491 BC

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Millennium: 1st millennium BC
491 BC in various calendars
Gregorian calendar491 BC
Ab urbe condita263
Ancient Egypt eraXXVII dynasty, 35
- PharaohDarius I of Persia, 31
Ancient Greek era72nd Olympiad, year 2
Assyrian calendar4260
Balinese saka calendarN/A
Bengali calendar−1083
Berber calendar460
Buddhist calendar54
Burmese calendar−1128
Byzantine calendar5018–5019
Chinese calendar己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
2206 or 2146
    — to —
庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
2207 or 2147
Coptic calendar−774 – −773
Discordian calendar676
Ethiopian calendar−498 – −497
Hebrew calendar3270–3271
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat−434 – −433
 - Shaka SamvatN/A
 - Kali Yuga2610–2611
Holocene calendar9510
Iranian calendar1112 BP – 1111 BP
Islamic calendar1146 BH – 1145 BH
Javanese calendarN/A
Julian calendarN/A
Korean calendar1843
Minguo calendar2402 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−1958
Thai solar calendar52–53
Tibetan calendar阴土鸡年
(female Earth-Rooster)
−364 or −745 or −1517
    — to —
(male Iron-Dog)
−363 or −744 or −1516

Year 491 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Augurinus and Atratinus (or, less frequently, year 263 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 491 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


By place[edit]


  • Darius I sends envoys to all Greek cities, demanding "earth and water for vassalage" which Athens and Sparta refuse.[1]
  • The Greek city of Aegina, fearing the loss of trade, submits to Persia. The Spartan king, Cleomenes I tries to punish Aegina for its submission to the Persians, but the other Spartan king, Demaratus, thwarts him.
  • Cleomenes I engineers the deposing of Spartan co-ruler Demaratus (and his replacement by Cleomenes’ cousin Leotychidas) by bribing the oracle at Delphi to announce that this action was divine will. The two Spartan kings successfully capture the Persian collaborators in Aegina.


  • Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, loses his life in a battle against the Siculi, the native Sicilian people. He is succeeded as Tyrant of Gela by Gelo, who had been his commander of cavalry.[2]

Roman Republic[edit]

  • During this year there was a famine in Rome. General Gais Marcius Coriolanus suggested that people should not receive grains unless they agree to abolish the Office of Tribune. Because of this, the Tribunes had him exiled. In response, Coriolanus takes refuge with the leader of the Volsci, eventually leading the Volscian army in a war against Rome. It was only due to entreaties from his mother and wife that he abandoned his war against Rome.[3]
  • On the Via Latina, a main road leading out of Rome, the Temple of Fortuna Muliebras was finished.[4][5]

By topic[edit]




  1. ^ "The Greeks - Themistocles". www.pbs.org. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  2. ^ "Hippocrates, Tyrant of Gela, fl.498-491". www.historyofwar.org. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  3. ^ "Gnaeus Marcius Coriolanus | Roman legendary figure | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  4. ^ "Roman Timeline of the 5th Century BC | UNRV". www.unrv.com. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  5. ^ "Fortuna Muliebris, Roman Goddess of the Luck of Women". www.thaliatook.com. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  6. ^ "Art: Procession of Tribute Bearers". Annenberg Learner. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  7. ^ "The Dr. Norman Solhkhah Family Assyrian Empire Gallery | The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago". oi.uchicago.edu. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  8. ^ "Gelon | tyrant of Gela and Syracuse | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved November 30, 2022.