470 (dinghy)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
470
470 blue.svg
Class symbol
470 dinghy.svg
Development
DesignerAndré Cornu
Year1963
Boat
Crew2 (single trapeze)
Draft150 mm (5.9 in)
970 mm (3 ft 2 in)
Hull
Hull weight120 kg (260 lb)
LOA4,700 mm (15 ft 5 in)
LWL4,400 mm (14 ft 5 in)
Beam1,690 mm (5 ft 7 in)
Sails
Mainsail area9.12 m2 (98.2 sq ft)
Jib/genoa area3.58 m2 (38.5 sq ft)
Spinnaker area13 m2 (140 sq ft)
Racing
D-PN86.3
RYA PN973
Current Olympic equipment

The 470 (Four-Seventy) is a double-handed monohull planing dinghy with a centreboard, Bermuda rig, and centre sheeting. Equipped with a spinnaker, trapeze and a large sail-area-to-weight ratio, it is designed to plane easily, and good teamwork necessary to sail it well. The name comes from the overall length of the boat in centimetres (i.e., the boat is 4.70 metres long).

The 470 is a popular class with both individuals and sailing schools, offering a good introduction to high-performance boats without being excessively difficult to handle, but it is not a boat designed for beginners. Its smaller sister, the 420, is a stepping stone to the 470.

The 470 is a World Sailing International Class and has been an Olympic class since the 1976 games.

History[edit]

The 470 was designed in 1963 by the Frenchman André Cornu as a modern fibreglass planing dinghy to appeal to sailors of different sizes and ages. This formula succeeded, and the boat spread around the world. In 1969, the class was given international status and it has been an Olympic class since 1976. In 1988, the first Olympic women's sailing event used the 470.

Races[edit]

470 al via.jpg

World and Continental Championships are organised every year with separate starts for women and men/mixed teams. There is also a World Championship for juniors and a Master World Championship. The 470 is used in regional championships such as the Asian, Mediterranean, and PanAm Games. Entries are limited in important international races, encouraging more competition by requiring qualifying races in most countries.

2008 470 World Champions Erin Maxwell and Isabelle Kinsolving sailing upwind.

In the World Championships more than 30 countries have been represented. There are 65 member nations in the International Class Association and more than 40,000 boats have been built in 20 countries.

The 470 may be raced in a mixed fleet of boats, its performance being adjusted by the Portsmouth Yardstick handicapping scheme. In the RYA-administered scheme, the 470 has a Portsmouth number of 973.[1] In the US Sailing-administered scheme, it has a D-PN of 86.3.[2]

Construction[edit]

The 470 is a strict one-design class, and its builder must be approved a Licensed Builder by World Sailing. The class design may evolve, but its intent is to use proven, economical, and environmentally sound materials, currently fibreglass with integral buoyancy tanks for the hull.[3]

The 470 dinghy is 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) long with a 6.76 m (22 ft 2 in) mast. Its weight without sails is 120 kg (264 lb 9 oz).[4] Additional specifications are shown in the sidebar above right.

While the hull speed is just 5.1 knots, the 470 readily planes at much higher speeds.[citation needed]

Events[edit]

Olympics[edit]

At the Olympic Games, the 470 Class was initially an open class, but since the 1988 games there have been separate events for men and women. Since 2008 each consists of a 10-race series, with teams being awarded points on a point-per-place system, and each team's worst result being discarded. The top 10 boats qualify for the medal race, in which double points are awarded.

Men[edit]

Games
Gold Silver Bronze
1976 Montreal
details
 West Germany (FRG)
Frank Hübner
Harro Bode
 Spain (ESP)
Antonio Gorostegui
Pedro Millet
 Australia (AUS)
Ian Brown
Ian Ruff
1980 Moscow
details
 Brazil (BRA)
Marcos Soares
Eduardo Penido
 East Germany (GDR)
Jorn Borowski
Egbert Swensson
 Finland (FIN)
Jouko Lindgrén
Georg Tallberg
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Spain (ESP)
Luis Doreste
Roberto Molina
 United States (USA)
Steve Benjamin
Chris Steinfeld
 France (FRA)
Thierry Peponnet
Luc Pillot
1988 Seoul
details
 France (FRA)
Thierry Peponnet
Luc Pillot
 Soviet Union (URS)
Tõnu Tõniste
Toomas Tõniste
 United States (USA)
John Shadden
Charles McKee
1992 Barcelona
details
 Spain (ESP)
Jordi Calafat
Francisco Sanchez
 United States (USA)
Morgan Reeser
Kevin Burnham
 Estonia (EST)
Tõnu Tõniste
Toomas Tõniste
1996 Atlanta
details
 Ukraine (UKR)
Yevhen Braslavets
Ihor Matviyenko
 Great Britain (GBR)
John Merricks
Ian Walker
 Portugal (POR)
Victor Rocha
Nuno Barreto
2000 Sydney
details
 Australia (AUS)
Tom King
Mark Turnbull
 United States (USA)
Paul Foerster
Robert Merrick
 Argentina (ARG)
Javier Conte
Juan de la Fuente
2004 Athens
details
 United States (USA)
Paul Foerster
Kevin Burnham
 Great Britain (GBR)
Nick Rogers
Joe Glanfield
 Japan (JPN)
Kazuto Seki
Kenjiro Todoroki
2008 Beijing
details
 Australia (AUS)
Nathan Wilmot
Malcolm Page
 Great Britain (GBR)
Nick Rogers
Joe Glanfield
 France (FRA)
Nicolas Charbonnier
Olivier Bausset
2012 London
details
 Australia (AUS)
Mathew Belcher
Malcolm Page
 Great Britain (GBR)
Luke Patience
Stuart Bithell
 Argentina (ARG)
Lucas Calabrese
Juan de la Fuente
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
 Croatia (CRO)
Šime Fantela
Igor Marenić
 Australia (AUS)
Mathew Belcher
William Ryan
 Greece (GRE)
Panagiotis Mantis
Pavlos Kagialis

Women[edit]

Games
Gold Silver Bronze
1988 Seoul
details
 United States (USA)
Allison Jolly
Lynne Jewell
 Sweden (SWE)
Marit Söderström
Birgitta Bengtsson
 Soviet Union (URS)
Larisa Moskalenko
Iryna Chunykhovska
1992 Barcelona
details
 Spain (ESP)
Theresa Zabell
Patricia Guerra
 New Zealand (NZL)
Leslie Egnot
Jan Shearer
 United States (USA)
Jennifer Isler
Pamela Healy
1996 Atlanta
details
 Spain (ESP)
Theresa Zabell
Begoña Vía-Dufresne
 Japan (JPN)
Yumiko Shige
Alicia Kinoshita
 Ukraine (UKR)
Ruslana Taran
Olena Pakholchik
2000 Sydney
details
 Australia (AUS)
Jenny Armstrong
Belinda Stowell
 United States (USA)
J. J. Isler
Sarah Glaser
 Ukraine (UKR)
Ruslana Taran
Olena Pakholchik
2004 Athens
details
 Greece (GRE)
Sofia Bekatorou
Aimilia Tsoulfa
 Spain (ESP)
Sandra Azón
Natalia Vía Dufresne
 Sweden (SWE)
Therese Torgersson
Vendela Zachrisson
2008 Beijing
details
 Australia (AUS)
Elise Rechichi
Tessa Parkinson
 Netherlands (NED)
Marcelien de Koning
Lobke Berkhout
 Brazil (BRA)
Fernanda Oliveira
Isabel Swan
2012 London
details
 New Zealand (NZL)
Jo Aleh
Polly Powrie
 Great Britain (GBR)
Hannah Mills
Saskia Clark
 Netherlands (NED)
Lisa Westerhof
Lobke Berkhout
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
 Great Britain (GBR)
Hannah Mills
Saskia Clark
 New Zealand (NZL)
Jo Aleh
Polly Powrie
 France (FRA)
Camille Lecointre
Hélène Defrance

470 World Championships[edit]

Open[edit]

Year
Gold Silver Bronze
1970 Lake Lacanau  France
Yves Carré
Hervé Carré
 France
Philippe Follenfant
Hubert Follenfant
 France
Didier Poisson
Denis Londeix
1971 Ostende  Netherlands
Tom van Essen
Wouter van Essen
 France
Philippe Follenfant
Hubert Follenfant
 France
Bruno Demartial
Bernard Demartial
1972 Montreal  Netherlands
Sjoerd Vollebregt
Erik Vollebregt
 France
Philippe Follenfant
Hubert Follenfant
 Netherlands
Tom van Essen
Wouter van Essen
1973 Kiel  Denmark
Henrik Söderlund
Age Börresen
 United States
Peter Commette
Michael Loeb
 Netherlands
Joop van Werkhoven
Robert van Werkhoven
1974 Naples  Spain
Antonio Gorostegui
Manuel Albalat
 France
Philippe Lecrit
Dominique Duvallet
 Spain
Juan Santana
Francisco Colom
1975 New York  France
Marc Laurent
Roger Surmin
 France
Philippe Follenfant
Hubert Follenfant
 France
Jean-François Fountaine
Claire Fountaine
1976 not held
1977 Shizuoka  United States
David Ullman
Tom Linskey
 Japan
Katsunori Komatsu
Yasuyuki Hakomori
 New Zealand
Mark Paterson
David Mackay
1978 Marstrand  United States
David Ullman
Tom Linskey
 Canada
Gerry Roufs
Charles Robitaille
 West Germany
John Pudenz
Ulrich Kittmann
1979 Medemblik  Japan
Miyuki Kay
Ryo Komiya
 France
Laurent Delage
Hervé Wattine
 France
Stéphane Richer
Philippe Claude
1980 Porto Alegre  United States
David Ullman
Tom Linskey
 France
Laurent Delage
Hervé Wattine
 France
Stéphane Richer
Philippe Claude
1981 Quiberon  New Zealand
David Barnes
Hamish Willcox
 United States
Steve Benjamin
Chris Steinfeld
 Italy
Tommaso Chieffi
Enrico Chieffi
1982 Cascais  East Germany
Jörn Borowski
Eckbert Swensson
 France
Daniel Peponnet
Pascal Champaloux
 New Zealand
David Barnes
Hamish Willcox
1983 Weymouth  New Zealand
David Barnes
Hamish Willcox
 West Germany
Wolfgang Hunger
Jochen Hunger
 Israel
Shimshon Brokman
Eitan Friedlander
1984 Auckland  New Zealand
David Barnes
Hamish Willcox
 New Zealand
Chris Dickson
Joe Allen
 New Zealand
Peter Evans
Sean Reeves

Men and Mixed[edit]

Year
Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Marina di Carrara  Italy
Tommaso Chieffi
Enrico Chieffi
 France
Thierry Peponnet
Luc Pillot
 East Germany
Jörn Borowski
Mathias Gall
1986 Salou  France
Thierry Peponnet
Luc Pillot
 West Germany
Wolfgang Hunger
Jochen Hunger
 West Germany
Ludger Hüttermann
Nils Körte
1987 Kiel  East Germany
Bernd Hoeft
Falko Bier
 Italy
Pietro d'Ali
Giuseppe Cojana
 East Germany
Jürgen Brietzke
Ekkehard Schulz
1988 Haifa  Great Britain
Nigel Buckley
Peter Newlands
 Italy
Sandro Montefusco
Paolo Montefusco
 United States
John Shadden
Charlie Mckee
1989 Tsu City  Japan
Tomoaki Tsutsumi
Nobuhiro Tsutsumi
 Spain
Jordi Calafat
Kiko Sánchez
 Japan
Kenji Nakamura
Masayuki Takahashi
1990 Medemblik  West Germany
Wolfgang Hunger
Rolf Schmidt
 Spain
Jordi Calafat
Kiko Sánchez
 France
Olivier Ponthieu
Gilles Espinasse
1991 Brisbane  Germany
Wolfgang Hunger
Rolf Schmidt
 Netherlands
Lankhorst Taselaar
Ben Kouwenhoven
 Great Britain
Paul Brotherton
Andy Hemmings
1992 Rota  Spain
Jordi Calafat
Kiko Sánchez
 Italy
Matteo Ivaldi
Michele Ivaldi
 Finland
Perti Leskinen
Mika Aarnikka
1993 Crozon-Morgat  Spain
Jordi Calafat
Kiko Sánchez
 France
Jean-François Berthet
Gwenael Berthet
 Israel
Shai Bachar
Erez Shemesh
1994 Helsinki  Netherlands
Ben Kouwenhoven
Jan Kouwenhoven
 Japan
Kenji Nakamura
Masato Takaki
 Sweden
Markus Westerlind
Henrik Wallin
1995 Toronto  Greece
Andreas Kosmatopoulos
Costas Trigonis
 Italy
Matteo Ivaldi
Michelle Ivaldi
 Israel
Ran Shental
Nir Shental
1996 Porto Alegre  Netherlands
Ben Kouwenhoven
Jan Kouwenhoven
 Great Britain
John Merricks
Ian Walker
 Japan
Kenji Nakamura
Masato Takaki
1997 Tel Aviv  Finland
Petri Leskinen
Kristian Heinila
 Portugal
Hugo Rocha
Nuno Barreto
 Sweden
Marcus Westerlind
Henrik Wallin
1998 Mallorca  France
Gildas Philippe
Tanguy Cariou
 Slovenia
Tomaz Copi
Mitja Margon
 Sweden
Johan Molund
Mattias Rahm
1999 Melbourne  France
Benoit Petit
Jean-Francois Cuzon
 Sweden
Johan Molund
Mattias Rahm
 Poland
Tomasz Stanczyk
Tomasz Jakubiak
2000 Lake Balaton  Australia
Tom King
Mark Turnbull
 France
Gildas Philippe
Tanguy Cariou
 Ukraine
Yevhen Braslavets
Ihor Matviyenko
2001 Koper  Ukraine
Yevhen Braslavets
Ihor Matviyenko
 Great Britain
Nick Rogers
Joe Glanfield
 Australia
Nathan Wilmot
Malcolm Page
2002 Cagliari  New Zealand
Simon Cooke
Peter Nicholas
 Greece
Andreas Kosmatopoulos
Konstantinos Trigonis
 Spain
Gustavo Martínez
Tunte Cantero

Men[edit]

Year
Gold Silver Bronze
2003 Cádiz
details
 Italy
Gabrio Zandonà
Andrea Trani
 Australia
Nathan Wilmot
Malcolm Page
 Spain
Gustavo Martínez
Dimas Wood
2004 Zadar  Australia
Nathan Wilmot
Malcolm Page
 Sweden
Johan Molund
Martin Andersson
 Great Britain
Nick Rogers
Jonathan Glanfield
2005 San Francisco  Australia
Nathan Wilmot
Malcolm Page
 Great Britain
Nick Rogers
Jonathan Glanfield
 France
Gildas Philippe
Nicolas Leberre
2006 Rizhao  Great Britain
Nic Asher
Elliot Willis
 Australia
Nathan Wilmot
Malcolm Page
 Israel
Gideon Kliger
Udi Gal
2007 Cascais
details
 Australia
Nathan Wilmot
Malcolm Page
 Netherlands
Sven Coster
Kalle Coster
 Israel
Gideon Kliger
Udi Gal
2008 Mordialloc  Great Britain
Nic Asher
Elliot Willis
 Portugal
Álvaro Marinho
Miguel Nunes
 Israel
Gideon Kliger
Udi Gal
2009 Copenhagen  Croatia
Šime Fantela
Igor Marenić
 Great Britain
Luke Patience
Stuart Bithell
 Japan
Ryunosuke Harada
Yugo Yoshida
2010 Hague  Australia
Mathew Belcher
Malcolm Page
 France
Nicolas Charbonnier
Baptiste Meyer
 Croatia
Šime Fantela
Igor Marenić
2011 Perth
details
 Australia
Mathew Belcher
Malcolm Page
 Great Britain
Luke Patience
Stuart Bithell
 Croatia
Šime Fantela
Igor Marenić
2012 Barcelona  Australia
Mathew Belcher
Malcolm Page
 France
Pierre Leboucher
Vincent Garos
 Croatia
Šime Fantela
Igor Marenić
2013 La Rochelle  Australia
Mathew Belcher
Will Ryan
 France
Pierre Leboucher
Nicolas le Berre
 Greece
Panagiotis Mantis
Pavlos Kagialis
2014 Santander
details
 Australia
Mathew Belcher
Will Ryan
 Croatia
Šime Fantela
Igor Marenić
 Greece
Panagiotis Mantis
Pavlos Kagialis
2015 Haifa  Australia
Mathew Belcher
Will Ryan
 Croatia
Šime Fantela
Igor Marenić
 Russia
Pavel Sozykin
Denis Gribanov
2016 San Isidro[5]  Croatia
Šime Fantela
Igor Marenić
 New Zealand
Paul Snow-Hansen
Daniel Willcox
 Australia
Mathew Belcher
Will Ryan
 France
Sofian Bouvet
Jérémie Mion
2017 Thessaloniki[6]
details
 Australia
Mathew Belcher
Will Ryan
 Sweden
Anton Dahlberg
Fredrik Bergström
 Austria
David Bargher
Lukas Mähr
2018 Aarhus[7]
details
 France
Kevin Peponnet
Jérémie Mion
 Japan
Tetsuya Isozaki
Akira Takayanagi
 Spain
Jordi Xammar
Nicolás Rodríguez

Women[edit]

Year
Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Marina di Carrara  Canada
Karen Johnson
Katrin Johnson
 Netherlands
Tonny Vooren
Henneke Stavenuiter
 Italy
Paola Porta
Anna Barabino
1986 not held to avoid conflict with the IYRU Women's World Championship
1987 Kiel  West Germany
Susanne Meyer
Katrin Adlkofer
 United States
Pease Herndon
Cindy Goff
 East Germany
Susanne Theel
Silke Preuá
1988 Haifa  Sweden
Marit Söderström
Birgitta Bengtsson
 United States
Lisa Niece
Patricia Raymond
 United States
J. J. Isler
Amy Wardell
1989 Tsu City  West Germany
Susanne Meyer
Katrin Adlkofer
 New Zealand
Leslie Egnot
Jan Shearer
 Great Britain
S. Rees Jones
S. Hay
1990 Medemblik  West Germany
Tanja Stemmler
Sabine Lenkmann
 East Germany
Peggy Hardwiger
Christiana Pinnow
 Spain
Núria Bover
Irene Martín
1991 Brisbane  United States
J. J. Isler
Pamela Healy
 Soviet Union
Larisa Moskalenko
Olena Pakholchyk
 Germany
Susanne Peters
Wibke Bulle
1992 Rota  Spain
Theresa Zabell
Patricia Guerra
 Japan
Yumiko Shige
Alicia Kinoshita
 Italy
Maria Quarra
Anna Barabino
1993 Crozon-Morgat  Germany
Ines Bohn
Sabine Rohatzsch
 Spain
Theresa Zabell
Patricia Guerra
 Italy
Frederica Salva
Emenuela Sossi
1994 Helsinki  Germany
Ines Bohn
Sabine Rohatzsch
 Germany
Susanne Bauckholt
Katrin Adlkofer
 Germany
Peggy Hardwiger
Christina Pinnow
1995 Toronto  Spain
Theresa Zabell
Begoña Vía-Dufresne
 Ukraine
Ruslana Taran
Olena Pakholchyk
 Japan
Yumiko Shige
Alicia Konoshita
1996 Porto Alegre  Spain
Theresa Zabell
Begoña Vía-Dufresne
 Germany
Susanne Bauckholt
Katrin Adlkofer
 Germany
Nicola Birkner
Wibke Bülle
1997 Tel Aviv  Ukraine
Ruslana Taran
Olena Pakholchyk
 Germany
Nicola Birkner
Wibke Bülle
 Ukraine
Vlada Krachun
Natalia Gaponovitsch
1998 Mallorca  Ukraine
Ruslana Taran
Olena Pakholchyk
 Denmark
Susanne Ward
Michaela Ward
 Germany
Nicola Birkner
Wibke Bülle
1999 Melbourne  Ukraine
Ruslana Taran
Olena Pakholchyk
 Denmark
Susanne Ward
Michaela Ward
 Italy
Federica Salva
Emanuela Sossi
2000 Lake Balaton  Greece
Sofia Bekatorou
Emilia Tsoulfa
 Australia
Jenny Armstrong
Belinda Stowell
 Spain
Natalia Vía Dufresne
Sandra Azón
2001 Koper  Greece
Sofia Bekatorou
Emilia Tsoulfa
 Australia
Jenny Armstrong
Belinda Stowell
 Spain
Natalia Vía Dufresne
Sandra Azón
2002 Cagliari  Greece
Sofia Bekatorou
Emilia Tsoulfa
 Netherlands
Lisa Westerhof
Margriet Matthijsse
 France
Ingrid Petitjean
Nadège Douroux
2003 Cádiz
details
 Greece
Sofia Bekatorou
Emilia Tsoulfa
 France
Ingrid Petitjean
Nadège Douroux
 Russia
Wlada Iljenko
Natalia Gaponovitsch
2004 Zadar  Sweden
Therese Torgersson
Vendela Zachrisson
 Slovenia
Vesna Dekleva
Klara Maučec
 Israel
Nike Kornecki
Vered Buskila
2005 San Francisco  Netherlands
Marcelien de Koning
Lobke Berkhout
 Great Britain
Christina Bassadone
Saskia Clark
 France
Ingrid Petitjean
Nadège Douroux
2006 Rizhao  Netherlands
Marcelien de Koning
Lobke Berkhout
 Japan
Ai Kondo
Naoko Kamata
 Sweden
Therese Torgersson
Vendela Zachrisson
2007 Cascais
details
 Netherlands
Marcelien de Koning
Lobke Berkhout
 France
Ingrid Petitjean
Nadège Douroux
 Great Britain
Christina Bassadone
Saskia Clark
2008 Mordialloc  United States
Erin Maxwell
Isabelle Kinsolving
 Italy
Giulia Conti
Giovanna Micol
 Australia
Elise Rechichi
Tessa Parkinson
2009 Copenhagen  Netherlands
Lisa Westerhof
Lobke Berkhout
 Spain
Tara Pacheco
Berta Betanzos
 France
Ingrid Petitjean
Nadège Douroux
2010 Hague  Netherlands
Lisa Westerhof
Lobke Berkhout
 New Zealand
Jo Aleh
Polly Powrie
 Italy
Giulia Conti
Giovanna Micol
2011 Perth
details
 Spain
Tara Pacheco
Berta Betanzos
 Great Britain
Hannah Mills
Saskia Clark
 New Zealand
Jo Aleh
Polly Powrie
2012 Barcelona  Great Britain
Hannah Mills
Saskia Clark
 France
Camille Lecointre
Mathilde Géron
 Netherlands
Lisa Westerhof
Lobke Berkhout
2013 La Rochelle  New Zealand
Jo Aleh
Polly Powrie
 Austria
Lara Vadlau
Jolanta Ogar
 China
Xiaoli Wang
Huang Xufeng
2014 Santander
details
 Austria
Lara Vadlau
Jolanta Ogar
 New Zealand
Jo Aleh
Polly Powrie
 Great Britain
Hannah Mills
Saskia Clark
2015 Haifa  Austria
Lara Vadlau
Jolanta Ogar
 Great Britain
Hannah Mills
Saskia Clark
 France
Camille Lecointre
Hélène Defrance
2016 San Isidro[8]  France
Camille Lecointre
Hélène Defrance
 New Zealand
Jo Aleh
Polly Powrie
 Austria
Lara Vadlau
Jolanta Ogar
2017 Thessaloniki[6]
details
 Poland
Agnieszka Skrzypulec
Irmina Mróz-Gliszczyńska
 Great Britain
Hannah Mills
Eilidh McIntyre
 Slovenia
Tina Mrak
Veronika Macarol
2018 Aarhus[9]
details
 Japan
Ai Kondo
Miho Yoshioka
 Spain
Silvia Mas
Patricia Cantero
 Great Britain
Hannah Mills
Eilidh McIntyre

470 World Junior Championships[edit]

Men[edit]

Year
Gold Silver Bronze
2016 Kiel[10]  Japan
Keiju Okada
Naoya Kimura
 Spain
David Charles
Alex Charles
 Japan
Daichi Takayama
Akira Takayanagi

Women[edit]

Year
Gold Silver Bronze
2016 Kiel[11]  Spain
Silvia Mas Depares
Paula Barcelo Martin
 France
Marina Lefort
Lara Granier
 Germany
Maria Bozi
Rafailina Klonaridou

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "RYA Portsmouth Yardstick List 2010" (PDF). Royal Yachting Association. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  2. ^ "Centerboard Classes". US Sailing. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  3. ^ 470 Class Rules, available at "www.470.org". Retrieved Aug 20, 2016.
  4. ^ "About the 470". Retrieved Aug 20, 2016.
  5. ^ http://www.470.org/ckfinder/userfiles/files/2016WC-470Men.pdf
  6. ^ a b "2017 470 World Championship". 2017 470 World Championship.
  7. ^ "2018 470 World Championship". manage2sail.com.
  8. ^ http://www.470.org/ckfinder/userfiles/files/2016WC-470Women.pdf
  9. ^ "2018 470 World Championship". manage2sail.com.
  10. ^ http://www.manage2sail.com/en-US/event/3d6e4588-3363-4d3d-afad-8e656da38cba#!/results?classId=b5e72695-9737-47e1-a23a-7f312a4ab2c9
  11. ^ http://www.manage2sail.com/en-US/event/3d6e4588-3363-4d3d-afad-8e656da38cba#!/results?classId=da2ac523-efc4-4ad4-b123-32a7020c923a

External links[edit]