45th G7 summit
|45th G7 summit|
|Date||24–26 August 2019|
|Follows||44th G7 summit|
|Precedes||46th G7 summit|
The 45th G7 summit was held on 24–26 August 2019, in Biarritz, France. In March 2014, the G7 declared that a meaningful discussion was currently not possible with Russia in the context of the G8. Since then, meetings have continued within the G7 process. However, according to a senior Trump administration official, Donald Trump and Emmanuel Macron had agreed that Russia should be invited to the next G7 Summit to be held in 2020.
Five points were agreed at the issue of the summit, about:
- the World Trade Organization, "with regard to intellectual property protection, to settle disputes more swiftly and to eliminate unfair trade practices"
- the "G7 commits to reaching an agreement in 2020 to simplify regulatory barriers and modernize international taxation within the framework of the OECD"
- the G7 shares objectives on Iran: "to ensure that Iran never acquires nuclear weapons and to foster peace and stability in the region."
- on Libya: "We support a truce in Libya that will lead to a long-term ceasefire. We believe that only a political solution can ensure Libya’s stability. We call for a well-prepared international conference to bring together all the stakeholders and regional actors relevant to this conflict. We support in this regard the work of the United Nations and the African Union to set up an inter-Libyan conference."
- in an opaque reference to the Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present), "France and Germany will organize a Normandy format summit in the coming weeks to achieve tangible results."
- in light of the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests, "The G7 reaffirms the existence and the importance of the 1984 Sino-British agreement on Hong Kong and calls for avoiding violence."
Final press conference
In the final press conference, UK Prime Minister Johnson said "Iran should never be allowed to get a nuclear weapon", and US President Trump spoke about Iran in a joint news conference with French President Macron. Whereas the European powers sought to appease Iran, Trump said in apparent reference to combative rhetoric by the Iranian government about its ability to attack US interests:
They can't do what they were saying they were going to do because if they do that, they will be met with really very violent force.
Leaders at the summit
Attendees included leaders of the G7 member states plus representatives of the European Union. The President of the European Commission has been a permanently participant at all meetings since 1981, but current President Jean-Claude Juncker did not attend due to medical problems. The President of the European Council has been the EU's co-representative since the 36th G8 summit hosted by Canada in 2010.
The 45th G7 summit was the first summit for British Prime Minister Boris Johnson and the last summit for European Council President Donald Tusk. It was also the final summit for Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, U.S. President Donald Trump and Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, as the planned 46th G7 summit was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Abe handed over the power to Yoshihide Suga on September 16, 2020; Trump handed over the power to Joe Biden on January 20, 2021; and Conte handed over the power to Mario Draghi on February 13, 2021.
The President of France, Emmanuel Macron, invited the Prime Minister of Australia Scott Morrison, the Prime Minister of Spain Pedro Sánchez, and the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi to attend the outreach session of the summit as special invitees.
|Core G7 members|
Host state and leader are shown in bold text.
|Canada||Justin Trudeau||Prime Minister|
|Italy||Giuseppe Conte||Prime Minister|
|Japan||Shinzō Abe||Prime Minister|
|United Kingdom||Boris Johnson||Prime Minister|
|United States||Donald Trump||President|
|European Union||Donald Tusk||Council President|
|Guest Invitees (Countries)|
|Australia||Scott Morrison||Prime Minister|
|Burkina Faso||Roch Marc Christian Kaboré||President|
|Egypt||Abdel Fattah el-Sisi||President|
|India||Narendra Modi||Prime Minister|
|South Africa||Cyril Ramaphosa||President|
|Spain||Pedro Sánchez||Acting President of the Government|
Gallery of participating leaders
Presidents and Heads of government
The following leaders were invited to the Outreach Session of the G7 Summit.
Heads of international organisations
The Prime Ministers of Italy and Spain, Conte and Sanchez, are taking part in the summit as caretaker Prime Ministers. Jean-Claude Juncker of the European Commission did not attend due to bad health.
In a surprise move, Emmanuel Macron invited to attend on the margins Javad Zarif, who flew in on an Iranian government plane. Macron, who "attempted a high-risk diplomatic gambit", thought that the Foreign Minister of Iran might be able to defuse the tense situation over the Iranian nuclear programme in spite of the recent uptick in tensions between the Islamic Republic and the United States and Britain. A highly placed French political source said that
It doesn’t mean that Mr Trump is actively supporting the talks, only that he is allowing them to happen. If there are advances, he can welcome them and perhaps share the credit. If nothing comes of it, he won’t have to disown it because it was a French initiative. If it does succeed in reducing tension, it will be a huge diplomatic coup for Mr Macron.
Topics discussed included global trade, global warming, and taxing technology companies. European Council President Donald Tusk said leaders at the summit should discuss the Iran nuclear deal, which was at risk due to the U.S. government's decision to pull out.
On August 23, President Emmanuel Macron urged the G7 to lead the summit discussions with the 2019 Amazon wildfires, which he described as an "international crisis". He said, "Our house is burning. Literally.", adding that the Amazon rainforest produces 20% of the world's oxygen. U.S. President Donald Trump offered to take the position of the Brazilian government to the meeting, and said that the U.S. government did not agree to discuss the issue without Brazil's presence. The United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, Spain and Chile also support Brazil. During the meeting, it was reported that there were "sharp differences" among the participants.
On a request from the President Emmanuel Macron, François-Henri Pinault, Chairman and CEO of the luxury group Kering, presented the Fashion Pact during the summit, an initiative signed by 32 fashion firms committing to concrete measures to reduce their environmental impact. By 2020, 60 firms had joined the Fashion Pact.
Protests and counter-summit
This section is missing information about the resulting riots where police were forced to use tear gas and water cannons according to Reuters..(July 2020)
More than 13000 policemen are required for security. The French government wishes to avoid anti-globalization movements. The protesters of the Summit had several motivations, such as anti extractivism and anti-globalization. Protesters included human rights groups and climate change activists.
- "France's action at the g20 and the G7". diplomatie.gouv.fr. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
France will preside over the G7 in 2019
- "Trump trade fury torpedoes Canada's G7 summit". France 24. June 9, 2018.
- CNN. "Trump and Macron agree that Russia should be invited to next year's G7 conference, senior admin official says". CNN.
- "US President Donald Trump says he believes China sincerely seeks a trade deal". South China Morning Post. 26 August 2019.
- "News Analysis: G7 summit declaration cannot conceal deep U.S.-EU rift". xinhuanet. 27 August 2019.
- "Biarritz G7 summit non-binding declaration on Libya calls for truce, political solution and conference". Libya Herald. 27 August 2019.
- "G7 leaders back HK autonomy, urge calm". rthk.hk. 27 August 2019.
- "Trump open to talks with Iran but maintains possibility of using 'very violent force'". CBC. 26 August 2019.
- "Here's Why Trump and Rouhani Have Little Incentive to Meet". Yahoo. Bloomberg. 27 August 2019.
- Kettle, Martin (August 24, 2019). "How luxury hotels such as Biarritz's Hôtel du Palais have helped shape history" – via www.theguardian.com.
- de La Baume, Maïa (19 August 2019). "Jean-Claude Juncker to miss G7 after emergency surgery". politico.eu.
- Shalal, Andrea; Mason, Jeff (November 18, 2020). "Trump has made no plans to host G7 summit - diplomatic sources". Reuters.
- Kim, Kyung (June 10, 2019). "Japan wants to take lead for G7 statement on Hong Kong: Abe". Reuters. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
- "Iranian foreign minister Javad Zarif arrives in Biarritz in surprise visit to G7 leaders summit". Telegraph Media Group Limited. 25 August 2019.
- "Trump Arrives in Biarritz for Testing G7 Summit". August 24, 2019.
- "G7 Summit to Be 'a Difficult Test of Unity': EU's Tusk". August 24, 2019.
- Phillips, Tom; correspondent, Latin America (August 23, 2019). "Amazon rainforest fires: Macron calls for 'international crisis' to lead G7 discussions". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
- "Trump levará posição brasileira ao G7" (in Portuguese). O Globo. 23 August 2019.
- "Bolsonaro conversa com premiê espanhol e primeiro-ministro do Japão" (in Portuguese). Estadão. 23 August 2019.
- "Squabbles erupt as G7 leaders open summit in French resort". August 25, 2019 – via uk.reuters.com.
- (14/10/2020) The Fashion Pact is uniting global companies and CEO's to transform the industry, Fashion United
- Chrisafis, Angelique (August 24, 2019). "Biarritz in lockdown as G7 summit descends on French resort" – via www.theguardian.com.
- "Pour le sommet du G7 de Biarritz, 13 200 policiers et gendarmes mobilisés". August 20, 2019 – via Le Monde.
- "who-s-protesting-at-the-g7-and-why". CBC.
- Chrisafis, Angelique (2019-08-25). "French climate activists protest as Macron attends G7 summit". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-08-25.
- "Qui sommes nous".
- "Page d'accueil". Archived from the original on 2019-08-24. Retrieved 2019-08-24.
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