478 Tergeste

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478 Tergeste
Discovery [1]
Discovered by L. Carnera
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 21 September 1901
MPC designation 478 Tergeste
Named after
Trieste (Italian city)[2]
1901 GU · 1948 RU1
main-belt · (outer)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 31 July 2016 (JD 2457600.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 114.73 yr (41,906 days)
Aphelion 3.2700 AU
Perihelion 2.7655 AU
3.0177 AU
Eccentricity 0.0836
5.24 yr (1,915 days)
0° 11m 16.8s / day
Inclination 13.181°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 77.252±1.447 km[4]
77.714 km[5]
77.71 km (taken)[3]
79.46±1.5 km (IRAS:21)[6]
85.59±1.03 km[7]
15±5 h[8]
16.104±0.001 h[9]
16.105±0.001 h[10]
0.1798±0.007 (IRAS:21)[6]
B–V = 0.850[1]
U–B = 0.445[1]
S (Tholen)[1]
L (SMASS)[1] · L[3]

478 Tergeste, provisional designation 1901 GU, is a rare-type stony asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt, approximately 78 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 21 September 1901, by Italian astronomer Luigi Carnera at Heidelberg Observatory in southern Germany.[12]

This stony asteroid belongs to the small group of 41 bodies classified as rare L-types in the SMASS taxonomy.[13] The asteroid orbits the Sun at a distance of 2.8–3.3 AU once every 5 years and 3 months (1,915 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.08 and an inclination of 13° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body's observation arc begins with its first used observation 2 days after its official discovery date.[12]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, the asteroid measures between 77.3 and 85.6 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.155 and 0.191.[4][5][6][7] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link agrees with the revised WISE results and takes an albedo of 0.1914, an absolute magnitude of 7.96 and a diameter of 77.1 kilometers.[3][5]

In July 2005, a rotational light-curve for this asteroid was obtained by several photometrists including Laurent Bernasconi, Reiner Stoss, Petra Korlević and Raoul Behrend. The light-curve gave a rotation period of 16.104±0.001 hours with a brightness variation of 0.23 in magnitude (U=2+),[9] superseding a period of 15±5 hours from the 1980s (U=n/a).[8] In January 2013, another light-curve was obtained during a photometric survey by predominantly Polish and Japanese observatories. It gave a similar period of 16.105±0.001 hours with an amplitude of 0.30 magnitude (U=n/a).[10]

The minor planet is named for the northeastern Italian city of Trieste (also known by its pre-Roman name "Tergeste"). It is the birth place of the discoverer,[2] who also worked there as director of the Trieste Observatory for many years.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 478 Tergeste (1901 GU)" (2016-06-16 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (478) Tergeste. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 53. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (478) Tergeste". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407free to read. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Pravec, Petr; Harris, Alan W.; Kusnirák, Peter; Galád, Adrián; Hornoch, Kamil (September 2012). "Absolute magnitudes of asteroids and a revision of asteroid albedo estimates from WISE thermal observations" (PDF). Icarus. 221 (1): 365–387. Bibcode:2012Icar..221..365P. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2012.07.026. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey" (PDF). Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c Harris, A. W.; Young, J. W. (October 1989). "Asteroid lightcurve observations from 1979-1981". Icarus: 314–364. Bibcode:1989Icar...81..314H. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(89)90056-0. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (478) Tergeste". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  10. ^ a b Marciniak, A.; Pilcher, F.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Santana-Ros, T.; Urakawa, S.; Fauvaud, S.; et al. (December 2015). "Against the biases in spins and shapes of asteroids". Planetary and Space Science. 118: 256–266. Bibcode:2015P&SS..118..256M. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2015.06.002. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  11. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762free to read. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  12. ^ a b "478 Tergeste (1901 GU)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  13. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Search Engine: "spectral type = D (SMASSII)"". JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 

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