A By-Election Will Take Place in Portage–Lisgar". Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  25. ^ Elections Canada (10 March 2023). "A By-Election Will Take Place in Notre-Dame-de-Grâce–Westmount". Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  26. ^ Catharine Tunney (22 March 2023). "MP Han Dong leaving Liberal caucus, denies allegations of working against release of 2 Michaels". CBC News. Retrieved 3 April 2023.
  27. ^ Barton, Andrew; Capwell, Brett; Kachulis, Eleni; Léonard, André; Malo, Joëlle (12 January 2022). "Legislative Summary of Bill C-8: An Act to implement certain provisions of the economic and fiscal update tabled in Parliament on December 14, 2021 and other measures". Library of Parliament.
  28. ^ Barton, Andrew; Béchard, Julie; et al. (30 May 2022). "Legislative Summary of Bill C-19: An Act to implement certain provisions of the budget tabled in Parliament on 7 April 2022 and other measures" (PDF). Library of Parliament.
  29. ^ Fleury, Sylvain; Blackshaw, Matthew; et al. (30 December 2022). "An Act to implement certain provisions of the Fall Economic Statement Tabled in Parliament on November 3, 2022 and Certain Provisions of the Budget Tabled in Parliament on April 7, 2022" (PDF). Library of Parliament.
  30. ^ Aiello, Rachel (17 November 2022). "A national dental-care benefit is now law; here's who is eligible". CTV News.
  31. ^ "Legislation to increase access to rapid testing across the country receives Royal Assent". Government of Canada. 4 March 2022.
  32. ^ "Legislation to support low-income seniors who received pandemic benefits receives royal assent". Government of Canada. 3 March 2022.
  33. ^ Kachulis, Eleni; Keenan-Pelletier, Michaela; Malo, Joëlle; Tiedemann, Marlisa; Yon, Adriane (1 February 2022). "Legislative Summary of Bill C-2: An Act to Provide Further Support in Response to COVID-19" (PDF). Library of Parliament.
  34. ^ "How Bill C-3 can work for you: What the anti-harassment law means for doctors". Canadian Medical Association. 12 January 2023.
  35. ^ Eñano, Katrina (28 June 2022). "Bill abolishing 'self-induced extreme intoxication' as legal defence receives royal assent".

External links[edit]