49th Armored Division

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

49th Armored Division
49th US Armored Division SSI.svg
49th Armored Division shoulder sleeve insignia
Active
  • 1947–1968
  • 1973–2004
Country United States
Branch United States Army
TypeArmor
RoleArmored warfare
SizeDivision
Garrison/HQCamp Mabry
Nickname(s)"Lone Star"
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Clayton P. Kerr
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia49th AD DUI.jpg
U.S. Armored Divisions
Previous Next
48th Armored Division (Inactive) 50th Armored Division (Inactive)

The 49th Armored Division —nicknamed the "Lone Star"— was an armored division of the Texas Army National Guard during the Cold War.

Active from 1947, the division formed part of the Texas Army National Guard together with the 36th Infantry Division. It was called up for active duty between 1961 and 1962 during the Berlin Crisis. In 1968 both Texas divisions were inactivated and used to form separate units. The 49th Armored was reformed in 1973 as the sole Texas division. When reflagged as the 36th Infantry Division in 2004, it was the last armored division remaining in the United States Army National Guard.

History[edit]

After the end of World War II, the United States National Guard was reorganized and expanded from its prewar size. Initial War Department unit allocations submitted to states for review in early February 1946 gave the 49th Armored Division to Texas and New Mexico, with the latter receiving one combat command headquarters and its subordinate units as well as field artillery and engineer battalions.[1] As the governor of New Mexico desired to continue his state's prewar antiaircraft units, the 49th Armored Division was made all-Texas and New Mexico received the 111th Antiaircraft Artillery Brigade.[2] The division, whose units were accepted by the Texas adjutant general on 2 July 1946, included two combat commands and a reserve command with the 145th, 146th, and 147th Tank Battalions and the 145th, 146th, and 147th Armored Infantry Battalions. The division artillery included the 105 mm howitzer-equipped 645th, 646th, and 647th Armored Field Artillery Battalions. Division troops included the 49th Mechanized Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron and the 386th Armored Engineer Battalion as well as other support units.[3] It and the New Jersey 50th Armored Division were the only armored divisions in the National Guard at the time.[4] A number of the original divisional units received federal recognition from the National Guard Bureau on 27 February 1947, a date used thereafter as the formation's "birthday", including the division headquarters at Camp Mabry in Austin. In 1947, all four battalions of the 144th Infantry Regiment were placed into the Division as mechanized infantry units. The division headquarters location changed to Fort Worth on 4 August 1949 and to Dallas on 31 August 1950.[5] Beginning in the northern and northeastern areas of the State, there were 111 units in 56 Texas cities by 1952.[6]

Soldiers of the division dismount from an M113 armored personnel carrier of the 5th Battalion, 112th Armor during an exercise at Fort Polk, 1961

In September 1961, an executive order alerted the division for mobilization at Dallas due to the 1961 Berlin Crisis.[6] The 49th Armored and the Wisconsin 32nd Infantry Division were mobilized in order to replace active divisions scheduled to be deployed from the strategic reserve. On 15 October the division entered federal service and soon afterwards concentrated at Fort Hood. It subsequently deployed to Fort Polk, Louisiana, where it remained for ten months. In May 1962, the division staged the large-scale Exercise Iron Dragoon, still remembered among National Guard armor exercises. Also while at Fort Polk the division's missile unit became the first Army National Guard unit to fire the Honest John nuclear-tipped surface-to-surface missile. The 49th Armored Division reverted to Texas State control in August 1962 after the newly reformed active duty 1st Armored and 5th Infantry Divisions were ready to take the place of the it and the 32nd Infantry Division in the strategic reserve.[7]

The 49th Armored reorganized under the Reorganization Objective Army Division (ROAD) structure in March 1963. Under the ROAD structure, the division included four mechanized infantry battalions and five armor battalions.[8]

Both the 36th Infantry Division and the 49th Armored were inactivated in 1968. Their units were used to form the 71st Airborne Brigade, the 72nd Infantry Brigade (Mechanized), and the 49th Armor Group.[9] The 49th Armor Group became the 49th Armored Brigade on 1 September 1971.[10] A Department of Defense directive to the army to convert six National Guard brigades from infantry to armor in order to act as reinforcements for troops in Europe in event of war resulted in the reactivation of the division, headquartered at Camp Mabry, on 1 November 1973. The reorganized 49th Armored consisted of five mechanized and six armor battalions; it and the 50th Armored were once again the only National Guard armored divisions. For the rest of its existence, the 49th, as the only Texas Army National Guard division, formed the bulk of the force.[11] The division accounted for 14,854 personnel out of the 17,643 authorized for the Texas Army National Guard in 1976.[12] The 1st Battalion, 200th Air Defense Artillery of the New Mexico Army National Guard was added as the divisional anti-aircraft gun battalion on 1 September 1975.[13]

Organization 1989[edit]

49th Armored Division 1989 (click to enlarge)

The division was reorganized as a heavy division in 1985 under the Army of Excellence structure together with the 50th Armored and the 35th and 40th Infantry Divisions. Thus, the division included four mechanized and six armor battalions by 1989. Due to equipment security concerns, the Army Reserve 549th Military Intelligence Battalion fulfilled the electronic warfare and intelligence role for the division, as in all but one of the National Guard divisions.[14] On 1 June 1988 the division ceded some of its units, including the 1st Battalion, 133rd Field Artillery to the 36th Brigade, 50th Armored Division, which had been activated on that day.[9][15][16][17] 3rd Battalion, 132nd Field Artillery was reactivated at El Paso to replace the 1st Battalion, 133rd Field Artillery.[18]

The brigade's armor battalions were equipped with M60A3 TTS main battle tanks. M48A5 Patton tanks had been replaced by M60A3 TTS tanks by May 1987 and by the end of 1989 the National Guard fielded 3,072 M60A3 TTS.[59][60][61] The 410 M1 Abrams[59] tanks of the National Guard were issued to round-out units of army divisions.[62] The division's infantry battalions were equipped with M113 armored personnel carriers, of which the National Guard had 6,870 at the end of Fiscal Year 1987, with a further 1,411 due to be taken in service in 1988.[59] The standard helicopters of National Guard units were the AH-1S Cobra, of which the National Guard had approximately 350 by 1989,[63] the OH-58C Kiowa and the UH-1H Iroquois helicopters.[64] Cavalry Reconnaissance units fielded 19 × M60A3 TTS, 8 × AH-1S Cobra, 12 × OH-58C Kiowa and 1 × UH-1H Iroquois helicopters; attack battalions fielded 21 × AH-1S Cobra, 13 × OH-58C Kiowa and 3 × UH-1H Iroquois helicopters,[65] while the assault aviation company fielded 15 × UH-1H Iroquois helicopters and the command support aviation company UH-1 helicopters in various configurations.

Locations 1989[edit]

49th Armored Division is located in Texas
49 Division
49 Division
1 Brigade
1 Brigade
6-112 Armor
6-112 Armor
49th Armored Division
1-141 Infantry D/149 Aviation
1-141 Infantry
D/149 Aviation
2-141 Infantry
2-141 Infantry
2 Brigade 2-112 Armor
2 Brigade
2-112 Armor
49th Armored Division
3-112 Armor
3-112 Armor
2-142 Infantry
2-142 Infantry
3 Brigade 1-112 Armor 4-112 Armor 249 Signal E/149 Aviation
3 Brigade
1-112 Armor
4-112 Armor
249 Signal
E/149 Aviation
49th Armored Division
49th Armored Division
49th Armored Division
5-112 Armor
5-112 Armor
3-144 Infantry
3-144 Infantry
49 Brigade
49 Brigade
1-149 Aviation
1-149 Aviation
1-124 Cavalry
1-124 Cavalry
DIVARTY
DIVARTY
2-131 Field Art.
2-131 Field Art.
3-132 Field Art.
3-132 Field Art.
3-133 Field Art.
3-133 Field Art.
4-133 Field Art.
4-133 Field Art.
111 Engineer
111 Engineer
1-200 Air Def. Art.
1-200 Air Def. Art.
549 Mil. Intel.
549 Mil. Intel.
449 Chemical
449 Chemical
49th Armored Division key locations 1989 (without DISCOM):
Purple pog.svg Division/brigade headquarters Green pog.svg Infantry Red pog.svg Armor
Blue 0080ff pog.svg Aviation Yellow pog.svg Artillery Black pog.svg Engineers Steel pog.svg Other units

Recent History[edit]

In 2000 elements of the division were deployed to take over the command and control of Multi-National Division (North) (MND-N) of the Stabilization Force in Bosnia (SFOR) as well as fulfill support missions for the MND-N troops. The division headquarters, aviation brigade headquarters, 249th Signal Battalion headquarters, the headquarters and Companies A and C of the 111th Engineer Battalion, the 649th Military Intelligence Battalion, the 149th Military Police Company, 1149th CID Detachment, 149th Personnel Services Battalion, 1104th Movement Control Team, and Company H, 149th Aviation (Air Traffic Support) were deployed.[66]

On 18 July 2004 the division was re-flagged and again designated as the 36th Infantry Division. Prior to its redesignation, the 49th was capstoned to the U.S. Army III Corps and stood as the only fully functional, reserve component, armored division in the United States Army.[citation needed] (The 50th Armored Division in the north eastern states had been eliminated by consolidation with the 42nd Infantry Division in the early 1990s.)

Commanders[edit]

Start Date End Date Commander
1946-07-02 1947-06-05 MG Richard B. Dunbar
1947-06-06 1958-10-31 MG Albert S. Johnson
1958-11-01 1959-10-13 MG Clayton P. Kerr
1959-10-14 1961-06-30 MG John L. Thompson Jr.
1961-07-01 1964-03-31 MG Harley B. West
1964-04-01 1967-05-31 MG Luther E. Orrick
1967-06-01 1968-01-14 MG James D. Scott
1973-11-01 1976-10-31 MG James L. Moreland
1976-11-01 1979-11-02 MG Delmer L. Nichols
1979-11-03 1982-10-31 MG John B. Garrett
1982-11-01 1984-11-01 MG Elmer L. Stephens
1984-11-02 1985-02-20 MG James T. Dennis
1985-02-21 1987-11-12 MG James B. McGoodwin
1987-11-13 1989-05-22 MG Charles H. Kone
1989-05-23 1992-08-23 MG Don O. Daniel
1992-08-24 1995-09-25 MG Wm. Edgar Murphy
1995-09-26 1998-09-30 MG Federico Lopez III
1998-09-30 2002-03-23 MG Robert L. Halverson
2002-03-23 2004-05-01 MG Michael Taylor
  • division deactivated and replaced by the 36th Inf. Div.

Command Sergeants Major[edit]

  • CSM David L Moore
  • CSM Wilfred Martin
  • CSM Jim Merritt
  • CSM Mikeal Graham
  • CSM Don Steelhammer
  • CSM Donnie Strickland
  • CSM Bobby Adams
  • CSM Roger Brownlee
  • CSM Thomas Wiley[67]
  • CSM Nils "Jack" Erickson

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Report of the Chief of the National Guard Bureau 1947, pp. 352–353, 369.
  2. ^ "State Gets Units of Anti-Aircraft". Albuquerque Journal. Associated Press. 16 May 1946. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com.
  3. ^ Report of the Chief of the National Guard Bureau 1947, pp. 398, 405.
  4. ^ Wilson 1998, p. 214.
  5. ^ Wilson 1987, p. 376.
  6. ^ a b Brian Schenk, An Introduction to the 49th (Lone Star) Armored Division (1947-), Texas Military Forces Museum, Camp Mabry, Texas.
  7. ^ Wilson 1998, pp. 305–307.
  8. ^ Wilson 1998, pp. 309–311.
  9. ^ a b "A Brief History of the Texas National Guard after World War II". Texas Military Forces Museum. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  10. ^ Wilson 1987, p. 378.
  11. ^ Wilson 1998, pp. 361–362.
  12. ^ Texas Adjutant General Report 1976, p. 5.
  13. ^ McKenney 1985, p. 392.
  14. ^ Wilson 1998, pp. 400–401, 405.
  15. ^ a b c "133rd U.S. Field Artillery Regiment". Texas Military Forces Museum. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  16. ^ "Department of the Army Historical Summary". Center of Military History. 1988. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  17. ^ a b Armies, Corps, Divisions, and Separate Brigades. Center of Military History, United States Army, 1999. 1999. ISBN 9780160499944. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  18. ^ "Historical Battalion Reactivated". Tyler Morning Telegraph. 13 June 1988. p. 18 – via Newspapers.com.
  19. ^ Texas Adjutant General Report 1976, pp. 6–7.
  20. ^ Wilson 1987, p. 377.
  21. ^ a b "Brigadier General James J. Bisson". National Guard Bureau. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  22. ^ a b "141st U.S. Infantry Regiment". Texas Military Forces Museum. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  23. ^ "Brigadier General Richard J. Noriega". National Guard Bureau. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  24. ^ Fulton, Richard (16 July 1981). "National Guard Troopers Sharpen Military Skills". Gatesville Messenger and Star-Forum. p. 6 – via Newspapers.com.
  25. ^ a b c "Major General Michael H. Taylor". National Guard Bureau. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  26. ^ "Cool Barrel". On guard - Volume, No. 2. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  27. ^ "Major General Eddy M. Spurgin". National Guard. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  28. ^ "142nd U.S. Infantry Regiment". Texas Military Forces Museum. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  29. ^ "National Guard unit's roots go back more than 70 years". Wylie News. 1 December 1993. p. 1.
  30. ^ Rickhoff, Jim (5 June 1982). "Area guardsmen go through 'summer camp' paces". Kerrville Mountain Sun. pp. 1, 7.
  31. ^ "Summer Training Is Slated at North Hood". Gatesville Messenger and Star-Forum. 11 March 1982. p. 11.
  32. ^ "Major General Darren G. Owens". National Guard. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  33. ^ McCoy, Belinda (19 June 1981). "ET National Guard units began annual two-week field duty". Longview News-Journal. p. 5 – via Newspapers.com.
  34. ^ "144th U.S. Infantry Regiment". Texas Military Forces Museum. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  35. ^ a b c "Military Construction Appropriations for 1990: Justification of the budget". United States Congress - House Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Military Construction Appropriations. 1989. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  36. ^ "Military construction appropriations for 1990". United States Congress - House Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Military Construction Appropriations. 1989. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  37. ^ McKenney, Janice E. "Field Artillery - Army Lineage Series - Part 1" (PDF). US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  38. ^ a b c d e "Field Artillery - February 1987". US Army Field Artillery School. 1987. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  39. ^ a b c d e f "Field Artillery - December 1989". US Army Field Artillery School. 1988. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  40. ^ a b c d e f "Field Artillery - February 1990". US Army Field Artillery School. 1990. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  41. ^ "131st U.S. Field Artillery Regiment, 1917". Texas Military Forces Museum. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  42. ^ a b c McKenney, Janice E. "Field Artillery - Army Lineage Series - Part 2" (PDF). US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  43. ^ a b c d e "Reserve Components: Factors Related to Personnel Attrition in the Selected Reserve". United States - General Accounting Office. 1991. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  44. ^ a b c "133rd Field Artillery". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  45. ^ "Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 36th Infantry Division Support Command". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  46. ^ "Citizen-soldiers". Kerrville Times. 3 July 1989. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com.
  47. ^ Rhoden, Jody (24 July 1988). "Area Guardsmen Maneuver at Fort Hood". Kerrville Daily Times. p. 1C.
  48. ^ "Brigadier General Hugh J. Hall". National Guard. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  49. ^ "Wilkes-Barre native now a Master Sergeant; in Army service for 18 years". Citizens' Voice. 19 January 1995. p. 27 – via Newspapers.com.
  50. ^ "949th Support Battalion". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  51. ^ "111th Engineer Regiment". Texas Military Forces Museum. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  52. ^ "Military Construction Appropriations for 1987". United States Congress - House Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Military Construction Appropriations. 1986. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  53. ^ "Air Defense Artillery" (PDF). US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  54. ^ Raines, Rebecca Robbins. "Signal Corps" (PDF). US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  55. ^ "536th Signal Battalion". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  56. ^ John Patrick Finnegan; Romana Danysh. "Military Intelligence" (PDF). US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  57. ^ "236th Military Police Company". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  58. ^ "Hearings on National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1989 - Volume 4". United States Congress - House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Military Installations and Facilities. 1988. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  59. ^ a b c "Hearings on National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1988/1989". United States Congress - House Committee on Armed Services. 1988. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  60. ^ "Historical Summary: FY 1984 - 5 Research, Development, and Acquisition". Department of the Army. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  61. ^ "M60A3 (TTS) Basis of Issue Plan". US Army. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  62. ^ "Three Guard units to get M1 tanks". Armor July–August 1982. 1982. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  63. ^ "Hearings on National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal years 1988/1989". United States Congress - House Committee on Armed Services. 1988. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  64. ^ "Hearings on National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1988/1989". United States Congress - House Committee on Armed Services. 1987. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  65. ^ Lussier, Frances M. (1996). An Analysis of U.S. Army Helicopter Programs. Congress of the United States - Congressional Budget Office. ISBN 9780788127564. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  66. ^ Army, June 1999, pp. 56, 58
  67. ^ "Tom Wiley - "Cameron Veteran Recalls His 26 Years of Service" by Jay Ermis". milamcountyhistoricalcommission.org.

Bibliography[edit]