5.5 Metre (keelboat)

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International 5.5 Metre
5.5 Metre insigna.png
Class symbol
5.5 Metre (keelboat).svg
Development
DesignerCharles E. Nicholson (rule designer)
Year1949 (rule design)
DesignDevelopment class
Boat
Crew3
DraftMaximum: 1.35 m (4 ft 5 in)
Hull
TypeMonohull
Hull weightMinimum: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb)
Maximum: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb)
LOAAbout: 9.5 m (31 ft)
BeamMinimum: 1.92 m (6 ft 4 in)
Hull appendages
Keel/board typeFixed
Sails
Spinnaker areaAbout: 50.0 m2 (538 sq ft)
Upwind sail areaMinimum: 26.5 m2 (285 sq ft)
Maximum: 29.0 m2 (312 sq ft)
Former Olympic class

The International 5.5 Metre class was created to yield a racing keel boat giving a sailing experience similar to that of the International 6 Metre Class, but at a lower cost.

The main class regulation is a restriction on a single quantity output from a formula involving the boat's rating length L, weight (expressed as a displacement D) and sail area S; the regulation states that the output of this formula must not exceed 5.500 metres. There is considerable scope for variations in design while still meeting this restriction, and as a result each 5.5 metre boat is unique.

If the design parameters of a proposed new boat result in a formula output exceeding 5.5 metres, then one or more of the parameters must be suitably adjusted. Performance data gained from testing models towed in a long water tank (referred to in yacht design as Ship model basin) can suggest optimal combinations of parameters. The 5.5. metre rule is a variant of the International Rule (sailing) that was established already in 1907. The 5.5. is therefore closely related to larger metre boats such as the 6mR, 8mR and the 12mR.

Since 2010 the 5.5 Metre is one of the Vintage Yachting Classes at the Vintage Yachting Games.

History[edit]

5.5-metre class Olympic race in Helsinki 1952. Boats are German Tom Kyle (G I), Gold medalist Complex II (US I) and Danish Jill (D 2).

The 5.5-metre class was a redesign of the 6-metre class by Charles E. Nicholson in 1937. The first boats conforming to the 5.5-metre rule were built in 1949. There had been an earlier attempt to build a cheaper alternative to the Sixes. In 1929 the 5-metre class was established by the French "Union de Societes Nautique Francaise" and the class was accepted in London. It achieved a position as the smallest new international metre class and some hundreds boats were built. Nevertheless, the 5 metre never managed to achieve an Olympic status. The 5.5-metre class replaced it quickly and was raced in Olympics for first time in 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. The Scandinavian Gold Cup has also been competed with 5.5m boats since 1953. 5.5 metre boats replaced the International 6-metre at the 1956 Olympic Games held in Melbourne, Australia. The 5.5 metre participation in the Olympic sailing events continued at the 1960 Olympic Games and 1964 Olympic Games. During the 1960s it however began to draw similar criticism as preceding six-metre class - namely, increasing costs - and the boat lost Olympic status after 1968 Olympic Games, due to excessive design and building costs of one off boats, marking the end of development class keel boats in Olympic regattas. However, the class remained active thereafter and 5.5-metre boats are still very actively raced.

The formula[edit]

The measurement formula is given in the 2006 International Five Point Five Metre Rating Rules:

where

  • = length for rating
  • = measured sail area
  • = displacement in cubic metres

Events[edit]

Olympic Games[1][edit]

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Sweden (SWE)2114
2 United States (USA)2024
3 Australia (AUS)1001
4 Great Britain (GBR)0112
 Switzerland (SUI)0112
6 Denmark (DEN)0101
 Norway (NOR)0101
Totals (7 nations)55515
Event Gold Silver Bronze
1952 Helsinki
details
 United States (USA)
Britton Chance
Michael Schoettle
Edgar White
Sumner White
 Norway (NOR)
Peder Lunde
Vibeke Lunde
Børre Falkum-Hansen
 Sweden (SWE)
Folke Wassén
Carl-Erik Ohlson
Magnus Wassén
1956 Melbourne
details
 Sweden (SWE)
Lars Thörn
Hjalmar Karlsson
Sture Stork
 Great Britain (GBR)
Robert Perry
David Bowker
John Dillon
Neil Kennedy-Cochran-Patrick
 Australia (AUS)
Jock Sturrock
Douglas Buxton
Devereaux Mytton
1960 Rome
details
 United States (USA)
George O'Day
James Hunt
David Smith
 Denmark (DEN)
William Berntsen
Steen Christensen
Sören Hancke
 Switzerland (SUI)
Henri Copponex
Pierre Girard
Manfred Metzger
1964 Tokyo
details
 Australia (AUS)
William Northam
Peter O'Donnell
James Sargeant
 Sweden (SWE)
Lars Thörn
Arne Karlsson
Sture Stork
 United States (USA)
John J. McNamara
Joseph Batchelder
Francis Scully
1968 Mexico City
details
 Sweden (SWE)
Ulf Sundelin
Jörgen Sundelin
Peter Sundelin
 Switzerland (SUI)
Louis Noverraz
Bernhard Dunand
Marcel Stern
 Great Britain (GBR)
Robin Aisher
Paul Anderson
Adrian Jardine

World Championship[2][edit]

Year
Gold Silver Bronze
1961 Helsinki  Ylliam XIV (SUI)
Louis Noverraz
 Web II (DEN)
William Eldred Berntsen
 Volpina (ITA)
G. Carcano
1962 Poole  Complex III (USA)
Britton Chance
 John B3 (BAH)
Robert Symonette
 Bjarne (GBR)
Chris Hall
1963 Seawanhaka  Chaje II (USA)
Raymond Hunt
 Rush VII (SWE)
Lars Thörn
 Pride (USA)
Ernest Fay
1965 Napoli  Grifone (ITA)
Agostino Straulino
 Southern Cross III (AUS)
Norman Booth
 Complex V (USA)
Gardner Cox
1966 Copenhagen  Web III (DEN)
Paul Bert Elvstrøm
Paul Mik Meyer
 Sünnschien (FRG)
Rudi Harmsdorf
 Yeoman (GBR)
Robin Aisher
1967 Nassau  Cloud IX (USA)
Gordon Lindemann
 Yeoman XV (GBR)
Robin Aisher
 Cadenza (USA)
Gardner Cox
1969 Sandhamn  Cybèle (FRA)
Jean-Marie le Guillou
Nikolas le Guillou
Daniel Tassin
 Wasa IV (SWE)
Ulf Sundelin
Jörgen Sundelin
Peter Sundelin
 Tomatoe (SWE)
Thomas B. Nathhorst
Håkan Lindquist
Claes Boje
1970 Sydney  Carabella (AUS)
David Forbes
 Nemesis (USA)
Ted Turner
 Sundance (USA)
Ernest Fay
1971 Seawanhaka  Tiger (USA)
Ted Turner
 Carabella (AUS)
David Forbes
 Bingo II (NOR)
King Olav
1972 Genève  Alphée VI (SUI)
Claude Bigar
 Tiger (USA)
Ted Turner
 Sundance (USA)
Ernest Fay
1973 Lysekil  Sundance (USA)
Ernest Fay
 John B V (BAH)
Robert Symonette
 Antares (AUS)
M. Morris
1974 Sydney  Southern Cross IV (AUS)
Norman Booth
 Skagerak (NOR)
Crown Prince Harald
 Barragoola (AUS)
R. Slade
1975 Neuchâtel no champion decided
1976 Hankø  Arunga (AUS)
Frank Tolhurst
 Sundance (USA)
Ted Turner
 Bingo II (NOR)
King Olav
1977 Bénodet  Antares II (AUS)
H. Vaughan
 John B (BAH)
Robert Symonette
Ulf Sundelin
Gavin McKinney
 Odyssée V (SUI)
Jean Lauener
1978 Sandhamn  Arunga III (AUS)
Frank Tolhurst
 Ilias (SUI)
Hans Aeppli
 Joker IV (SUI)
Thomas Sprecher
1979 Hankø  Arunga III (AUS)
Frank Tolhurst
 Patricia (FIN)
M. Rouhiainen
 Wildfire (USA)
Albert Fay
1980 Sydney  John B 6 (BAH)
Robert Symonette
 Arunga III (AUS)
Frank Tolhurst
 Wildfire (USA)
Albert Fay
1981 Nassau  Rapsody (AUS)
Roy Tutty
 Arunga III (AUS)
Frank Tolhurst
Mark Tolhurst
 Pop's John B (BAH)
Robert Symonette
Gavin McKinney
1982 Genève  Saphir (SUI)
Jean-Claude Vuithier
L'Huillier
Serrasin
 Onyx (SUI)
Pierre-Yeves Firmenich
Psarophagis
Truant
 (Si)Naryl (SUI)
Philippe Dürr
Homberger
Lehmann
1983 Hankø  Firestorm (USA)
Albert Fay
 Arunga IV (SWE)
Jens Busch
 Warrior III (USA)
T. Omohundro
1984 Porto Cervo  (Si)Naryl (SUI)
Philippe Dürr
 Norna XI (NOR)
Prince Harald
 Warrior III (USA)
T. Omohundro
1985 Newport Beach  Sinaryl (SUI)
Philippe Dürr
 Warrior IV (USA)
T. Omohundro
 Morea (USA)
Robert Mosbacher
1986 Sydney  John B VII (BAH)
Robert Symonette
Ulf Sundelin
Michael Baker-Harber
 Helena (FIN)
T. Jungell
 Busy B (NOR)
J.E. Dyvi
1987 Hankø  Artémis VII (SUI)
Ronald Pieper
 Vinnia (FIN)
Peter Tallberg
 Firestorm (USA)
Albert Fay
1988 Genève  Tasman (SUI)
Rico Gregorini
 Sinaryl (SUI)
Philippe Dürr
 Maria-Christina (SUI)
Jürg Weber
1989 Houston  Firestorm (USA)
G. Francisco IV
 Above the Line (USA)
Peter Masterson
Tom Dickey
 Southern Cross 5 (AUS)
Frank Tolhurst
1990 Torquay  Alfredo (NOR)
Kalle Nergaard
Kristian Nergaard
Espen Stokkeland
 Above the Line (USA)
Peter Masterson
Tom Dickey
 Firestorm (USA)
Albert Fay
1991 Sydney  Chlika-Chlika (SUI)
Christian Wahl
 Thunderbunny (USA)
M. Haines
 Alfredo (NOR)
Kalle Nergaard
Kristian Nergaard
Herman Horn Johannesen
1992 Nassau  Chlika-Chlika (SUI)
Christian Wahl
 Above the Line (USA)
Peter Masterson
Tom Dickey
 Dodo (FIN)
Henrik Dahlmann
1993 Hankø  Zenda Corn (NOR)
Kristian Nergaard
Kalle Nergaard
Christen Horn Johannesen
 DoDo Too (FIN)
Henrik Dahlmann
 My Shout (USA)
Glen Foster
1994 Crouesty  Odyssée Junior (SUI)
Dominique Lauener
 Zenda Corn (NOR)
Kristian Nergaard
Christen Horn Johannesen
 Romeo e Giulietta (FRA)
Marc Pajot
1995 Hanko  My Shout (USA)
Glen Foster
 Odyssée Junior (SUI)
Dominique Lauener
 Dododoo (FIN)
Henrik Dahlmann
1996 Muiden  Zenda Corn (NOR)
Kristian Nergaard
Christen Horn Johannesen
Dag Usterud
 My Shout (USA)
Glen Foster
 Baba Jaga (SUI)
Christof Wilke
1997 Key Biscane  My Shout (USA)
Glen Foster
Ronald Rosenburg
Mark Covell
 Ali Baba (SUI)
Bruno Marazzi
Flavio Marazzi
Renato Marazzi
 Kandoo (FIN)
Erik Dahlmann
Mathias Dahlmann
Tom Borrenius
1998 Cowes  My Shout (USA)
Glen Foster
 Marie-Françoise XIII (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
 Artémis X (SUI)
Roni Pieper
1999 Torbole  Marie Francoise XIV (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
Juerg Christen
Daniel Stampfli
 Ali Baba (SUI)
Bruno Marazzi
Flavio Marazzi
Renato Marazzi
 My Shout (USA)
Glen Foster
Ronald Rosenburg
William Bennet
2000 Medemblik  Marie Francoise XIV (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
Daniel Stampfli
Jürg Christen
 Pungin (SUI)
Hans-Peter Schmid
Lionel Rupp
Roland Baumgartner
 John B Once Again (BAH)
Gavin McKinney
Lars Petter Fjeld
Craig Symonette
2001 Glücksburg SUI - Artémis XI
 Jochen Schümann (GER)
 Roni Pieper (SUI)
 Peter van Niekerck (NED)
 Marie-Françoise XV (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
Jürg Christen
Daniel Stamfli
BAH - John B Once Again
 Gavin McKinney (BAH)
 Craig Symonette (BAH)
Joe Thompson
2002 Helsinki  Ali Baba (SUI)
Bruno Marazzi
Flavio Marazzi
Renato Marazzi
 Marie-Françoise XV (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
Jürg Christen
Daniel Stamfli
 John B Once Again (BAH)
Gavin McKinney
Craig Symonette
Lars Horn Johannessen
2003 Bénodet NOR - Artémis XII
 Kristian Nergaard (NOR)
 Mark Covell (GBR)
 Peter Hauff (NOR)
 Addam³ (FIN)
Johan Gullichsen
Henrik Lundberg
Timo Telkola
 Marie-Françoise XV (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
Leonardi Gaume
Daniel Stamfli
2004 Torbole  Ali Baba (SUI)
Flavio Marazzi
Enrico de Maria
Stefan Haftka
 Marie-Françoise XV (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
Leonardi Gaume
Daniel Stamfli
 Addam³ (FIN)
Johan Gullichsen
Henrik Lundberg
Timo Telkola
2005 Sydney SUI - Artémis X
 Jochen Schümann (GER)
 Roni Pieper (SUI)
FIN - Addam³
 Johan Gullichsen (FIN)
SUI - Ali Baba
 Bruno Marazzi (SUI)
 Flavio Marazzi (SUI)
2006 Medemblik  Ali Baba (SUI)
Flavio Marazzi
Etienne Huter
Stefan Haftka
SUI - Artémis XI
 Jochen Schümann (GER)
 Peter van Niekerck (NED)
 Ronald Pieper (SUI)
 Maitresse (NED)
Hans Nadorp
Frans van Schellen
Erik Wesselman
2007 Sanremo  Ali Baba (SUI)
Flavio Marazzi
Stefan Haftka
Erkki Heinonen
Artemis XIV
 Kristian Nergaard (NOR)
 Mark Strube (USA)
 Harald Blom Bakke (NOR)
John B
 Gavin McKinney (BAH)
 Peter Hauff (NOR)
 Petter Field (NOR)
2008 Nassau NOR 57 - Artemis XIV
 Kristian Nergaard (NOR)
 Harry Melges III (USA)
 Mark Strube (USA)
 SUI 219 - Ali Baba (SUI)
Flavio Marazzi
Stefan Haftka
Renato Marazzi
BAH 19 - John B
 Gavin McKinney (BAH)
 Peter Hauff (NOR)
 Lars Horn Johannesen (NOR)
2009 Hankø NOR 57 - Artemis XIV
 Kristian Nergaard (NOR)
 Johan Barne (SWE)
 Petrus Eide (NOR)
NOR 65 - Odlo
 Christoph Burger (NOR)
 Christof Wilke (SUI)
Marcel Simon
 NOR 64 - Clark Kent (NOR)
Petter Fjeld
Christen Horn Johannessen
Thomas Borgen
2010 Lake Garda SUI - Ali-Baba
 Flavio Marazzi (SUI)
 Andrew Palfrey (AUS)
 Christof Wilke (SUI)
 NOR 57 - Artemis XIV (NOR)
Kristian Nergaard
Peer Moberg
Petter Morland Pedersen
 Kan-Bei 2 (FIN)
Kenneth Thelen
Thomas Hallberg
Robert Nyberg
2011 Helsinki  Kan-Bei 2 (FIN)
Kenneth Thelen
Thomas Hallberg
Robert Nyberg
 NOR 57 - Artemis XIV (NOR)
Kristian Nergaard
Trond Solli Sæther
Christen Horn Johannessen
 Marie Françoise XVIII (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
Andreas Honegger
Christof Wilke
2012 Boltenhagen NOR 57 - Artemis XIV
 Kristian Nergaard (NOR)
 Johan Barne (SWE)
 Trond Solli Sæther (NOR)
 SUI 224 - Ali-Baba (SUI)
Flavio Marazzi
Stefan Haftka
Marc Friedrich
 GER 55 - Oro Nero (GER)
Jochen Schümann
Henning Ueck
Ole Hansen
2013 Curaçao  GER 79 (GER)
Marcus Wieser
Frithjof Kleen
Thomas Auracher
NOR 57 - Artemis XIV
 Kristian Nergaard (NOR)
 Johan Barne (SWE)
 Trond Solli Sæther (NOR)
 NOR 64 - Clark Kent (NOR)
Petter Fjeld
Thomas Borgen
Christen Horn Johannessen
2014 Porto Santo Stefano SUI 224 - Ali Baba
 Flavio Marazzi (SUI)
 Jakob Gustafsson (SWE)
 Christoph Burger (SUI)
NOR 57 - Artemis XIV
 Kristian Nergaard (NOR)
 Johan Barne (SWE)
 Trond Solli Sæther (NOR)
BAH 19 - John B
 Gavin McKinney (BAH)
 Thomas Hallberg (FIN)
 Lars Horn Johannessen (NOR)
2015 Nynäshamn NOR 57 - Artemis XIV
 Kristian Nergaard (NOR)
 Johan Barne (SWE)
 Trond Solli Sæther (NOR)
BAH 22 - John B
 Gavin McKinney (BAH)
 Thomas Hallberg (FIN)
 Lars Horn Johannessen (NOR)
BAH 21 - New Moon
 Mark Holowesko (BAH)
 Petter Morland Pedersen (NOR)
Peter Vlasov|BAH}}
2016 Copenhagen NOR 57 - Artemis XIV
 Kristian Nergaard (NOR)
 Johan Barne (SWE)
 Trond Solli Sæther (NOR)
 DEN 19 - Arnold P (DEN)
Bo Selko
Rasmus Knude
Mikael Pedersen
BAH 22 - John B
 Gavin McKinney (BAH)
 Thomas Hallberg (FIN)
 Lars Horn Johannessen (NOR)
2017 Benodet[3] BAH 22 - John B
 Gavin McKinney (BAH)
 Mathias Dahlman (FIN)
 Lars Horn Johannessen (NOR)
BAH 21 - New Moon
 Mark Holowesko (BAH)
 Christoph Burger (SUI)
 Peter Vlasov (BAH)
 NED 26 - Feng Shui (NED)
Arend Jan Pasman
Ron Azier
Kim Chabani
2018 Cowes[4][5] BAH 21 - New Moon
 Mark Holowesko (BAH)
 Christoph Burger (SUI)
 Peter Vlasov (BAH)
SUI 218 - Marie Françoise XVX
 Jürg Menzi (SUI)
 Jurgen Eiermann (GER)
 Bo Selko (DEN)
 NOR 57 - Artemis XIV (NOR)
Kristian Nergaard
Kristoffer Spone
Trond Solli-Sæther
2019 Helsinki[6][7] NOR 57 - Artemis XIV
 Kristian Nergaard (NOR)
 Johan Barne (SWE)
 Trond Solli Sæther (NOR)
BAH 21 - New Moon
 Mark Holowesko (BAH)
 Christoph Burger (SUI)
 Peter Vlasov (BAH)
BAH 22 - John B
 Gavin McKinney (BAH)
 Mathias Dahlman (FIN)
 Lars Horn Johannessen (NOR)

Vintage Yachting Games [8][edit]

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Finland (FIN)1001
2 Germany (GER)0101
3 France (FRA)0011
Totals (3 nations)1113
Event Gold Silver Bronze
2012 Lake Como  Finland
Anders Nordman
Robert Segercrantz
Johan Hjelt
 Germany
Hubert 'Biwi' Reich
Wolfgang Oehler
Christian Hemmerich
 France)
William Borel
Yves Duclos-Grenet
Adrien Baumelle

Pan American Games[9][edit]

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 United States (USA)1001
2 Canada (CAN)0101
3 Ecuador (ECU)0011
Totals (3 nations)1113
Event Gold Silver Bronze
1959 Chicago  United States  Canada  Ecuador

European Championships[10][edit]

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  Switzerland (SUI)74718
2 Norway (NOR)2204
3 United States (USA)1012
4 Great Britain (GBR)0112
5 France (FRA)0101
 Soviet Union (URS)0101
Totals (6 nations)109928
Event Gold Silver Bronze
1968 Neuenburger See[11]  Toucan IX (SUI)
Louis Noverraz
 Nadezhda VI (URS)
Konstantin Alexandrov
 Janael (FRA)
Breteche
1980 Bénodet   Switzerland (F)
Sprecher
 France (F)
Souben
  Switzerland (Z)
Capecchi
1993 Cannes[12]  The Sting (SUI)
Christian Wahl
 Zenda Corn (NOR)
Kalle Nergaard
 My Shout (USA)
Glen Foster
1995 Thun[13]   Switzerland
Daniel Schenker
Christoph Schenker
Eric Waser
  Switzerland
Jürg Menzi
Jürg Christen
Dino Fumasoli
  Switzerland
Bruno Marazzi
Stefan Haftka
Flavio Marazzi
1997 Le Crouesty  United States (FRA)
Glen Foster
  Switzerland (SUI)
Jean-Claude Vuithier
  Switzerland (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
1998 Cannes   Switzerland (FRA)
Christian Wahl
 Norway (NOR)
Kalle Nergaard
 United States (USA)
Glen Foster
2000 Genoa[14]  Joker 8 (SUI)
Thomas Moser
Felix Meyer
T. Sprecher
 Salamander 5 (GBR)
Jonathan Janson
Mark Downer
Rupert Richardson
 Marie-Françoise 14 (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
Juerg Christen
Daniel Stampfli
2005 Attersee  Marie-Françoise 17 (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
Daniel Stampfli
Gaume
  Switzerland
Christoph Burger

  Switzerland
Hans-Peter Schmid

2008 Mariehamn  Norway (FIN)
Kristian Nergaard
Petrus Eide
Johan Barne
 Norway (NOR)
Christoph Burger
Christof Wilke
Mathias Dahlman
Dominik Neidhart 1st race only
  Switzerland (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
Daniel Stampfli
Léonard Gaume
2013 Benodet  Norway (FIN)
Kristian Nergaard
NN
NN
 Norway (SUI)
Bernard Haissly
NN
NN
  Switzerland (SUI)
Jürg Menzi
NN
NN

Scandinavian Gold Cup[edit]

Class association[edit]

International 5.5 Metre

The object of the International 5.5 Metre Class Association is to promote and develop 5.5 Metre racing throughout the World. The first President of the association was Mr. Owen Aisher.[15]

Since the development of the class spanned more than half a century the early boats are not competitive to race against the modern designs. Therefore, the association made, in 2007, divisions in the class based upon age of the boat:[16]

  • Classic Fleet (Designs before 1970)
  • Evolution Fleet
  • Modern Fleet (Designs from 1994)

During major races there are separate trophies per fleet, however if a classic fleet boat beats the modern fleet, the classic fleet boat wins the modern fleet trophy.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Olympic results
  2. ^ "World Championships". Archived from the original on 2011-11-05. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
  3. ^ http://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/1e5813_dab830f8fae140629856b47ad72a73c9.pdf
  4. ^ https://www.rys.org.uk/event/5-5m-worlds/
  5. ^ https://www.yachtsandyachting.com/news/209211/International-55-Metre-Worlds-at-Cowes-overall
  6. ^ http://www.njk.fi/the-scandinavian-gold-cup-100th-anniversary-regatta/
  7. ^ https://www.manage2sail.com/en-US/eventonly/55worlds#!/results?classId=c1477128-c3dd-4114-8eab-cd4e00e729cc
  8. ^ Vintage Yachting Games
  9. ^ "PanAm results". Archived from the original on 2011-11-03. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
  10. ^ "European Championships". Archived from the original on 2011-11-04. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2015-04-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2015-04-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2015-04-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2015-04-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ "Constitution" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
  16. ^ "World Championship Rules" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2011-08-08.

External links[edit]