4G, short for fourth generation, is the fourth generation of mobile telecommunications technology, succeeding 3G and preceding 5G. A 4G system, in addition to the usual voice and other services of 3G, provides mobile broadband Internet access, for example to laptops with wireless modems, to smartphones, and to other mobile devices. Potential and current applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing.
Two 4G candidate systems are commercially deployed: the Mobile WiMAX standard (first used in South Korea in 2007), and the first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard (in Oslo, Norway and Stockholm, Sweden since 2009). It has however been debated if these first-release versions should be considered to be 4G or not, as discussed in the technical definition section below.
In the United States, Sprint (previously Clearwire) has deployed Mobile WiMAX networks since 2008, while MetroPCS became the first operator to offer LTE service in 2010. USB wireless modems were among the first devices able to access these networks, with WiMAX smartphones becoming available during 2010, and LTE smartphones arriving in 2011. 3G and 4G equipment made for other continents are not always compatible, because of different frequency bands. Mobile WiMAX is not available for the European market as of April 2012.
- 1 Technical understanding
- 2 Background
- 3 IMT-Advanced requirements
- 4 System standards
- 4.1 IMT-2000 compliant 4G standards
- 4.2 Forerunner versions
- 4.3 Discontinued candidate systems
- 5 Data rate comparison
- 6 Principal technologies in all candidate systems
- 7 History of 4G and pre-4G technologies
- 7.1 Deployment plans
- 7.1.1 Africa
- 7.1.2 Asia
- 7.1.3 Europe
- 184.108.40.206 Austria
- 220.127.116.11 Belgium
- 18.104.22.168 France
- 22.214.171.124 Germany
- 126.96.36.199 Ireland
- 188.8.131.52 Italy
- 184.108.40.206 Greenland
- 220.127.116.11 Luxembourg
- 18.104.22.168 Republic of Macedonia
- 22.214.171.124 Malta
- 126.96.36.199 Netherlands
- 188.8.131.52 Norway
- 184.108.40.206 Poland
- 220.127.116.11 Portugal
- 18.104.22.168 Romania
- 22.214.171.124 Russian Federation
- 126.96.36.199 Scandinavia
- 188.8.131.52 Slovakia
- 184.108.40.206 Slovenia
- 220.127.116.11 Spain
- 18.104.22.168 Switzerland
- 22.214.171.124 United Kingdom
- 7.1.4 The Americas
- 7.1.5 Oceania
- 7.1 Deployment plans
- 8 Beyond 4G research
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
In March 2008, the International Telecommunications Union-Radio communications sector (ITU-R) specified a set of requirements for 4G standards, named the International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT-Advanced) specification, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 megabits per second (Mbit/s) for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 gigabit per second (Gbit/s) for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users).
Since the first-release versions of Mobile WiMAX and LTE support much less than 1 Gbit/s peak bit rate, they are not fully IMT-Advanced compliant, but are often branded 4G by service providers. According to operators, a generation of network refers to the deployment of a new non-backward-compatible technology. On December 6, 2010, ITU-R recognized that these two technologies, as well as other beyond-3G technologies that do not fulfill the IMT-Advanced requirements, could nevertheless be considered "4G", provided they represent forerunners to IMT-Advanced compliant versions and "a substantial level of improvement in performance and capabilities with respect to the initial third generation systems now deployed".
Mobile WiMAX Release 2 (also known as WirelessMAN-Advanced or IEEE 802.16m') and LTE Advanced (LTE-A) are IMT-Advanced compliant backwards compatible versions of the above two systems, standardized during the spring 2011, and promising speeds in the order of 1 Gbit/s. Services were expected in 2013.[needs update]
As opposed to earlier generations, a 4G system does not support traditional circuit-switched telephony service, but all-Internet Protocol (IP) based communication such as IP telephony. As seen below, the spread spectrum radio technology used in 3G systems, is abandoned in all 4G candidate systems and replaced by OFDMA multi-carrier transmission and other frequency-domain equalization (FDE) schemes, making it possible to transfer very high bit rates despite extensive multi-path radio propagation (echoes). The peak bit rate is further improved by smart antenna arrays for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications.
The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards-compatible transmission technology, higher peak bit rates, new frequency bands, wider channel frequency bandwidth in Hertz, and higher capacity for many simultaneous data transfers (higher system spectral efficiency in bit/second/Hertz/site).
New mobile generations have appeared about every ten years since the first move from 1981 analogue (1G) to digital (2G) transmission in 1992. This was followed, in 2001, by 3G multi-media support, spread spectrum transmission and at least 200 kbit/s peak bit rate, in 2011/2012 to be followed by "real" 4G, which refers to all-Internet Protocol (IP) packet-switched networks giving mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access.
While the ITU has adopted recommendations for technologies that would be used for future global communications, they do not actually perform the standardization or development work themselves, instead relying on the work of other standard bodies such as IEEE, The WiMAX Forum and 3GPP.
In the mid-1990s, the ITU-R standardization organization released the IMT-2000 requirements as a framework for what standards should be considered 3G systems, requiring 200 kbit/s peak bit rate. In 2008, ITU-R specified the IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G systems.
The fastest 3G-based standard in the UMTS family is the HSPA+ standard, which is commercially available since 2009 and offers 28 Mbit/s downstream (22 Mbit/s upstream) without MIMO, i.e. only with one antenna, and in 2011 accelerated up to 42 Mbit/s peak bit rate downstream using either DC-HSPA+ (simultaneous use of two 5 MHz UMTS carriers) or 2x2 MIMO. In theory speeds up to 672 Mbit/s are possible, but have not been deployed yet. The fastest 3G-based standard in the CDMA2000 family is the EV-DO Rev. B, which is available since 2010 and offers 15.67 Mbit/s downstream.
- Be based on an all-IP packet switched network.
- Have peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbit/s for high mobility such as mobile access and up to approximately 1 Gbit/s for low mobility such as nomadic/local wireless access.
- Be able to dynamically share and use the network resources to support more simultaneous users per cell.
- Use scale-able channel bandwidths of 5–20 MHz, optionally up to 40 MHz.
- Have peak link spectral efficiency of 15-bit/s/Hz in the downlink, and 6.75-bit/s/Hz in the uplink (meaning that 1 Gbit/s in the downlink should be possible over less than 67 MHz bandwidth).
- System spectral efficiency is, in indoor cases, 3-bit/s/Hz/cell for downlink and 2.25-bit/s/Hz/cell for uplink.
- Smooth handovers across heterogeneous networks.
- The ability to offer high quality of service for next generation multimedia support.
In September 2009, the technology proposals were submitted to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as 4G candidates. Basically all proposals are based on two technologies:
Implementations of Mobile WiMAX and first-release LTE are largely considered a stopgap solution that will offer a considerable boost until WiMAX 2 (based on the 802.16m spec) and LTE Advanced are deployed. The latter's standard versions were ratified in spring 2011, but are still far from being implemented.
The first set of 3GPP requirements on LTE Advanced was approved in June 2008. LTE Advanced was to be standardized in 2010 as part of Release 10 of the 3GPP specification. LTE Advanced will be based on the existing LTE specification Release 10 and will not be defined as a new specification series. A summary of the technologies that have been studied as the basis for LTE Advanced is included in a technical report.
Some sources consider first-release LTE and Mobile WiMAX implementations as pre-4G or near-4G, as they do not fully comply with the planned requirements of 1 Gbit/s for stationary reception and 100 Mbit/s for mobile.
Confusion has been caused by some mobile carriers who have launched products advertised as 4G but which according to some sources are pre-4G versions, commonly referred to as '3.9G', which do not follow the ITU-R defined principles for 4G standards, but today can be called 4G according to ITU-R. A common argument for branding 3.9G systems as new-generation is that they use different frequency bands from 3G technologies ; that they are based on a new radio-interface paradigm ; and that the standards are not backwards compatible with 3G, whilst some of the standards are forwards compatible with IMT-2000 compliant versions of the same standards.
IMT-2000 compliant 4G standards
As of October 2010, ITU-R Working Party 5D approved two industry-developed technologies (LTE Advanced and WirelessMAN-Advanced) for inclusion in the ITU’s International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced program (IMT-Advanced program), which is focused on global communication systems that will be available several years from now.
- See also: 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) below
LTE Advanced (Long Term Evolution Advanced) is a candidate for IMT-Advanced standard, formally submitted by the 3GPP organization to ITU-T in the fall 2009, and expected to be released in 2013. The target of 3GPP LTE Advanced is to reach and surpass the ITU requirements. LTE Advanced is essentially an enhancement to LTE. It is not a new technology, but rather an improvement on the existing LTE network. This upgrade path makes it more cost effective for vendors to offer LTE and then upgrade to LTE Advanced which is similar to the upgrade from WCDMA to HSPA. LTE and LTE Advanced will also make use of additional spectrums and multiplexing to allow it to achieve higher data speeds. Coordinated Multi-point Transmission will also allow more system capacity to help handle the enhanced data speeds. Release 10 of LTE is expected to achieve the IMT Advanced speeds. Release 8 currently supports up to 300 Mbit/s of download speeds which is still short of the IMT-Advanced standards.
|Peak download||1 Gbit/s|
|Peak upload||500 Mbit/s|
IEEE 802.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced
The IEEE 802.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced evolution of 802.16e is under development, with the objective to fulfill the IMT-Advanced criteria of 1 Gbit/s for stationary reception and 100 Mbit/s for mobile reception.
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)
- See also: LTE Advanced above
The pre-4G 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology is often branded "4G-LTE", but the first LTE release does not fully comply with the IMT-Advanced requirements. LTE has a theoretical net bit rate capacity of up to 100 Mbit/s in the downlink and 50 Mbit/s in the uplink if a 20 MHz channel is used — and more if multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), i.e. antenna arrays, are used.
The physical radio interface was at an early stage named High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA), now named Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). The first LTE USB dongles do not support any other radio interface.
The world's first publicly available LTE service was opened in the two Scandinavian capitals, Stockholm (Ericsson and Nokia Siemens Networks systems) and Oslo (a Huawei system) on December 14, 2009, and branded 4G. The user terminals were manufactured by Samsung. As of November 2012, the five publicly available LTE services in the United States are provided by MetroPCS, Verizon Wireless, AT&T Mobility, U.S. Cellular, Sprint, and T-Mobile US.
T-Mobile Hungary launched a public beta test (called friendly user test) on 7 October 2011, and has offered commercial 4G LTE services since 1 January 2012.
In South Korea, SK Telecom and LG U+ have enabled access to LTE service since 1 July 2011 for data devices, slated to go nationwide by 2012. KT Telecom closed its 2G service by March 2012, and complete the nationwide LTE service in the same frequency around 1.8 GHz by June 2012.
|Peak download||100 Mbit/s|
|Peak upload||50 Mbit/s|
Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e)
The Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e-2005) mobile wireless broadband access (MWBA) standard (also known as WiBro in South Korea) is sometimes branded 4G, and offers peak data rates of 128 Mbit/s downlink and 56 Mbit/s uplink over 20 MHz wide channels.
|Peak download||128 Mbit/s|
|Peak upload||56 Mbit/s|
TD-LTE for China market
Just as Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and WiMAX are being vigorously promoted in the global telecommunications industry, the former (LTE) is also the most powerful 4G mobile communications leading technology and has quickly occupied the Chinese market. TD-LTE, one of the two variants of the LTE air interface technologies, is not yet mature, but many domestic and international wireless carriers are, one after the other turning to TD-LTE.
IBM's data shows that 67% of the operators are considering LTE because this is the main source of their future market. The above news also confirms IBM's statement that while only 8% of the operators are considering the use of WiMAX, WiMAX can provide the fastest network transmission to its customers on the market and could challenge LTE.
TD-LTE is not the first 4G wireless mobile broadband network data standard, but it is China's 4G standard that was amended and published by China's largest telecom operator - China Mobile. After a series of field trials, is expected to be released into the commercial phase in the next two years. Ulf Ewaldsson, Ericsson's vice president said: "the Chinese Ministry of Industry and China Mobile in the fourth quarter of this year will hold a large-scale field test, by then, Ericsson will help the hand." But viewing from the current development trend, whether this standard advocated by China Mobile will be widely recognized by the international market is still debatable.
Discontinued candidate systems
UMB (formerly EV-DO Rev. C)
UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband) was the brand name for a discontinued 4G project within the 3GPP2 standardization group to improve the CDMA2000 mobile phone standard for next generation applications and requirements. In November 2008, Qualcomm, UMB's lead sponsor, announced it was ending development of the technology, favouring LTE instead. The objective was to achieve data speeds over 275 Mbit/s downstream and over 75 Mbit/s upstream.
At an early stage the Flash-OFDM system was expected to be further developed into a 4G standard.
iBurst and MBWA (IEEE 802.20) systems
The iBurst system (or HC-SDMA, High Capacity Spatial Division Multiple Access) was at an early stage considered to be a 4G predecessor. It was later further developed into the Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) system, also known as IEEE 802.20.
Data rate comparison
The following table shows a comparison of the 4G candidate systems as well as other competing technologies.
|Family||Primary Use||Radio Tech||Downstream
|HSPA+ is widely deployed. Revision 11 of the 3GPP states that HSPA+ is expected to have a throughput capacity of 672 Mbit/s.|
|LTE||3GPP||General 4G||OFDMA/MIMO/SC-FDMA||100 Cat3
(in 20 MHz FDD) 
(in 20 MHz FDD)
|LTE-Advanced update expected to offer peak rates up to 1 Gbit/s fixed speeds and 100 Mb/s to mobile users.|
|WiMax rel 1||802.16||WirelessMAN||MIMO-SOFDMA||37 (10 MHz TDD)||17 (10 MHz TDD)||With 2x2 MIMO.|
|WiMax rel 1.5||802.16-2009||WirelessMAN||MIMO-SOFDMA||83 (20 MHz TDD)
141 (2x20 MHz FDD)
|46 (20 MHz TDD)
138 (2x20 MHz FDD)
|With 2x2 MIMO.Enhanced with 20 MHz channels in 802.16-2009|
|WiMAX rel 2||802.16m||WirelessMAN||MIMO-SOFDMA||2x2 MIMO
110 (20 MHz TDD)
183 (2x20 MHz FDD)
219 (20 MHz TDD)
365 (2x20 MHz FDD)
70 (20 MHz TDD)
188 (2x20 MHz FDD)
140 (20 MHz TDD)
376 (2x20 MHz FDD)
|Also, low mobility users can aggregate multiple channels to get a download throughput of up to 1 Gbit/s|
mobility up to 200 mph (350 km/h)
|Mobile range 30 km (18 miles)
extended range 55 km (34 miles)
|Mobile Internet||OFDM/MIMO||288.8 (using 4x4 configuration in 20 MHz bandwidth) or 600 (using 4x4 configuration in 40 MHz bandwidth)|
|iBurst||802.20||Mobile Internet||HC-SDMA/TDD/MIMO||95||36||Cell Radius: 3–12 km
Speed: 250 km/h
Spectral Efficiency: 13 bits/s/Hz/cell
Spectrum Reuse Factor: "1"
|EDGE Evolution||GSM||Mobile Internet||TDMA/FDD||1.6||0.5||3GPP Release 7|
|HSDPA is widely deployed. Typical downlink rates today 2 Mbit/s, ~200 kbit/s uplink; HSPA+ downlink up to 56 Mbit/s.|
|UMTS-TDD||UMTS/3GSM||Mobile Internet||CDMA/TDD||16||Reported speeds according to IPWireless using 16QAM modulation similar to HSDPA+HSUPA|
|EV-DO Rel. 0
|Rev B note: N is the number of 1.25 MHz carriers used. EV-DO is not designed for voice, and requires a fallback to 1xRTT when a voice call is placed or received.|
Notes: All speeds are theoretical maximums and will vary by a number of factors, including the use of external antennas, distance from the tower and the ground speed (e.g. communications on a train may be poorer than when standing still). Usually the bandwidth is shared between several terminals. The performance of each technology is determined by a number of constraints, including the spectral efficiency of the technology, the cell sizes used, and the amount of spectrum available. For more information, see Comparison of wireless data standards.
Principal technologies in all candidate systems
The following key features can be observed in all suggested 4G technologies:
- Physical layer transmission techniques are as follows:
- MIMO: To attain ultra high spectral efficiency by means of spatial processing including multi-antenna and multi-user MIMO
- Frequency-domain-equalization, for example multi-carrier modulation (OFDM) in the downlink or single-carrier frequency-domain-equalization (SC-FDE) in the uplink: To exploit the frequency selective channel property without complex equalization
- Frequency-domain statistical multiplexing, for example (OFDMA) or (single-carrier FDMA) (SC-FDMA, a.k.a. linearly precoded OFDMA, LP-OFDMA) in the uplink: Variable bit rate by assigning different sub-channels to different users based on the channel conditions
- Turbo principle error-correcting codes: To minimize the required SNR at the reception side
- Channel-dependent scheduling: To use the time-varying channel
- Link adaptation: Adaptive modulation and error-correcting codes
- Mobile-IP utilized for mobility
- IP-based femtocells (home nodes connected to fixed Internet broadband infrastructure)
Multiplexing and access schemes
||This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter. Please help improve this article by clarifying or removing superfluous information. (May 2010)|
Recently, new access schemes like Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA), Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA), Interleaved FDMA, and Multi-carrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) are gaining more importance for the next generation systems. These are based on efficient FFT algorithms and frequency domain equalization, resulting in a lower number of multiplications per second. They also make it possible to control the bandwidth and form the spectrum in a flexible way. However, they require advanced dynamic channel allocation and adaptive traffic scheduling.
WiMax is using OFDMA in the downlink and in the uplink. For the LTE (telecommunication), OFDMA is used for the downlink; by contrast, Single-carrier FDMA is used for the uplink since OFDMA contributes more to the PAPR related issues and results in nonlinear operation of amplifiers. IFDMA provides less power fluctuation and thus requires energy-inefficient linear amplifiers. Similarly, MC-CDMA is in the proposal for the IEEE 802.20 standard. These access schemes offer the same efficiencies as older technologies like CDMA. Apart from this, scalability and higher data rates can be achieved.
The other important advantage of the above-mentioned access techniques is that they require less complexity for equalization at the receiver. This is an added advantage especially in the MIMO environments since the spatial multiplexing transmission of MIMO systems inherently require high complexity equalization at the receiver.
In addition to improvements in these multiplexing systems, improved modulation techniques are being used. Whereas earlier standards largely used Phase-shift keying, more efficient systems such as 64QAM are being proposed for use with the 3GPP Long Term Evolution standards.
Unlike 3G, which is based on two parallel infrastructures consisting of circuit switched and packet switched network nodes, 4G will be based on packet switching only. This will require low-latency data transmission.
By the time that 4G was deployed, the process of IPv4 address exhaustion was expected to be in its final stages. Therefore, in the context of 4G, IPv6 is essential to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. By increasing the number of IP addresses available, IPv6 removes the need for network address translation (NAT), a method of sharing a limited number of addresses among a larger group of devices, although NAT will still be required to communicate with devices that are on existing IPv4 networks.
Advanced antenna systems
The performance of radio communications depends on an antenna system, termed smart or intelligent antenna. Recently, multiple antenna technologies are emerging to achieve the goal of 4G systems such as high rate, high reliability, and long range communications. In the early 1990s, to cater for the growing data rate needs of data communication, many transmission schemes were proposed. One technology, spatial multiplexing, gained importance for its bandwidth conservation and power efficiency. Spatial multiplexing involves deploying multiple antennas at the transmitter and at the receiver. Independent streams can then be transmitted simultaneously from all the antennas. This technology, called MIMO (as a branch of intelligent antenna), multiplies the base data rate by (the smaller of) the number of transmit antennas or the number of receive antennas. Apart from this, the reliability in transmitting high speed data in the fading channel can be improved by using more antennas at the transmitter or at the receiver. This is called transmit or receive diversity. Both transmit/receive diversity and transmit spatial multiplexing are categorized into the space-time coding techniques, which does not necessarily require the channel knowledge at the transmitter. The other category is closed-loop multiple antenna technologies, which require channel knowledge at the transmitter.
Open-wireless Architecture and Software-defined radio (SDR)
One of the key technologies for 4G and beyond is called Open Wireless Architecture (OWA), supporting multiple wireless air interfaces in an open architecture platform.
SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA). Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards, the final form of a 4G device will constitute various standards. This can be efficiently realized using SDR technology, which is categorized to the area of the radio convergence.
History of 4G and pre-4G technologies
The 4G system was originally envisioned by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The DARPA selected the distributed architecture and end-to-end Internet protocol (IP), and believed at an early stage in peer-to-peer networking in which every mobile device would be both a transceiver and a router for other devices in the network, eliminating the spoke-and-hub weakness of 2G and 3G cellular systems.[page needed] Since the 2.5G GPRS system, cellular systems have provided dual infrastructures: packet switched nodes for data services, and circuit switched nodes for voice calls. In 4G systems, the circuit-switched infrastructure is abandoned and only a packet-switched network is provided, while 2.5G and 3G systems require both packet-switched and circuit-switched network nodes, i.e. two infrastructures in parallel. This means that in 4G, traditional voice calls are replaced by IP telephony.
- In 2002, the strategic vision for 4G—which ITU designated as IMT-Advanced—was laid out.
- In 2005, OFDMA transmission technology is chosen as candidate for the HSOPA downlink, later renamed 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) air interface E-UTRA.
- In November 2005, KT demonstrated mobile WiMAX service in Busan, South Korea.
- In April 2006, KT started the world's first commercial mobile WiMAX service in Seoul, South Korea.
- In mid-2006, Sprint announced that it would invest about US$5 billion in a WiMAX technology buildout over the next few years ($5.85 billion in real terms). Since that time Sprint has faced many setbacks that have resulted in steep quarterly losses. On 7 May 2008, Sprint, Imagine, Google, Intel, Comcast, Bright House, and Time Warner announced a pooling of an average of 120 MHz of spectrum; Sprint merged its Xohm WiMAX division with Clearwire to form a company which will take the name "Clear".
- In February 2007, the Japanese company NTT DoCoMo tested a 4G communication system prototype with 4×4 MIMO called VSF-OFCDM at 100 Mbit/s while moving, and 1 Gbit/s while stationary. NTT DoCoMo completed a trial in which they reached a maximum packet transmission rate of approximately 5 Gbit/s in the downlink with 12×12 MIMO using a 100 MHz frequency bandwidth while moving at 10 km/h, and is planning on releasing the first commercial network in 2010.
- In September 2007, NTT Docomo demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 200 Mbit/s with power consumption below 100 mW during the test.
- In January 2008, a U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) spectrum auction for the 700 MHz former analog TV frequencies began. As a result, the biggest share of the spectrum went to Verizon Wireless and the next biggest to AT&T. Both of these companies have stated their intention of supporting LTE.
- In January 2008, EU commissioner Viviane Reding suggested re-allocation of 500–800 MHz spectrum for wireless communication, including WiMAX.
- On 15 February 2008, Skyworks Solutions released a front-end module for e-UTRAN.
- In November 2008, ITU-R established the detailed performance requirements of IMT-Advanced, by issuing a Circular Letter calling for candidate Radio Access Technologies (RATs) for IMT-Advanced.
- In April 2008, just after receiving the circular letter, the 3GPP organized a workshop on IMT-Advanced where it was decided that LTE Advanced, an evolution of current LTE standard, will meet or even exceed IMT-Advanced requirements following the ITU-R agenda.
- In April 2008, LG and Nortel demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 50 Mbit/s while travelling at 110 km/h.
- On 12 November 2008, HTC announced the first WiMAX-enabled mobile phone, the Max 4G
- In 15 December 2008, San Miguel Corporation, the largest food and beverage conglomerate in southeast Asia, has signed a memorandum of understanding with Qatar Telecom QSC (Qtel) to build wireless broadband and mobile communications projects in the Philippines. The joint-venture formed wi-tribe Philippines, which offers 4G in the country. Around the same time Globe Telecom rolled out the first WiMAX service in the Philippines.
- On 3 March 2009, Lithuania's LRTC announcing the first operational "4G" mobile WiMAX network in Baltic states.
- In December 2009, Sprint began advertising "4G" service in selected cities in the United States, despite average download speeds of only 3–6 Mbit/s with peak speeds of 10 Mbit/s (not available in all markets).
- On 14 December 2009, the first commercial LTE deployment was in the Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo by the Swedish-Finnish network operator TeliaSonera and its Norwegian brandname NetCom (Norway). TeliaSonera branded the network "4G". The modem devices on offer were manufactured by Samsung (dongle GT-B3710), and the network infrastructure created by Huawei (in Oslo) and Ericsson (in Stockholm). TeliaSonera plans to roll out nationwide LTE across Sweden, Norway and Finland. TeliaSonera used spectral bandwidth of 10 MHz, and single-in-single-out, which should provide physical layer net bitrates of up to 50 Mbit/s downlink and 25 Mbit/s in the uplink. Introductory tests showed a TCP throughput of 42.8 Mbit/s downlink and 5.3 Mbit/s uplink in Stockholm.
- On 25 February 2010, Estonia's EMT opened LTE "4G" network working in test regime.
- On 4 June 2010, Sprint released the first WiMAX smartphone in the US, the HTC Evo 4G.
- In July 2010, Uzbekistan's MTS deployed LTE in Tashkent.
- On 25 August 2010, Latvia's LMT opened LTE "4G" network working in test regime 50% of territory.
- On November 4, 2010, the Samsung Galaxy Craft offered by MetroPCS is the first commercially available LTE smartphone
- On 6 December 2010, at the ITU World Radiocommunication Seminar 2010, the ITU stated that LTE, WiMax and similar "evolved 3G technologies" could be considered "4G".
- On 12 December 2010, VivaCell-MTS launches in Armenia a 4G/LTE commercial test network with a live demo conducted in Yerevan.
- On 28 April 2011, Lithuania's Omnitel opened a LTE "4G" network working in the 5 largest cities.
- In September 2011, all three Saudi telecom companies STC, Mobily and Zain announced that they will offer 4G LTE for USB modem dongles, with further development for phones by 2013.
- In 2011, Argentina's Claro launched a pre-4G HSPA+ network in the country.
- In 2011, Thailand's Truemove-H launched a pre-4G HSPA+ network with nationwide availability.
- On March 17, 2011, the HTC Thunderbolt offered by Verizon in the U.S. was the second LTE smartphone to be sold commercially.
- On 31 January 2012, Thailand's AIS and its subsidiaries DPC under cooperation with CAT Telecom for 1800 MHz frequency band and TOT for 2300 MHz frequency band launched the first field trial LTE in Thailand with authorization from NBTC.
- In February 2012, Ericsson demonstrated mobile-TV over LTE, utilizing the new eMBMS service (enhanced Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service).
- On 10 April 2012, Bharti Airtel launched 4G LTE in Kolkata, first in India.
- On 20 May 2012, Azerbaijan's biggest mobile operator Azercell launched 4G LTE.
- On 10 October 2012, Vodacom (Vodafone South Africa) became the first operator in South Africa to launch a commercial LTE service.
- In December 2012, Telcel launches in Mexico the 4G LTE network in 9 major cities
- In Kazakhstan, 4G LTE was launched on December 26, 2012 in the entire territory in the frequency bands 1865–1885/1760–1780 MHz for the urban population and in 794-799/835-840 MHz for those sparsely populated
In 2009, Morocco launched Maroc Numeric 2013, an accelerated plan to position the country among the leading emerging countries in communications and technology. Discussions about the introduction of 4G surfaced since 2012 by the National Telecom Regulatory Agency (ANRT) and the 3 major providers, but licenses and auctions were delayed until late 2013.
The official launch of 4G is due in early 2015.
On 12 March 2015, ANRT have reviewed all applications, and accorded 4G licenses to the main operators.
Algérie Télécom announced the official launch of its new fixed-wireless LTE high-speed Internet, Tuesday, April 29, 2014. Although the company brands its offer as 4G, the network is available only through fixed home equipments, the mobile 4G is yet to be launched in late 2015.
Just few days after the announcements, controversies circulated around the use of the term 4G to describe the offers.
In China, there are over 160 million 4G users.
Telecom giant Etisalat Afghanistan, the first telecom company to launch 3.75G services in Afghanistan on 19th Feb, 2013 announced the commencement of test of its Long-term Evolution (LTE) 4G mobile network.
Bharti Airtel launched India's first 4G service, using TD-LTE technology, in Kolkata on 10 April 2012. On June 2013 prior to the official launch in Kolkata, a group consisting of China Mobile, Bharti Airtel and SoftBank Mobile came together, called Global TD-LTE Initiative (GTI) in Barcelona, Spain and they signed the commitment towards TD-LTE standards for the Asian region. It must be noted that Bharti Airtel's 4G network does not support mainstream 4G phones such as Samsung Galaxy Note 3, Samsung Galaxy S4 and others.
- Bharti Airtel 4G services are available in Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune, Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam,Madurai and Chandigarh region (The Tricity or Chandigarh region consists of a major city Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula). Since May 2015, Airtel had also partnered with Samsung India to introduce 4G services in Chennai, on a trial basis.
- RIL is launching 4G services through its subsidiary, Jio Infocomm. RIL 4G services are currently available only in Jamnagar, where it is testing the new TD-LTE technology. Reliance's 4G rollout is planned to start in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata and expand to cover 700 cities, including 100 high-priority markets in 2015.
- Bharti Airtel launched 4G on mobiles in Bangalore, thus becoming the first in India to offer such a service on 14th Feb, 2014
- Bharti Airtel in July 2014, expanded 4G services to many cities in Punjab like Amritsar, Patiala, Hoshiarpur, Ajitgarh, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Phagwara and Kapurthala. Until July 2014, Customers in these cities access 4G services through dongles and wifi modems on Apple iPhone 5S and 5C, XOLO LT 900 and LG G2 (model D802T).
- Aircel in July 2014, launched 4G in four circles Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar and Odisha.
India uses 2.3 GHz frequency (band 40).
Tikona Digital Networks holds broadband wireless access spectrum in the 2300 MHz band and is waiting for the appropriate time and maturity of the 4G ecosystem before making a foray into the space. Tikona holds 4G spectrum licences in five circles in northwest India, covering Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh (East and West) and Himachal Pradesh.
During APEC meeting on October 1–8, 2013 in Bali, Telkomsel will conduct 4G LTE network trial. Telkomsel 4G LTE network will operate at 1800 MHz frequency. As part of the program it will sell "simPATI LTE Trial Edition" prepaid SIM card.
Since November 2013, PT Internux, with brand Bolt 4G, has commercialized LTE 4G service using TDD-LTE. Initially, Bolt 4G is only available on 2300 MHz covering Jakarta and the surrounding cities.
By the end of 2012, the national telecommunication operator JSC Kazakhtelecom launched 4G services in both Astana and Almaty. It is expected that by the end of 2013 the service will be available across the whole country.
4G technology was introduced for the 1st time in Maldives by Ooredoo (formerly known as Wataniya) in April 2013. Currently serving over 33% of the population in Male, Hulhumale, Villingilli and Maafushi Island. Ooredoo operates its 4G network in both 700 MHz and 1800 MHz.
- Saudi Arabia: In mid September 2011, Mobily, announced their 4G LTE networks to be ready after months of testing and evaluations.
- Oman: In July 2012, Omantel launched 4G LTE commercially. In February 2013, Nawras launched 4G LTE commercially.
- UAE: In December 2012, Etisalat announced the commercial launch of 4G LTE services covering over 70% of country's urban areas. As of May, 2013 only few areas have been covered..
- Lebanon: In 2012, Alfa and touch, announced their 4G LTE networks to be ready after months of testing and evaluations. And 4G LTE was officially launched in April 2013.
- Qatar: 15 April 2013, Qtel, (now called Ooredoo) launched its first 4G LTE commercially in Qatar. after that Ooredoo also launched 4G+. on 3 June 2014 Vodafone Launched 4G in Doha 
- Iran: MTN Irancell launched Iran's first 4G LTE network in November 2014 shortly after regulatory's approval.
- Jordan: In February 2015, Zain Jordan launched 4G LTE commercially.
On 23 April 2014, the government auctioned of 3G and 4G licenses to cellular service providers raising $1.182 billion in revenues. Zong became the country's first and only company to win a 4G license. Mobilink and Zong bid for the ‘superior’ 10 MHz band, while Telenor and Ufone preferred to bid on the cheaper 5 MHz band. Although Mobilink, having acquired the 10 MHz band, qualified for a 4G licence too, they opted not to go all the way.
As part of its massive network upgrade, Globe has launched its 4th Generation Long-Term Evolution (4G LTE) network for mobile and broadband. To date, Globe has completed over 2,700 4G LTE network sites, with the number expected to rise to over 4000 by the end of 2012.
In September, Globe launched its 4G LTE network covering key commercial as well as residential areas in Makati, with more sites following shortly in Manila, Cebu, Davao, and other select regions. As more key activations are completed in the coming months, Globe subscribers will soon enjoy best-in-class mobile and broadband services across the Philippines.
Smart Communications was the first to roll out the 4G LTE in the country (Philippines). Over 900 sites served nationwide with partner establishments. Cherry Mobile was the first local brand to release LTE ready mobile phone in the Philippines with its Cherry Mobile W900 LTE and Ultra others are Cosmos Force, their recent Flagship Cosmos One Plus and the Newly Released Cosmos S2.
On July 7, 2008, South Korea announced plans to spend 60 billion won, or US$58,000,000, on developing 4G and even 5G technologies, with the goal of having the highest mobile phone market share by 2012, and the hope of becoming an international standard.
On December 30, 2012, Dialog Broadband Networks launched Sri Lanka's first fixed TD-LTE service.
On April 2, 2013, Dialog Axiata launched South Asia's first FD-LTE service in Sri Lanka.
On June 2, 2013, Mobitel launched FD-LTE service in Sri Lanka.
On January 19, 2014, Sri Lanka Telecom successfully demonstrated & launched its 4G LTE service.
Thailand National Broadcasting & Telecommunications Commission (NBTC) has earmarked 1.8 GHz and 2.3 GHz spectrum for 4G services. The 1.8 GHz will be available for auction around the 4th quarter of 2014 when the license for GSM service on the spectrum will expire. The 2.3 GHz spectrum is currently held by TOT Corp, a state enterprise. Negotiation on refarming part of the band is ongoing.
|Operator||Frequency ( MHz)|
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||A1 Telekom Austria||T-Mobile Austria||Orange Austria*||Hutchison 3|
|2600 MHz||VII (7)
- *License holder formerly Orange Austria, now Hutchison Drei Austria GmbH
At the end of November, 2012, A1 Telekom Austria claims to reach 30% of the Austrian population with its LTE network. At this time, according to a press release, 800 EnodeB's were used.
At the beginning of July, 2013, A1 Telekom Austria announced that the company has switched on their 1000th eNodeB.
On 7 October 2013, T-Mobile Austria started LTE service for Smartphones. The company also announced plans for further LTE coverage. Until the end of 2013 parts of the city Bregenz, Klagenfurt, Salzburg and St. Pölten will be covered with LTE.
On October 21, 2013, the multiband spectrum auction was completed. The following figure shows the current allocation for this frequency band:
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||A1 Telekom Austria||T-Mobile Austria||Hutchison 3|
|800 MHz||XX (20)||2×30 MHz||FDD||2x20 MHz||2x10 MHz||-|
|900 MHz||VIII (8)||2×35 MHz||FDD||2x15 MHz||2x15 MHz||2x5 MHz|
|1800 MHz||III (3)||2×75 MHz||FDD||2x35 MHz||2x20 MHz||2x20 MHz|
International LTE Roaming: 19. December, 2013, A1 Telekom Austria is the first Austrian operator which introduced LTE Roaming. The company signed a roaming agreement with Swisscom following by further countries (planned: Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Romania, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom, United States) in 2014. If Customers of A1 Telekom Austria want use LTE abroad they need either a LTE package or one of their new A1 Go! contract plans, launched in December 2013.
On 28 January 2014, A1 announced commercial service for LTE 800 MHz on more than 200 sites. Austrians largest mobile operator covers currently 45% of the population with LTE. The company plans to cover more than 50% of the population until the end of 2014.
On 11 March 2014, T-Mobile announced top LTE transmission speed raises to 150 Mbit/s.
On 6 May 2014, Austrian Media announced that Hutchison 3 is waiting for approval to refarm 1800 MHz frequency to go further with LTE deployment.
On 28 June 2011, Belgium's largest telecom operator Belgacom announced the roll out of the country's first 4G network. On 3 July 2012 it confirmed the outroll in 5 major cities and announced the commercial launch to take place before the end of 2012.
On 22 November 2012, Orange launched the first 4G business plan in Marseille, Lyon, Lille and Nantes. Then, on 29 November 2012, SFR launched 4G in Lyon, extending to Montpellier. It was the first 4G commercial launch in France.
After the multiband spectrum auction (12.04. - 20.05.2010) the frequency allocation in Germany is as follows:
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||Telekom||Vodafone||Telefónica O2||E-Plus Gruppe|
|800 MHz||XX (20)||2×30 MHz||FDD||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||-|
|1800 MHz||III (3)||2×25 MHz||FDD||2x15 MHz||-||-||2x10 MHz|
|2600 MHz||VII (7)
5 April 2011, Deutsche Telekom launched LTE service on 800 MHz.
3 July 2012, Deutsche Telekom announced LTE service for the following cities in Baden-Württemberg: Freiburg, Friedrichshafen, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Pforzheim. Berlin. Bremen. Hesse: Darmstadt, Hanau, Ludwigshafen. Lower Saxony: Braunschweig, Celle, Hildesheim, Oldenburg. North Rhine-Westphalia: Gütersloh, Paderborn, Velbert. Rhineland-Palatinate: Kaiserslautern, Mainz. Saxony: Halle (Saale). Schleswig-Holstein: Neumünster. Thuringia: Erfurt and Gera.
7 February 2013, o2 claimed to do the world's first handovers of voice calls from LTE to UMTS under realistic conditions.
5 September 2013, Deutsche Telekom announced LTE category 4 with download speed of 150 Mbit/s at the IFA. LTE category 4 or LTE+, so called by Deutsche Telekom, is available in areas which are covered by the 1800 MHz and 2600 MHz frequency.
International LTE Roaming: 22 May 2014, Vodafone added LTE Roaming within the Vodafone Group in the following six European countries. Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and UK. Vodafone also plans to launch LTE Roaming in other countries and on other networks.
17 June 2014, Deutsche Telekom announced LTE Roaming for six European countries. (Belgium (Mobistar), France (Orange), Italy (TIM), Norway (Telenor), Poland (Orange) and Spain (Orange)) Followed by the UK. The company also plans further agreements with other operators.
19 August 2014, Deutsche Telekom announced LTE Roaming for The Netherlands (KPN) and UK (EE).
In May 2005, Digiweb, an Irish wired and wireless broadband company, announced that they had received a mobile communications license from the Irish telecoms regulator ComReg. This service will be issued the mobile code 088 in Ireland and will be used for the provision of 4G mobile communications. Digiweb launched a mobile broadband network using FLASH-OFDM technology at 872 MHz.
On November 15, 2012 the Commission for Communications Regulation (ComReg) announced the results of its multi-band spectrum auction. This auction awarded spectrum rights of use in the 800 MHz, 900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands in Ireland from 2013 to 2030. The winners of spectrum were Three Ireland, Meteor, O2 Ireland and Vodafone. All of the winning bidders in the auction have indicated that they intend to move rapidly to deploy advanced services.
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||Vodafone Ireland||Telefónica Ireland||Meteor||Hutchison 3|
|800 MHz||XX (20)||2×30 MHz||FDD||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||-|
|900 MHz||VIII (8)||2×35 MHz||FDD||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x5 MHz|
|1800 MHz||III (3)||2×75 MHz||FDD||2x25 MHz||2x15 MHz||2x15 MHz||2x20 MHz|
On 14 October 2013, Vodafone started their 4G offer (mobile broadband only) in six cities (Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford and Kilkenny) and 23 towns (Carlow, Tralee, Wexford, Middleton, Carrigaline, Mallow, Killarney, Enniscorthy, Dungarvan, New Ross, Kenmare, Tullow, Kanturk, Bagnelstown, Thomastown, Millstreet, Bunclody, Newmarket, Dunmanway, Lismore, Rosslare Harbour, Rosslare Strand and Killorglin) across the country.
On 9 December 2013, Vodafone switched on 4G for Smartphones and turned 4G service in eight additional towns (Ballincollig, Carrigtohill, Cloyne, Cobh, Enniscorthy, Fermoy, Gorey, Kinsale) on.
On 27 January 2014, Three launched their 4G network in Dublin, Cork, Galway, Limerick, Wexford and Waterford.
Since the first half of December 2012, all of Italy's ISP have been offering or have plans to offer 4G services in some cities:
- TIM: 2.500 cities (November 2014) and 60 cities in LTE Advanced
- Vodafone: 2.500 cities (November 2014)
- 3 Italia: 280 cities (November 2014).
- WIND: 300 cities (November 2014)
International LTE Roaming: From 5 May 2014 customers of TIM are able to use 4G while roaming in Switzerland on Swisscom and from 14 May 2014 on Orange in Spain. TIM added new roaming partners in Germany (Telekom) and Hong Kong (CSL) in June 2014.
International LTE Roaming: On 24 June 2014 Orange announced LTE Roaming for the following countries from July 1, 2014: Canada, China, Germany, Greece, Italy, Romania, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, the UK and the USA.
Republic of Macedonia
4G technology was introduced in Malta by Vodafone on 9 October 2013.
Vodafone has launched the 4G network in August 2013, while T-Mobile announced only a roll-out in Q4 of 2013. Tele2 will launch their network probably in the same time as T-Mobile, because they are using site/antenna-sharing.
As of Q1 2014, KPN is the first network provider that has deployed a nationwide 4G network in the Netherlands. Vodafone has announced it would reach nationwide coverage in 2014. As of Q1 2015, Vodafone is claiming national coverage. T-Mobile announced nationwide coverage by the end of 2015. Tele2, being a lower-budget provider, will probably never reach a nationwide coverage. Tele2 will stay a MVNO (i.e., Tele2 will buy network capacity) on the T-Mobile network for 2G/3G Services and a MVNO on the KPN network for 2G/3G Business Services (previously Versatel).
Network operator ZUM's plans remain unknown; only a small 2.6 GHz LTE network would be required to meet regulatory requirements.
After the multiband spectrum auction the frequency allocation in the Netherlands is as follows:
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||KPN||Vodafone||T-Mobile||Tele2||ZUM|
|800 MHz||XX (20)||2x30 MHz||FDD||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz|
|900 MHz||VIII (8)||2x35 MHz||FDD||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x15 MHz|
|1800 MHz||III (3)||2x70 MHz||FDD||2x20 MHz||2x20 MHz||2x30 MHz|
|1900 MHz||XXXIII (33)||1x35 MHz||TDD||1x5 MHz||1x5.4 MHz||1x24.6 MHz|
|2100 MHz||I (1)||2x59,4 MHz||FDD||2x19.8 MHz||2x19.6 MHz||2x20 MHz|
|2600 MHz||VII (7)
International LTE Roaming: On 16 February 2014 KPN announced LTE Roaming agreement with Orange in France and Telenor in Norway. Following by operators in the US, the UK, Russia, Japan, Spain, Austria, Switzerland, Poland and Saudi Arabia later this month. Brazil and China are scheduled to be included in March, Germany, Hong Kong, Croatia and Slovenia will be added in April, and Denmark, Canada and Finland will be included in June.
After the multiband spectrum auction in December 2013.
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||Telco Data||Telenor||TeliaSonera|
|800 MHz||XX (20)||2×30 MHz||FDD||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz|
|900 MHz||VIII (8)||2×? MHz||FDD||2x5 MHz||2x5 MHz||2x5 MHz|
|1800 MHz||III (3)||2×? MHz||FDD||2x20 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz|
On 31 August 2011, Plus (Polkomtel) launched 4G commercially in Poland. The download speed was up to 100 Mbit/s, while upload speed was up to 50 Mbit/s. On 25 October 2012, download speed was increased to 150 Mbit/s. It uses 1800 MHz spectrum belonging to CenterNet and Mobyland.
In Poland, the construction of LTE networks cooperate:
- Plus (Polkomtel) - CenterNet, Mobyland, Aero 2, Sferia
- NetWorkS! - T-Mobile, Orange
- P4 (PlayMobile)
The following figure shows the current allocation for this frequency band:
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||Plus (Polkomtel)||T-Mobile||Orange||P4 (Play)||CenterNet||Mobyland||Aero 2||Sferia|
|800 MHz||XX (20)||2x30MHz||2x5 MHz|
|1800 MHz||III (3)||2x10 MHz||2x15 MHz||2 x 9,8 MHz
1 x 200 kHz
|2 x 9,8 MHz
1 x 200 kHz
|2100 MHz||5MHz test|
|2600 MHz||XXXVIII (38)||TDD||1x50 MHz|
Spectrum auction LTE800 5x (2x5MHz) and LTE 2600 14x (2x5MHz). Participate in the auction: Polkomtel, Orange, T-Mobile, P4, Emitel and NetNet.
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||MEO||Vodafone||NOS|
|800 MHz||XX (20)||2×30 MHz||FDD||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz|
|1800 MHz||III (3)||2×30 MHz||FDD||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz|
|2600 MHz||VII (7)
|2×60 MHz||FDD||2x20 MHz||2x20 MHz||2x20 MHz|
On 31 October 2012, Vodafone has launched 4G tests. Now 4G connectivity is available in several cities: Otopeni, Constanța, Galați, Craiova, Brașov, Bacău, Iași, Cluj-Napoca, Arad and Timișoara.
International LTE Roaming: Since mid-May 2014 Orange offers LTE Roaming service which is currently available in the networks of Orange in Moldova, Poland and Spain and will also be extended to other networks during 2014.
TeliaSonera started deploying LTE (branded "4G") in Stockholm and Oslo November 2009 (as seen above), and in several Swedish, Norwegian, and Finnish cities during 2010. In June 2010, Swedish television companies used 4G to broadcast live television from the Swedish Crown Princess’s wedding.
After the multiband spectrum auction the frequency allocation in Slovakia is as follows:
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||Orange||Slovak Telekom||Telefónica Slovakia||SWAN|
|800 MHz||XX (20)||2×30 MHz||FDD||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||-|
|1800 MHz||III (3)||2×20.4 MHz||FDD||2x4.8 MHz||-||2x0.6 MHz||2x15 MHz|
|2600 MHz||VII (7)
After the multiband spectrum auction in April 2014.
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||Si.Mobil||Telekom Slovenije||Tusmobil|
|800 MHz||XX (20)||2×30 MHz||FDD||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz|
|900 MHz||VIII (8)||2×35 MHz||FDD||2x15 MHz||2x15 MHz||2x5 MHz|
|1800 MHz||III (3)||2×75 MHz||FDD||2x30 MHz||2x25 MHz||2x10 MHz|
|2100 MHz||XXXIV (34)||1×? MHz||TDD||2x20 MHz||-||-|
|2600 MHz||VII (7)
On May 13, Orange Espana announced it will launch its 4G network on 8 July, simultaneously in six of the country's largest cities: Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Malaga and Murcia. A further nine cities — Bilbao, Zaragoza, Alicante, Cordoba, A Coruña, Valladolid and Vigo on the mainland, Palma de Mallorca in the Balearic Islands and Las Palmas in the Canary Islands — will be live by the end of 2013.
Since 30 May 2013, 4G is available in Spain thanks to Vodafone 4G. According to the company, services will use 1800 MHz and 2600 MHz spectrum and will offer download speeds of up to 150Mbit/s and upload speeds of 50Mbit/s.
After the multiband spectrum auction in July 2011.
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||Movistar||Orange||Vodafone||Yoigo|
|800 MHz||XX (20)||2×60 MHz||FDD||-||2×5 MHz||-||-|
|1800 MHz||III (3)||2×74.8 MHz||FDD||2×20 MHz||2×20 MHz||2×20 MHz||2×10 MHz
|2600 MHz||VII (7)||2×70 MHz||FDD||2×20 MHz||2×20 MHz||2×20 MHz||-|
In September 2010, Swisscom tested LTE in Grenchen by using the 2.6 GHz frequency (E-UTRA Band 7). In December 2011 after the LTE field experiment in Grenchen has become a success the company used the 1.8 GHz frequency (E-UTRA Band 3) for further testing in Grindelwald, Gstaad, Leukerbad, Montana, Saas-Fee and St. Moritz/Celerina.
After the multiband spectrum auction (06.02. - 22.02.2012) the frequency allocation in Switzerland is as follows:
|Frequency||E-UTRA Band||Bandwidth||Type of LTE||Swisscom||Sunrise||Orange|
|800 MHz||XX (20)||2×30 MHz||FDD||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x10 MHz|
|900 MHz||VIII (8)||2×35 MHz||FDD||2x15 MHz||2x15 MHz||2x5 MHz|
|1800 MHz||III (3)||2×75 MHz||FDD||2x30 MHz||2x20 MHz||2x25 MHz|
|2100 MHz||I (1)||2×60 MHz||FDD||2x30 MHz||2x10 MHz||2x20 MHz|
|2600 MHz||VII (7)
Swisscom announced on 29 November 2012, commercial service of its category 3 LTE network with maximum speed of 100 Mbit/s. The following frequency range is in service for LTE. 800 MHz, 1800 MHz and 2600 MHz. (E-UTRA Bands 20, 3 und 7) In May 2013 Swisscom upgraded its LTE network from category 3 to category 4. As of the upgrade the maximum speed has become 150 Mbit/s.
Orange started LTE on 28 May 2013. The second largest operator was the first who introduced prepaid LTE in Switzerland. The following frequency range is in service for LTE. 800 MHz, 1800 MHz and 2600 MHz. (E-UTRA Bands 20, 3 und 7) Orange LTE offers up to 100 Mbit/s. The company will upgrade the maximum speed up to 150 Mbit/s at the end of 2013.
International LTE Roaming: Swisscom is the first European operator which offers international LTE Roaming. Since the 21 of June 2013 customers of Swisscom are able to use LTE network of the South Korean operators SK Telecom and KT. According to Swisscom Canada (Rogers) and Hong Kong (SmarTone) are the next countries where customers of the former state-owned company will be able to use LTE roaming.
Sunrise was the last operator in Switzerland who introduced LTE. Commercial service is available as of 19 June 2013. The smallest operator in Switzerland offers speed up to 100 Mbit/s. In 2013 Sunrise is using only the 1800 MHz frequency for LTE service. (E-UTRA Band 3) The operator will use other frequency bands (800 MHz and 2600 MHz - E-UTRA Bands 7 and 20) in the future as well. Prepaid customers of Sunrise are able to use LTE with maximum network speed - even MVNO customer.
Since the beginning of July 2013 Swisscom prepaid customers are able to enter the LTE network. Maximum speed depends on the subscribed plan.
On 19 November 2013, Orange and UPC Cablecom announced a new partnership. Over the next two years, UPC Cablecom will connect more than 1,000 4G masts with top bandwidths of between 1 and 10 Gbit/s.
At the end of November 2013, Swisscom added new LTE Roaming partners in Asia (Japan: Softbank, Philippines: Globe Telecom, Singapore: M1), Europe (France: Bouygues Telecom) and the Middle East (Saudi Arabia: Mobily).
On 19 December 2013, Swisscom added new LTE Roaming partners in Asia (Hong Kong: China Mobile HK and PCCW) and Europe (Austria: A1). At this time Swisscom covers nine countries and twelve foreign LTE networks.
On 17 Februar 2014, Swisscom added new roaming partners (Canada: Telus, France: SFR, Hong Kong: Huchison 3, Norway: Telenor, USA: AT&T) to their LTE roaming list. The company also mentioned an upcoming Russia operator (MTS) for 3. March 2014.
On 10 June 2014, Swisscom added for the upcoming World Cup in Brazil new roaming partners among other countries (Belgium: Belgacom; Brazil: Claro Oi, Vivo; France: Orange; Italy: TIM; Spain: Orange). Further more Swisscom also announced more LTE Roaming in Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Netherland, Portugal and Romania.
In 2009 O2 (a subsidiary of Telefónica Europe) used Slough for testing the 4G network, with Huawei installing LTE technology in six masts across the town to allow testing of HD video conferencing and mobile PlayStation games. On 29 February 2012, UK Broadband launched the first commercial 4G LTE service in the UK in the London Borough of Southwark. In October 2012, MVNO, Abica Limited, announced they were to trial 4G LTE services for high speed M2M applications.
On 21 August 2012, the United Kingdom's regulator Ofcom allowed EE, the owner of the Orange and T-Mobile networks, to use its existing spectrum in the 1,800 MHz band to launch fourth-generation (4G) mobile services. As part of Ofcom's approval of the company's roll-out of 4G it was announced on 22 August that 3 had acquired part of EE's 1,800 MHz spectrum for part of their own 4G network. The 4G service from EE was announced on 11 September 2012 and launched on 30 October initially in 11 cities. The network aims to cover 70% of the UK by 2013 and 98% by 2014.
On 12 November 2012 Ofcom published final regulations and a timetable for the 4G mobile spectrum auction. It also launched a new 4G consumer page, providing information on the upcoming auction and the consumer benefits that new services will deliver. Ofcom auctioned off the UK-wide 4G spectrum previously used by the country's analogue television signals in the 800 MHz band as well as in the 2,600 MHz band. On 20 February 2013, the winners of the 4G spectrum auction were announced by Ofcom. The four major networks, EE, O2, Vodafone and 3, were awarded spectrum along with Niche Spectrum Ventures Ltd (a subsidiary of BT Group plc).
On 9 July 2013, Ofcom announced that mobile network operators would be allowed to repurpose their existing 2G and 3G spectrum, specifically in the 900, 1,800 and 2,100 MHz bands, for 4G services.
Both O2 and Vodafone launched their 4G networks on 29 August 2013. The 3 network launched their 4G service in December 2013, initially it was only available to a selected few thousand customers in London preceding a nationwide rollout in 2014.
LTE MVNE: On 1 April 2014, Plintron World's largest Multi-Country MVNE Enables Lycamobile to be in the 4G League in UK. Plintron has completed its LTE core interoperability with O2 UK, to enable 4G data services.
International LTE Roaming: AT&T signed LTE roaming agreement with EE on 17 December 2013. EE announced further LTE roaming agreements with Orange in France and Spain on March 2014. Customers of EE will access the LTE networks of both operators immediately. The company also announced in a press release that it will extend its 4G coverage across major roaming destination including the USA, Italy, Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands by the Summer.
At the beginning of May 2014, Vodafone added 4G roaming for their Red 4G customers in Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain.
On 12 June 2014, Vodafone announced LTE rollout for Belfast over the summer.
Telus and Bell Canada, the major Canadian cdmaOne and EV-DO carriers, have announced that they will be cooperating towards building a fourth generation (4G) LTE wireless broadband network in Canada. As a transitional measure, they are implementing 3G UMTS network that went live in November 2009. Bell Canada claims that its HSPA+ (3G) network, that it calls 4G, covers 97% of the population as of December 2013.
On 27 April 2012, Brazil’s telecoms regulator Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (Anatel) announced that the 6 host cities for the 2013 Confederations Cup to be held there will be the first to have their networks upgraded to 4G.
On September 20, 2007, Verizon Wireless announced plans for a joint effort with the Vodafone Group to transition its networks to the 4G standard LTE. On December 9, 2008, Verizon Wireless announced their intentions to build and roll out an LTE network by the end of 2009. Since then, Verizon Wireless has said that they will start their roll out by the end of 2010.
Sprint offers a 3G/4G connection plan, currently[when?] available in select cities in the United States. It delivers rates up to 10 Mbit/s. Sprint has also launched an LTE network in early 2012.
Verizon Wireless has announced[when?] that it plans to augment its CDMA2000-based EV-DO 3G network in the United States with LTE, and is supposed to complete a rollout of 175 cities by the end of 2011, two thirds of the US population by mid-2012, and cover the existing 3G network by the end of 2013. AT&T, along with Verizon Wireless, has chosen to migrate toward LTE from 2G/GSM and 3G/HSPA by 2011.
The U.S. FCC is exploring[when?] the possibility of deployment and operation of a nationwide 4G public safety network which would allow first responders to seamlessly communicate between agencies and across geographies, regardless of devices. In June 2010 the FCC released a comprehensive white paper which indicates that the 10 MHz of dedicated spectrum currently allocated from the 1700 MHz spectrum for public safety will provide adequate capacity and performance necessary for normal communications as well as serious emergency situations.
International LTE Roaming: AT&T signed LTE roaming agreement with EE on December 17, 2013.
In New Zealand, the first 4G network was introduced in parts of Auckland by Vodafone NZ on 28 February 2013 using the 1800 MHz frequency (Band 3). Vodafone has since expanded coverage to a total of 59 centers.[not in citation given]
Moana, a small village by Lake Brunner on the West Coast with only 250 people, got 4G coverage in May 2013. This was a test of rural broadband services in the 700 MHz range. Vodafone went on to launch 4G in this frequency in Papakura on July 22, 2014.
The Vodafone, Spark and 2degrees 4G networks operate on 1800 MHz (Band 3). Vodafone and Spark have also deployed 4G on 700 MHz (APT Band 28) while 2degrees carries out a trial for this frequency in Auckland. As of 15 January 2014, Spark has 4G coverage in Wellington, Christchurch, Auckland, Whitianga and Whangamata.
2degrees launched their 4G (band 3) service on June 30, 2014 in parts of Auckland, then extended coverage to Wellington on September 8, 2014, then Hamilton, Christchurch, Tauranga before Christmas, and Te Awamutu, Fielding, Levin and Dunedin in 2015.
Telstra announced on 15 February 2011, that it intends to upgrade its current Next G network to 4G with Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology in the central business districts of all Australian capital cities and selected regional centers by the end of 2011.
Telstra will use a mixture of 10 MHz and 15 MHz bandwidth in the 1800 MHz band.
Optus have established a 4G (FD-LTE) network using 10 MHz (out of 15 MHz available) bandwidth in the 1800 MHz band and added the 2.3 GHz band for 4G TD-LTE after acquiring Vivid Wireless in 2012.
Vodafone Australia have indicated their roll out of 4G FD-LTE will use 20 MHz bandwidth and initially support Cat 3 devices at launch, then quickly move to support Cat 4 devices.
Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) will auction 700 MHz "digital dividend" and 2600 MHz spectrum for the provision of 4G FD-LTE services in April 2013. Telstra and Optus are expected to participate in both, while Vodafone has stated it will only participate in the 2600 MHz auction.
On 19 December 2013 Optus claims to set up the world's first TD-LTE Advanced carrier aggregation network. The company achieved a throughput of 520 Mbit/s, by combining four 20 MHz channels of the 2300 MHz spectrum band into 80 MHz.
Beyond 4G research
A major issue in 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell, especially to users in an exposed position in between several base stations. In current research, this issue is addressed by macro-diversity techniques, also known as group cooperative relay, and also by Beam-Division Multiple Access (BDMA).
Pervasive networks are an amorphous and at present entirely hypothetical concept where the user can be simultaneously connected to several wireless access technologies and can seamlessly move between them (See vertical handoff, IEEE 802.21). These access technologies can be Wi-Fi, UMTS, EDGE, or any other future access technology. Included in this concept is also smart-radio (also known as cognitive radio) technology to efficiently manage spectrum use and transmission power as well as the use of mesh routing protocols to create a pervasive network.
- List of mobile phone generations
- 4G-LTE filter
- Mobile radio telephone (also known as "0G")
- LTE (telecommunication) (4G LTE)
- LTE Advanced (4G)
- ITU-R, Report M.2134, Requirements related to technical performance for IMT-Advanced radio interface(s), Approved in November 2008
- "ITU World Radiocommunication Seminar highlights future communication technologies". International Telecommunication Union.
- 62 commercial networks support DC-HSPA+, drives HSPA investments LteWorld February 7, 2012
- Vilches, J. (2010, April 29). Everything you need to know about 4G Wireless Technology. TechSpot.
- Moray Rumney, "IMT-Advanced: 4G Wireless Takes Shape in an Olympic Year", Agilent Measurement Journal, September 2008
- Nomor Research Newsletter: The way of LTE towards 4G
- "3GPP specification: Requirements for further advancements for E-UTRA (LTE Advanced)". 3GPP. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "3GPP Technical Report: Feasibility study for Further Advancements for E-UTRA (LTE Advanced)". 3GPP. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "ITU paves way for next-generation 4G mobile technologies" (press release). ITU. 21 October 2010
- Parkvall, Stefan; Dahlman, Erik; Furuskär, Anders; Jading, Ylva; Olsson, Magnus; Wänstedt, Stefan; Zangi, Kambiz (21–24 September 2008). LTE Advanced – Evolving LTE towards IMT-Advanced (PDF). Vehicular Technology Conference Fall 2008. Stockholm: Ericsson Research. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- Parkvall, Stefan; Astely, David (April 2009). "The evolution of LTE toward LTE Advanced". Journal of Communications 4 (3): 146–54. doi:10.4304/jcm.4.3.146-154.
-  The Draft IEEE 802.16m System Description Document, 2008-04-20
- "Light Reading Mobile - 4G/LTE — Ericsson, Samsung Make LTE Connection — Telecom News Analysis". Unstrung.com. Retrieved March 24, 2010.
- "MetroPCS Launches First 4G LTE Services in the United States and Unveils World’s First Commercially Available 4G LTE Phone". MetroPCS IR. 21 September 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
- Jason Hiner (12 January 2011). "How AT&T and T-Mobile conjured 4G networks out of thin air". TechRepublic. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
- Brian Bennet (5 April 2012). "Meet U.S. Cellular's first 4G LTE phone: Samsung Galaxy S Aviator". CNet. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
- "Sprint 4G LTE Launching in 5 Cities July 15". PC Magazine. 27 June 2012. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- "We have you covered like nobody else". T-Mobile USA. 6 April 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
- "SK Telecom and LG U+ launch LTE in Seoul, fellow South Koreans seethe with envy". 5 July 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- "EE launches Superfast 4G and Fibre for UK consumers and businesses today". EE. October 30, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Miller, Joe (August 29, 2013). "Vodafone and O2 begin limited roll-out of 4G networks". BBC News. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Shukla, Anuradha (October 10, 2011). "Super-Fast 4G Wireless Service Launching in South Korea". Asia-Pacific Business and Technology Report. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
- "Sprint announces seven new WiMAX markets, says 'Let AT&T and Verizon yak about maps and 3G coverage'". Engadget. March 23, 2010. Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- Qualcomm halts UMB project, Reuters, November 13th, 2008
- "LTE". 3GPP web site. 2009. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- "WiMAX and the IEEE 802.16m Air Interface Standard" (PDF). WiMax Forum. 4 April 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- G. Fettweis, E. Zimmermann, H. Bonneville, W. Schott, K. Gosse, M. de Courville (2004). "High Throughput WLAN/WPAN" (PDF). WWRF.
- "4G standards that lack cooperative relaying".
- Morr, Derek (June 9, 2009). "Verizon mandates IPv6 support for next-gen cell phones". Retrieved June 10, 2009.
- Zheng, P; Peterson, L; Davie, B; Farrel, A (2009). "Wireless Networking Complete". Morgan Kaufmann
- "KT Launches Commercial WiBro Services in Korea". WiMAX Forum. November 15, 2005. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
- "KT's Experience In Development Projects". March 2011.
- "4G Mobile Broadband". Sprint. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
- Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "DoCoMo Achieves 5 Gbit/s Data Speed". NTT DoCoMo Press. February 9, 2007.
- Reynolds, Melanie (September 14, 2007). "NTT DoCoMo develops low power chip for 3G LTE handsets". Electronics Weekly. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- "Auctions Schedule". FCC. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- "European Commission proposes TV spectrum for WiMax". zdnetasia.com. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
- "Skyworks Rolls Out Front-End Module for 3.9G Wireless Applications. (Skyworks Solutions Inc.)" (free registration required). Wireless News. February 14, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
- "Wireless News Briefs — February 15, 2008". WirelessWeek. February 15, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2008.[dead link]
- "Skyworks Introduces Industry's First Front-End Module for 3.9G Wireless Applications.". Skyworks press release (Free with registration). 11 February 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
- ITU-R Report M.2134, “Requirements related to technical performance for IMT-Advanced radio interface(s),” November 2008.
- Nortel and LG Electronics Demo LTE at CTIA and with High Vehicle Speeds :: Wireless-Watch Community at the Wayback Machine (archived June 6, 2008) (Access through web.archive.org)
- "Scartel and HTC Launch World's First Integrated GSM/WiMAX Handset" (Press release). HTC Corporation. 12 November 2008. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- San Miguel and Qatar Telecom Sign MOU at the Wayback Machine (archived February 18, 2009) San Miguel Corporation, December 15, 2008
- "LRTC to Launch Lithuania’s First Mobile WiMAX 4G Internet Service" (Press release). WiMAX Forum. 3 March 2009. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "4G Coverage and Speeds". Sprint. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- "Teliasonera First To Offer 4G Mobile Services". The Wall Street Journal. December 14, 2009.[dead link]
- NetCom.no - NetCom 4G (in English)
- Daily Mobile Blog
- Neudorf, Raigo (25 February 2010). "EMT avas 4G testvõrgu" (in Estonian). E24.ee. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- Anand Lal Shimpi (June 28, 2010). "The Sprint HTC EVO 4G Review". AnandTech. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- МТS kompaniyasi O’zbekistonda 4G tarmog’i ishga tushirilishini e’lon qiladi (in Uzbek)
- VivaCell-MTS launches in Armenia 4G/LTE
- ""Omnitel" skelbia pirmoji Lietuvoje pradėjusi tiekti 4G LTE ryšio paslaugas" (in Lithuanian). delfi.lt. April 28, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
- "Mobily Announces 4G LTE Service in Saudi Arabia (STC and Zain too)". SaudiMac. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- "Verizon launches its first LTE handset". Telegeography.com. March 16, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "HTC ThunderBolt is officially Verizon's first LTE handset, come March 17th". Phonearena.com. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "4G Thailand : First 4G field trial of Thailand". AIS. Retrieved January 31, 2012.
- "demonstrates Broadcast Video/TV over LTE". Ericsson. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "Bharti Airtel launches India's first 4G service". The Times Of India. 10 April 2012.
- 1st news (May 24, 2012). "Azercell объявил о запуске 4G". 1NEWS.AZ. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- . Safaricom races ahead of rivals with 4G network.
- Télécoms. Les opérateurs testent la 4G à Marrakech
- LTE in Morocco by early-2015
- "Airtel launches 4G in Kolkata — The Times of India". The Times Of India.
- "Airtel ties up with Samsung, starts 4G trials in Chennai". The Economic Times. 15 May 2015.
- "Reliance Jio 4G service to be rolled out nationwide in 2015". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "4g in punjab".
- "Aircel launches highest speed 4G services bringing it at par with global telecommunication offerings".
- "Aircel launches First 4G Mobile Services in Bihar". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- Tikona Digital Networks
- "Telkomsel to serve 2013 APEC meeting with its 4g LTE trial network". Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- "Indonesia finally gets a taste of 4G". Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "Omantel launches Oman's first 4G LTE mobile broadband network". Muscat Daily. July 15, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
- "Life gets even faster with the launch of 4G". Nawras. February 17, 2013. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "4G". Nawras. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "Ooredoo Announces 4G LTE Commercial Launch for April". Marhaba. March 14, 2013. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "Zain Jordan launches Jordan's first 4G LTE mobile broadband network". Zain Facebook Page. February 14, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
- 4G Licence in Pakistan
- $1.182 billion raised in spectrum auction: Live updates
- "4G - Globe Network - Empowering you". web.archive.org. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Korea to Begin Developing 5G". unwiredview.com. July 8, 2008. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- Dialog launches first fixed 4G-LTE service in Sri Lanka
- Dialog Launches First Mobile 4G-LTE Service
- Mobitel Launches Mobile 4G-LTE Service
- Superior “SLT Broadband” broadens its reach via fixed 3G/LTE technology
- "True Move H – The First To Offer LTE Service On 2100 MHz In Thailand While Reinforcing Its Leadership As The Largest 3G Operator,". http://www.thaipr.net/. May 10, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
- TMCELL starts to connect the subscribers to the LTE network
- "T-Mobile Austria betreibt Europas größtes LTE-Netz in Innsbruck" (in German). teltarif.de. August 24, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "LTE, die nächste Mobilfunkgeneration, live im A1 Netz" (in German). A1 Telekom Austria. June 29, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "2.6 GHz frequency auction completed – Revenues total EUR 39,5 million". RTR. September 20, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "2600 MHz paired Spectrum". RTR. October 18, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "2600 MHz unpaired Spectrum". RTR. October 18, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "A1 Telekom Austria startet LTE in der Bundeshauptstadt Wien" (in German). A1 Telekom Austria. October 19, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "T-Mobile verspricht mobiles Internet mit bis zu 100 Mbit/s" (in German). Der Standard. July 28, 2011. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "Drei startet den LTE-Turbo" (in German). Futurezone. November 16, 2011. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "A1 erreicht bereits jeden dritten Österreicher mit LTE" (in German). A1 Telekom Austria. November 26, 2012. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "1.000 4G/LTE Stationen im Netz von A1: Mobilfunknetz der 4. Generation wächst" (in German). A1 Telekom Austria. August 7, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "A1 erweitert Glasfasernetz und Mobilfunknetz der vierten Generation im Großraum Bregenz" (in German). A1 Telekom Austria. September 4, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "T-MOBILE BRINGT LTE AUF SMARTPHONES" (in German). T-Mobile Austria. October 7, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "Multiband Auction 800/900/1800 MHz (2013) - Auction Results". RTR. October 21, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "T-Mobile Austria confirms intent to appeal auction results". Telecoms.com. November 28, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "H3G to spearhead Austrian spectrum appeal". TeleGeography. November 28, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "A1 erweitert Glasfasernetz und Mobilfunknetz der vierten Generation im Großraum Klosterneuburg" (in German). A1 Telekom Austria. December 4, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "A1 ermöglicht als erster Mobilfunkbetreiber Österreichs 4G/LTE Nutzung im Ausland" (in German). A1 Telekom Austria. December 19, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
- "A1 startet LTE 800 High-Speed Mobilfunknetz am Stadtrand und im ländlichen Bereich" (in German). A1. January 28, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- "Multiband Auction 800/900/1800 MHz (2013) - Results 800 MHz". Austrian Regulatory Authority for Broadcasting and Telecommunications (RTR). Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- "T-Mobile Austria raises top LTE transmission speed to 150Mbps". TeleGeography. March 11, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "LTE-Netzausbau: "3" wartet auf Genehmigung" (in German). derStandard. May 6, 2014. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- "Si.mobil first Slovenian operator with LTE roaming abroad". Telecompaper. June 11, 2014. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- Roll-out of the first 4G network in Belgium and strategic partnership with Fon
- Belgacom extends 4G network in five more cities
- "Frequenzvergabeverfahren 2010" (in German). Bundesnetzagentur. May 20, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "Deutsche Telekom nimmt ersten LTE-Sender in Betrieb". teltarif.de. August 30, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- "Vodafone: Ab 1. Dezember LTE-Surfstick mit Vertrag für 1 Euro" (in German). teltarif.de. November 30, 2010. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "Das ist LTE" (in German). Deutsche Telekom. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "O2 LTE für Zuhause". Telefónica. May 30, 2011. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "LTE für Bonn, Hamburg, Leipzig und München" (in German). April 24, 2012. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- "Deutsche Telekom bringt LTE in den Freistaat Thüringen" (in German). July 3, 2012. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- "Telefónica Deutschland: World's first handovers of voice calls from LTE to UMTS under realistic conditions". Telefónica. February 7, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "O2 LTE 4G all over Germany: Starting July 2, all high speed areas are on air". Telefónica. June 7, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "LTE+: Network turbo with up to 150 Mbit/s". September 5, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- "Telefonica und Vodafone testen LTE-Advanced". heise online. November 15, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
- "DT leads the way to LTE Advanced". Deutsche Telekom. February 20, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- "LTE bei E-Plus für alle ohne Aufpreis: Am Mittwoch geht's los" (in German). teltarif.de. March 3, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "Deutsche Telekom: Ab Sommer bis zu 300 MBit/s über LTE" (in German). teltarif.de. March 10, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- "Vodafone Deutschland bietet ab sofort LTE-Roaming in Europa an". teltarif.de. May 22, 2014. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- "Mit LTE auch im Ausland schneller surfen" (in German). Deutsche Telekom. June 17, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- "Deutsche Telekom starts LTE roaming in Netherlands and UK". Telecompaper. August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- Press Release: Digiweb Mobile Takes 088
- RTÉ News article: Ireland gets new mobile phone provider
- "ComReg Announces Results of its Multi-Band Spectrum Auction" (PDF). comreg.ie. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- "ComReg reveals 4G auction results - €450m instant windfall for Irish Govt". www.siliconrepublic.com. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- "Ireland's first 4G phone service goes live". RTÉ. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
- "Vodafone Ireland 4G Mobile Broadband Goes Live". Vodafone Ireland. October 14, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
- "Vodafone Switches on 4G for Smartphones in 6 Cities & 31 Towns across Ireland". Vodafone Ireland. December 9, 2013. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- "TIM offers 4G roaming in Switzerland and Spain". Telecompaper. May 6, 2014. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- "TIM expands 4G roaming to Hong Kong and Germany". Telecompaper. June 4, 2014. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- "Tele Greenland to roll out 4G LTE on 1 December". TeleGeography. November 29, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
- "Orange unveils 29 October LTE launch date". TeleGeography. September 28, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
- "P&T Luxembourg, LuxGSM to rebrand as Post Telecom". TeleGeography. June 20, 2013. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
- "4G Americas Western Europe Deployment Status Update". 4G Americas. June 14, 2014. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
- "Orange is the first provider in Luxembourg to offer 4G roaming" (PDF). Orange. June 24, 2014. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
- "T-Mobile Macedonia opens 4G network to end users". TeleGeography. December 4, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
- "Vip Operator switches on LTE network c".
- Times of Malta. "Vodafone rolls out 4G broadband". Times of Malta.
- "KPN versnelt 4G-uitrol in Nederland". KPN.
- V o dafone verhoogt snelheid mobiel internet voor álle klanten
- T-Mobile komt in september met meer 4G info
- "KPN accelerates 4G roll-out in The Netherlands". KPN.
- "Tele2 Stays MVNO for 2G/3G on T-Mobile network (Dutch Article)".
- "Dutch multiband spectrum auction ends with four winners". Teleccompaper. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- "KPN expands 4G coverage, at home and abroad". TeleGeograph. February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- "KPN expands 4G coverage, at home and abroad" (in Dutch). KPN. February 16, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- "Auksjon #14 (800 MHz, 900 MHz og 1800 MHz)". npt.no. December 6, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- "Telenor Norge begins 800MHz LTE rollout". TeleGeography. March 14, 2014. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- may adds-data-to-large--1010720 "Tele2 Norway launches 4G on 1 May, adds data to 'Large'". Telecompaper. April 29, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- Frequency list in Poland
- Auction LTE800 and LTE2600 in Poland
- "Vodafone permite testarea tehnologiei LTE/4G in 17 magazine din 10 orase din Romania/Internet la viteze de pana la 75 Mbit/s poate fi incercat pe modem USB, tableta si hotspot mobil ;— hotnews.ro". hotnews.ro.
- Vodafone Romania covering map
- "Orange Romania launches 4G roaming". Telecompaper. May 14, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- "MegaFon launches 4G services via Yota; resolves ownership disputes". TeleGeography. April 24, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Russian LTE round-up: Rostelecom postpones MVNO launch, MTS goes live in Moscow, Kazan boasts 4G triple-threat". TeleGeography. September 5, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Roskomnadzor objects to Vainakh Telecom LTE launch in Chechnya". TeleGeography. January 23, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Vimpelcom launches LTE network in Moscow". TeleGeography. May 28, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Rostelecom launches LTE in Sochi". TeleGeography. June 4, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Hartă acoperire internet și voce" (in Romanian). Vodafone. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "Výsledky elektronickej aukcie" (in Slovak). Telekomunikačný úrad SR. January 8, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- "SWAN wins 4G mobile licence alongside three incumbents". TeleGeography. January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- "Spain to get first 4G mobile network in July". zdnet.com. May 9, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "Orange trumps rival Yoigo to launch first Spanish 4G network". zdnet.com. May 13, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "Vodafone wins Spain's 4G race with surprise launch in seven cities". zdnet.com. May 28, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "MWC: Vodafone Spain demonstrates 540Mbps using FDD/TDD-LTE CA setup". TeleGeography. March 1, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "Vodafone lanza 4G en Burgos" (in Spanish). Vodafone. March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Vodafone lanza 4G en toda Castilla La Mancha" (in Spanish). Vodafone. March 11, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Vodafone lanza 4G en Logroño" (in Spanish). Vodafone. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Vodafone Spain brings LTE service to Logrono". Telecompaper. March 13, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Frecuencias telefonía móvil" (in Spanish). BandaAncha.eu. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
- "Swisscom demonstrates 4G mobile communications technology LTE in Grenchen". Swisscom. October 7, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "LTE pilot project in seven tourist regions starting today". Swisscom. December 8, 2011. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "Orange, Sunrise and Swisscom purchase mobile radio frequencies at auction". OFCOM. February 23, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "Swisscom launches Switzerland's first 4G/LTE network". Swisscom. November 28, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "Swisscom customers can now surf even faster on the 4G/LTE network". Swisscom. May 23, 2013. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "Orange übernimmt die Marktführerschaft bei 4G, lanciert weitere Service Excellence Initiativen und erzielt ein solides Quartalsergebnis" (PDF). Orange. May 28, 2013. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "4G/LTE roaming for Swisscom customers". Swisscom. June 20, 2013. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "Sunrise LTE FAQ". Sunrise. Retrieved December 1, 2013.
- "4G/LTE: Mobiles Highspeed Internet für alle Sunrise Kunden". Sunrise. June 19, 2013. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "Orange looking to fibre optic in the further expansion of its 4G capacities" (PDF). Orange. November 19, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2013.
- "upc cablecom to connect mobile phone masts for Orange" (PDF). UPC Cablecom. November 19, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2013.
- "Fast data connections now also available while holidaying in France". Swisscom. November 26, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2013.
- "List of LTE Roaming partners" (PDF). Swisscom. November 25, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2013.
- "Swisscom bietet 4G/LTE-Roaming ab heute in Österreich und damit nun in neun Ländern an, darunter Frankreich, Japan, Hongkong und Singapur." (in German). Swisscom. December 19, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2013.
- "Pünktlich zu den Olympischen Spielen in Sotchi: Mit Swisscom Roaming über 4G/LTE neu auch in Russland und damit in insgesamt zehn Ländern" (in German). Swisscom. January 22, 2014. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- "Das Sunrise LTE-Mobilfunknetz wird noch schneller" (PDF) (in German). Sunrise. January 29, 2014. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- "Swisscom lets you surf even faster in Europe and Brazil". Swisscom. June 10, 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- "Swisscom speeds up mobile communications even more with the rollout of LTE advanced". Swisscom. June 16, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- "Factsheet LTE Advanced - Theoretische Geschwindigkeit von bis zu 450 Mbit/s" (PDF) (in German). Swisscom. October 8, 2014. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- Neate, Rupert (December 12, 2009). "Slough accepts the call to be 4G mobile phone trailblazer". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- "4G LTE Network From UK Broadband Goes Live In London | TechWeekEurope UK". Techweekeurope.co.uk. February 29, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "Everything Everywhere sells services to 3 allowing for 4G". SourcingFocus. Com. SourcingFocus. Com. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- "EE to launch 4G mobile services in 16 UK cities in 2012". BBC News. September 11, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- Tripathi, Shruti (September 11, 2012). "EE by gum! 4G (almost!) launches. Q&A with the man making it happen | Features". LondonlovesBusiness.com. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- Tripathi, Shruti. "It's live! EE launches superfast 4G mobile network in 10 cities | News". LondonlovesBusiness.com. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- "Ofcom finalises 4G auction rules". ofcom.org.uk. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "4G". ofcom.org.uk. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Warman, Matt (May 13, 2012). "4G mobile phone launch ‘before Christmas’". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "Ofcom announces winners of the 4G mobile auction". Ofcom. 20 February 2013. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- Jackson, Mark (July 9, 2013). "Ofcom UK Open 900MHz, 1800MHz and 2100MHz to 4G Mobile Broadband". ISPreview. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- Kelion, Leo (August 1, 2013). "O2 4G mobile network launch date announced for the UK". BBC News. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "Vodafone announces 4G launch in UK". BBC News. August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "Three UK Delays 4G Mobile Broadband Launch to Q4 2013". March 27, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- Woods, Ben (August 28, 2013). "Three finally unveils 4G rollout plans: The stage is now set for UK’s 4G future". The Next Web. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- "AT&T signs LTE roaming agreement with EE". http://www.telecoms.com/. December 17, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
- "EE CUSTOMERS TO BENEFIT FROM SUPERFAST 4G IN FRANCE AND SPAIN". EE. March 13, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "EE signs 4G roaming agreements in France, Spain". Telecompaper. March 13, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Vodafone cuts cost of EuroTraveller roaming option". Telecompaper. May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- "VODAFONE ANNOUNCES ARRIVAL OF 4G IN NORTHERN IRELAND" (PDF). Vodafone. June 12, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- TELUS (October 10, 2008). "Next Generation Network Evolution". TELUS.
- BELL (December 4, 2013). "Bell - LTE". BELL.
- Anatel will begin reviewing 4G tender proposals and reveal auction date on 5 June
- "Sprint to Scrap WiMAX by Late 2015". PC Magazine. 11 October 2014. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- Cheng, Roger (September 27, 2011). "Sprint to launch own 4G LTE network in early 2012 (scoop) | Mobile — CNET News". News.cnet.com. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "America's Most Reliable Network". Verizon Wireless. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "AT&T, Verizon, Vodafone to share same 4G network". Electronista. September 21, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- "World's First 3G/4G Android Phone, HTC EVO™ 4G, Coming this Summer Exclusively from Sprint" (Press release). Sprint. 23 March 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
- FCC White Paper. "The Public Safety Nationwide Interoperable Broadband Network, A New Model For Capacity, Performance and Cost", June 2010.
- "Vodafone Fiji’s 4G network goes live". TeleGeography. December 5, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- "FAQ's - 4G". Vodafone Fiji. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
- 4G is Live now | LTE Network | Vodafone NZ
- "Small, rural NZ town gets 4G". 3 News NZ. May 25, 2013.
- "2degrees turns on Auckland 4G". Stuff.co.nz. June 30, 2014.
- Telstra to launch 4G mobile broadband network by end 2011 Telstra, February 15, 2011
- Colley, Andrew (August 29, 2012). "Telstra's 4G plan to reach 14 million". The Australian. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "4G Network - Mobile Phones & Plans". Telstra. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- "Optus to build faster 4G network with acquisition of Vividwireless". Optus. February 20, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- "Optus introduces world's first TD-LTE Advanced carrier aggregation network". Optus. December 19, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- "Optus tests TD-LTE Advanced carrier aggregation". Telecoms.com. December 19, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- IT R&D program of MKE/IITA: 2008-F-004-01 “5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation”.
- 3GPP LTE Encyclopedia
- Nomor Research: White Paper on LTE Advance the new 4G standard
- Brian Woerner (June 20–22, 2001). "Research Directions for Fourth Generation Wireless" (PDF). Proceedings of the 10th International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WET ICE 01). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. (118kb)
- Information on 4G mobile services in the UK - Ofcom
3rd Generation (3G)
|Mobile Telephony Generations||Succeeded by
5th Generation (5G)
(currently under formal research & development)