485 series

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485 series
JNR-485-Hitachi.jpg
An original "bonnet-style" 485 series train on a Joban Line Hitachi service in August 1998
In service 1964–present
Manufacturer Hitachi, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kinki Sharyo, Kisha Seizo, Nippon Sharyo, Tokyu Car Corporation
Constructed 1964–1987
Refurbishment 1999–2006
Scrapped 1985 (481 series)
Operator(s) JNR (1964–1987)
JR East (1987–present)
JR West (1987–2011)
JR Kyushu (1987–2015)
Line(s) served Various
Specifications
Car body construction Steel
Car length 20 m (65 ft 7 in)
Maximum speed 120 km/h (Normal)
130 km/h (Kosei Line)
140 km/h (Tsugaru-Kaikyō Line)
Traction system Resistor control
Electric system(s)
  • 1,500 V DC / 20 kV AC (60 Hz) (481 series)
  • 1,500 V DC / 20 kV AC (50 Hz) (483 series)
  • 1,500 V DC / 20 kV AC (50 Hz/60 Hz) (485 series)
Current collection method overhead catenary
Bogies DT32, TR69
Braking system(s) Dynamic brake, electro-pneumatic brake
Safety system(s) ATS-S, ATS-P, ATC (485-3000 series only), Tobu ATS (Nikkō set only)
Track gauge 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)

The 485 series (485系?) (and the earlier 481 and 483 series variants) is a Japanese limited express electric multiple unit (EMU) type introduced in 1964 by Japanese National Railways (JNR), and subsequently operated by the East Japan Railway Company (JR East), West Japan Railway Company (JR West), and Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu). Approximately 1,500 vehicles were built,[1] although by April 2016, JR East is the only operator still using this type.

Variants[edit]

  • 481 series: Dual-voltage (1,500 V DC / 20 kV AC (60 Hz), introduced 1964
  • 483 series: Dual-voltage (1,500 V DC / 20 kV AC (50 Hz), introduced 1965
  • 483 series: Dual-voltage (1,500 V DC / 20 kV AC (50 Hz/60 Hz), introduced 1968

481 series[edit]

The 481 series trains were introduced in 1964 for use on Hokuriku Line limited services, and were capable of operating under 1,500 V DC or 20 kV AC (60 Hz) overhead wire power supplies.[1] These train were subsequently operated by JR West and JR Kyushu.

Interior[edit]

483 series[edit]

The 483 series trains were introduced in 1965 for use on Tohoku Main Line limited express services, and were capable of operating under 1,500 V DC or 20 kV AC (50 Hz) overhead wire power supplies.[1] The non-powered trailer cars used in these sets were classified 481 series.[1]

485 series[edit]

Variants[edit]

  • 485 series (original) (from 1968)
  • 485-200 series (from 1972)
  • 485-300 series (from 1974)
  • 485-1000 series (from 1975)
  • 485-1500 series (from 1974)
  • 485-3000 series (converted from former 485-1000 series trains between 1996 and 2001)
  • Joyful Train variants

The 485 series trains were introduced in 1968. These trains were capable of operating under 1,500 V DC or 20 kV AC (50/60 Hz) overhead wire power supplies.[1] The original design was closely based on the bonnet-style 181 series EMU, with the primary difference being ceilings that were 12.5 cm higher. However, trains produced from 1972 onwards, starting with the 485-200 series, featured a new design with a cab adapted from the 583 series sleeper expresses, which became the standard on nearly all subsequent JNR limited-express EMUs.[1] The 485-200 series trains had gangway doors at the cab ends to allow trains to be operated in multiple, but the 485-300 series trains introduced from 1974 had no gangways.[1] The 485-1500 series trains were built in 1974 for use in Hokkaido.[1] The 485-1000 series trains built from 1975 onward incorporated design improvements from the DC-only 183-1000 series trains.[1]

Operations[edit]

485 series trains were also used on the Raichō and Super Raichō services from 1968 until the service ended in March 2011. These trains sometimes utilized a panoramic cab car (numbered KuRo 481-2000) which was a "Green Car".

The Inaho and Hokuetsu services have used 485 and 485-3000 series trains since 1969.

The Hitachi service used 485 series trainsets from 1969 to 1998, when it was replaced by Super Hitachi and Fresh Hitachi services.

The Tsugaru service has used 485-3000 series trains since 2002, when the service started.

The Nikkō service used a dedicated 6-car 485 series set from March 2006 until 4 June 2011, which was occasionally substituted by a reserve 189 series set nicknamed Ayano. It was replaced by two 6-car 253 series sets from 4 June 2011.

The Noto has used a single 6-car 485 series train since March 2010, replacing the previous 489 series train.

Currently owned by JR East and formerly by JR West and JR Kyushu, they also operated in the JR Hokkaido area on regular Hakuchō services, and in JR Central and JR Shikoku areas providing extra services. The last original JNR-style trainset (Sendai-based set A1+A2) operated by JR East was withdrawn in June 2016 after a series of special farewell Hibari, Aizu, and Tsubasa runs on 18 and 19 June.[2]

Limited express[edit]

Joyful Train sets[edit]

Main article: Joyful Train

Formations[edit]

485-3000 series[edit]

As of 1 April 2016, only two 485-3000 series refurbished sets remain in service, based at Niigata Depot for use on limited-stop "Rapid" services between Niigata and Itoigawa on the [[]].[3] The six-car sets are formed as follows, with car 1 at the Itoigawa end.[3]

Car No. 1 2 3 4 5 6
Designation Thsc' M' M M' M Tc
Numbering KuRoHa 481-30xx MoHa 484-30xx MoHa 485-30xx MoHa 484-30xx MoHa 485-30xx KuHa 481-30xx
  • Car 1 includes "Green car" (first class) seating.[3]
  • Cars 2 and 4 each have two pantographs.[3]

Preserved examples[edit]

As of October 2014, four 485 series cars are preserved, as follows.[4]

  • KuHa 481 26: Preserved at the Railway Museum in Saitama, Saitama.
  • KuHa 481 246: Preserved at the Kyushu Railway History Museum in Kitakyushu. (front end section only)
  • KuHa 481 603: Preserved at the Kyushu Railway History Museum in Kitakyushu.
  • MoHa 484 61: Preserved at the Railway Museum in Saitama, Saitama.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i JR全車輌ハンドブック2009 [JR Rolling Stock Handbook 2009] (in Japanese). Japan: Neko Publishing. 2009. p. 173-182. ISBN 978-4-7770-0836-0. 
  2. ^ 485系国鉄特急色編成がラストラン [Final run of JNR-liveried 485 series]. Japan Railfan Magazine Online (in Japanese). Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. 19 June 2016. Archived from the original on 20 June 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d JR電車編成表 2016夏 [JR EMU Formations - Summer 2016] (in Japanese). Japan: Kotsu Shimbunsha. 20 May 2016. p. 37. ISBN 978-4-330-68216-7. 
  4. ^ Sasada, Masahiro (25 November 2014). 国鉄&JR保存車大全2015-2016 [JNR & JR Preserved Rolling Stock Complete Guide 2015-2016] (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: Ikaros Publications Ltd. p. 124. ISBN 978-4863209282. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Umehara, Jun (22 February 2013). 485系物語 [The 485 series story]. Japan: JTB Can Books. ISBN 978-4533089749. 
  • 国鉄型車両ラストガイド 05 485系 [JNR Rolling Stock Final Guide 05: 485 series]. Japan: Kotsu Shimbunsha. 3 March 2013. ISBN 978-4-330-36313-4. 
  • Imada, Tamotsu (2014). よみがえる485系 [Recalling the 485 series]. Japan: Gakken Publishing. ISBN 9784054059061.