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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|499 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||499 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||255|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 27|
|- Pharaoh||Darius I of Persia, 23|
|Ancient Greek era||70th Olympiad, year 2|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||辛丑年 (Metal Ox)|
2198 or 2138
— to —
壬寅年 (Water Tiger)
2199 or 2139
|Coptic calendar||−782 – −781|
|Ethiopian calendar||−506 – −505|
|- Vikram Samvat||−442 – −441|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2602–2603|
|Iranian calendar||1120 BP – 1119 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1154 BH – 1153 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2410 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||44–45|
−372 or −753 or −1525
— to —
−371 or −752 or −1524
Year 499 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aebutius and Cicurinus (or, less frequently, year 255 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 499 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- After a failed attack on the rebellious island of Naxos in 502 BC (on behalf of the Persians), Aristagoras, to save himself from the wrath of Persia, plans a revolt with the Milesians and the other Ionians. With the encouragement of Histiaeus (his father-in-law and former tyrant of Miletus), Aristagoras, governor of Miletus, induces the Ionian cities of Asia Minor to revolt against Persia, thus instigating the Ionian Revolt and beginning the Greco-Persian Wars between Greece and Persia. The pro-Persian tyrant of Mytilene is stoned to death.
- Miltiades the Younger, the ruler of the Thracian Chersonese, which has been under Persian suzerainty since approximately 514 BC, joins the Ionian revolt. He seizes the islands of Lemnos and Imbros from the Persians.
- Aristagoras seeks help with the revolt against the Persians from Cleomenes I, king of Sparta, but the Spartans are unwilling to respond.