45th G7 summit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
45th G7 summit
Host countryFrance
Date24–26 August 2019
Venue(s)Biarritz, Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Participants Canada
 United Kingdom
 United States
 European Union
Follows44th G7 summit
Precedes46th G7 summit

The 45th G7 summit was held on 24–26 August 2019, in Biarritz, France.[1][2] In March 2014, the G7 declared that a meaningful discussion was currently not possible with Russia in the context of the G8. Since then, meetings have continued within the G7 process. However, according to a senior Trump administration official, US President Donald Trump and French President Emmanuel Macron had agreed that Russia should be invited to the next G7 Summit to be held in 2020.[3]

Concluding communique[edit]

Five points were agreed at the issue of the summit, about:[4]

  • the World Trade Organization, "with regard to intellectual property protection, to settle disputes more swiftly and to eliminate unfair trade practices"[5]
  • the "G7 commits to reaching an agreement in 2020 to simplify regulatory barriers and modernize international taxation within the framework of the OECD"[5]
  • the G7 shares objectives on Iran: "to ensure that Iran never acquires nuclear weapons and to foster peace and stability in the region."[5]
  • on Libya: "We support a truce in Libya that will lead to a long-term ceasefire. We believe that only a political solution can ensure Libya’s stability. We call for a well-prepared international conference to bring together all the stakeholders and regional actors relevant to this conflict. We support in this regard the work of the United Nations and the African Union to set up an inter-Libyan conference."[6]
  • in an opaque reference to the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, "France and Germany will organize a Normandy format summit in the coming weeks to achieve tangible results."[5]
  • in light of the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests, "The G7 reaffirms the existence and the importance of the 1984 Sino-British agreement on Hong Kong and calls for avoiding violence."[7]

Final press conference[edit]

In the final press conference, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson said "Iran should never be allowed to get a nuclear weapon",[8] and Trump spoke about Iran in a joint news conference with Macron.[9] Whereas the European powers sought to appease Iran, Trump said in apparent reference to combative rhetoric by the Iranian government about its ability to attack US interests:[8]

They can't do what they were saying they were going to do because if they do that, they will be met with really very violent force.


France, as the host of the 2019 G7 summit, held it at the Hôtel du Palais in Biarritz.[10]

Leaders at the summit[edit]

Attendees included leaders of the G7 member states plus representatives of the European Union. The President of the European Commission has been a permanent participant at all meetings since 1981, but current President Jean-Claude Juncker did not attend due to medical problems.[11] The President of the European Council has been the EU's co-representative since the 36th G8 summit hosted by Canada in 2010.

The 45th G7 summit was the first summit for British Prime Minister Boris Johnson and the last summit for European Council President Donald Tusk. It was also the final summit for Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, U.S. President Donald Trump, and Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, as the planned 46th G7 summit was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Abe handed over power to Yoshihide Suga on September 16, 2020; Trump handed over power to Joe Biden on January 20, 2021; and Conte handed over power to Mario Draghi on February 13, 2021.[12]

For this summit, Abe had prepared to discuss about the situation in Hong Kong, where China is imposing a new security law.[13]

Macron invited the Prime Minister of Australia Scott Morrison, the Prime Minister of Spain Pedro Sánchez, and the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi to attend the outreach session of the summit as special invitees.


Core G7 members
Host state and leader are shown in bold text.
Member Represented by Title
Canada Canada Justin Trudeau Prime Minister
France France Emmanuel Macron President
Germany Germany Angela Merkel Chancellor
Italy Italy Giuseppe Conte Prime Minister
Japan Japan Shinzō Abe Prime Minister
United Kingdom United Kingdom Boris Johnson Prime Minister
United States United States Donald Trump President
European Union European Union Donald Tusk Council President
Guest Represented by Title
Australia Australia Scott Morrison Prime Minister
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Roch Marc Christian Kaboré President
Chile Chile Sebastián Piñera President
Egypt Egypt Abdel Fattah el-Sisi President
India India Narendra Modi Prime Minister
Rwanda Rwanda Paul Kagame President
Senegal Senegal Macky Sall President
South Africa South Africa Cyril Ramaphosa President
Spain Spain Pedro Sánchez Acting President of the Government

Gallery of participating leaders[edit]

Invited guests[edit]

Presidents and Heads of government[edit]

The following leaders were invited to the Outreach Session of the G7 Summit.

Heads of international organisations[edit]


The Prime Ministers of Italy and Spain, Conte and Sanchez, took part in the summit as caretaker Prime Ministers. Juncker of the European Commission did not attend due to bad health.[11]

In a surprise move, Macron invited to attend on the margins Javad Zarif, who flew in on an Iranian government plane. Macron, who "attempted a high-risk diplomatic gambit", thought that the Foreign Minister of Iran might be able to defuse the tense situation over the Iranian nuclear programme in spite of the recent uptick in tensions between the Islamic Republic and the United States and Britain. A highly placed French political source said that[14]

It doesn’t mean that Mr Trump is actively supporting the talks, only that he is allowing them to happen. If there are advances, he can welcome them and perhaps share the credit. If nothing comes of it, he won’t have to disown it because it was a French initiative. If it does succeed in reducing tension, it will be a huge diplomatic coup for Mr Macron.


Working session, August 25

Topics discussed included global trade, global warming, and taxing technology companies.[15] Tusk said leaders at the summit should discuss the Iran nuclear deal, which was at risk due to the U.S. government's decision to pull out.[16]

On August 23, Macron urged the G7 to lead the summit discussions with the 2019 Amazon wildfires, which he described as an "international crisis". He said, "Our house is burning. Literally", adding that the Amazon rainforest produces 20% of the world's oxygen.[17] Trump offered to take the position of the Brazilian government to the meeting, and said that the US government did not agree to discuss the issue without Brazil's presence. The United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, Spain, and Chile also support Brazil.[18][19] During the meeting, it was reported that there were "sharp differences" among the participants.[20]

On a request from the Macron, François-Henri Pinault, Chairman and CEO of the luxury group Kering, presented the Fashion Pact during the summit, an initiative signed by 32 fashion firms committing to concrete measures to reduce their environmental impact. By 2020, 60 firms had joined the Fashion Pact.[21]

Protests and counter-summit[edit]

More than 13,000 police were required for security.[22][23] The French government wished to avoid anti-globalization movements. The protesters of the summit had several motivations, such as anti extractivism and anti-globalization. Protesters included human rights groups and climate change activists.[24][25]

A number of small French and Basque organizations joined to organize a "Contre G7" summit,[26][27] over the same days as the G7, in the south of the French Basque country.[28]


  1. ^ "France's action at the g20 and the G7". diplomatie.gouv.fr. Archived from the original on April 15, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2018. France will preside over the G7 in 2019
  2. ^ "Trump trade fury torpedoes Canada's G7 summit". France 24. June 9, 2018.
  3. ^ "Trump and Macron agree that Russia should be invited to next year's G7 conference, senior admin official says". CNN.
  4. ^ "US President Donald Trump says he believes China sincerely seeks a trade deal". South China Morning Post. 26 August 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d "News Analysis: G7 summit declaration cannot conceal deep U.S.-EU rift". xinhuanet. 27 August 2019. Archived from the original on August 27, 2019.
  6. ^ "Biarritz G7 summit non-binding declaration on Libya calls for truce, political solution and conference". Libya Herald. 27 August 2019.
  7. ^ "G7 leaders back HK autonomy, urge calm". rthk.hk. 27 August 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Trump open to talks with Iran but maintains possibility of using 'very violent force'". CBC. 26 August 2019.
  9. ^ "Here's Why Trump and Rouhani Have Little Incentive to Meet". Yahoo. Bloomberg. 27 August 2019.
  10. ^ Kettle, Martin (August 24, 2019). "How luxury hotels such as Biarritz's Hôtel du Palais have helped shape history" – via www.theguardian.com.
  11. ^ a b de La Baume, Maïa (19 August 2019). "Jean-Claude Juncker to miss G7 after emergency surgery". politico.eu.
  12. ^ Shalal, Andrea; Mason, Jeff (November 18, 2020). "Trump has made no plans to host G7 summit - diplomatic sources". Reuters.
  13. ^ Kim, Kyung (June 10, 2019). "Japan wants to take lead for G7 statement on Hong Kong: Abe". Reuters. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  14. ^ "Iranian foreign minister Javad Zarif arrives in Biarritz in surprise visit to G7 leaders summit". Telegraph Media Group Limited. 25 August 2019.
  15. ^ "Trump Arrives in Biarritz for Testing G7 Summit". August 24, 2019.
  16. ^ "G7 Summit to Be 'a Difficult Test of Unity': EU's Tusk". August 24, 2019.
  17. ^ Phillips, Tom; correspondent, Latin America (August 23, 2019). "Amazon rainforest fires: Macron calls for 'international crisis' to lead G7 discussions". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  18. ^ "Trump levará posição brasileira ao G7" (in Portuguese). O Globo. 23 August 2019.
  19. ^ "Bolsonaro conversa com premiê espanhol e primeiro-ministro do Japão" (in Portuguese). Estadão. 23 August 2019.
  20. ^ "Squabbles erupt as G7 leaders open summit in French resort". August 25, 2019 – via uk.reuters.com.
  21. ^ (14/10/2020) The Fashion Pact is uniting global companies and CEO's to transform the industry, Fashion United
  22. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (August 24, 2019). "Biarritz in lockdown as G7 summit descends on French resort" – via www.theguardian.com.
  23. ^ "Pour le sommet du G7 de Biarritz, 13 200 policiers et gendarmes mobilisés". August 20, 2019 – via Le Monde.
  24. ^ "who-s-protesting-at-the-g7-and-why". CBC.
  25. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (2019-08-25). "French climate activists protest as Macron attends G7 summit". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-08-25.
  26. ^ "Qui sommes nous". Archived from the original on 2019-08-28. Retrieved 2019-08-24.
  27. ^ "SARRERA".
  28. ^ "Page d'accueil". Archived from the original on 2019-08-24. Retrieved 2019-08-24.

External links[edit]