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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|496 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||496 BC
|Ab urbe condita||258|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 30|
|- Pharaoh||Darius I of Persia, 26|
|Ancient Greek era||71st Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Chinese calendar||甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)
2201 or 2141
— to —
乙巳年 (Wood Snake)
2202 or 2142
|Coptic calendar||−779 – −778|
|Ethiopian calendar||−503 – −502|
|- Vikram Samvat||−439 – −438|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2605–2606|
|Iranian calendar||1117 BP – 1116 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1151 BH – 1150 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2407 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||47–48|
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Year 496 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Albus and Tricostus (or, less frequently, year 258 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 496 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Hipparchos, son of Charmos (a relative of the 6th century BC tyrant Peisistratos), wins the archonship of Athens as leader of the peace party which argues that resistance against the Persians is useless.
- The former Etruscan King of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, who has been exiled by the Romans in 509 BC, and his ally Octavius Mamilius, of Tusculum, together with the Latins are defeated by the Roman Republic army in the Battle of Lake Regillus, near Frascati. The outcome of this battle establishes Roman supremacy over the Latins.
- King Goujian of Yue defeats and banishes King Fuchai of Wu, gaining a temporary hegemony in ancient China during the Spring and Autumn period.
- Sun Tzu, military philosopher and author of The Art of War (most likely a colloquial date) (b. 544 BC)
- King Helü of Wu, king of the Chinese State of Wu
- Marcus Valerius Volusus and Titus Herminius Aquilinus, both former Roman consuls died at the Battle of Lake Regillus
- Octavius Mamilius, ruler of Tusculum also died at the Battle of Lake Regillus