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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Centuries:||2nd century BC – 1st century BC – 1st century|
|Decades:||80s BC 70s BC 60s BC – 50s BC – 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC|
|Years:||59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC|
|Births – Deaths
- 1 Events
- 1.1 59 BC
- 1.2 58 BC
- 1.3 57 BC
- 1.4 56 BC
- 1.5 55 BC
- 1.6 54 BC
- 1.7 53 BC
- 1.8 52 BC
- 1.9 51 BC
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- Consuls: Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (known as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar" due to Bibulus' Social withdrawal from public view to "consult the heavens" in an effort to invalidate Caesar's intended legislation).
- Caesar makes the Acta Diurna (Daily News), the world's first daily newspaper, public. The Acta contains details of official decrees and appointments; births, deaths, and marriages. Even sport results—the outcome of the gladiatorial contests and chariot races at the capital.
- The First Triumvirate: Caesar, Pompey and Crassus form an unofficial alliance (or 60 BC).
- Caesar marries Calpurnia, in Rome.
- The colonia of Florentia, modern Florence, founded.
- Consuls: Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus and Aulus Gabinius.
- Publius Clodius Pulcher, Roman tribune, institutes a monthly corn dole for poor Romans, and exiles Cicero from the city.
- Cyprus becomes a Roman province.
- First year of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars:
- Caesar becomes a provincial governor (Proconsul) and leads a Roman army (4 Roman legion; Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX and the famous Legio X) into Gaul. For auxiliaries he organised ± 3,000 Balearic slingers and Cretan archers into cohorts.
- Caesar builds a 19-mile earthwork, complete with fortifications and watchtowers, between Lake Geneva and the Jura Mountains.
- June – Caesar defeats the migrating Helvetii in the Battle of the Arar.
- July – Caesar decisively defeats the Helvetii in the Battle of Bibracte.
- September – Caesar decisively defeats the Suebi led by Ariovistus in the Battle of Vosges.
- Base year of the Vikrama Era, founded by Vikrama, king of Ujjain in India.
- Jumong becomes the 7th ruler of Buyeo.
- Consuls: Publius Cornelius Lentulus Spinther and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos Iunior.
- Julius Caesar sent Servius Sulpicius Galba with Legio XII Fulminata into the country of the Nantuates, Seduni and the Veragri. He occupies the oppidum Octodurus (modern Martigny) in Switzerland.
- Gallic Wars:
- Mithridates III becomes king of Parthia.
- Vikramaditya established Vikram era in 57 BC.
- Bak Hyeokgeose becomes the first ruler of the kingdom of Silla (traditional date).
- The city of Gwangju (the sixth largest city in South Korea) is founded.
- This year, or possibly the following year, the king of the Trinovantes, possibly called Imanuentius, is overthrown and killed by his rival Cassivellaunus. His son Mandubracius flees to Gaul and appeals to Julius Caesar for help.
- Consuls: Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus and Lucius Marcius Philippus.
- Clodia accuses her former lover Marcus Caelius Rufus of trying to poison her. The trial ends with the defendant acquitted thanks to the Pro Caelio speech of Marcus Tullius Cicero. There is no further mention of the previously famous Clodia.
- Gallic War: Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus defeats the Veneti of Brittany: The Gallics lost most of their swanships to the Romans at the battle in modern-day Quiberon Bay. The strongholds on the coast are stormed and the population is slaughtered or sold into slavery.
- Consuls: Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.
- Consuls Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus pass the Lex Trebonia.
- Pompey's Theater, the first permanent (non-wooden) theatres in Rome. Built of stone on the Field of Mars, it included a temple to Venus Victorious, a public courtyard, and a meeting hall or curia in the far end near the "Sacred Area".
- Gallic War
- Julius Caesar continues his campaigns in Gaul, he spreads Roman law and order, and makes the whole country as far as the Channel accessible to trade.
- May – Caesar defeats a Germanic army then massacres the women and children, totalling 430,000 people, near the Meuse and Rhine Rivers, now known as the city of Kessel in the Netherlands.
- June – Caesar crosses the Rhine River near the modern site of Koblenz. He constructs a wooden bridge between Andernach and Neuwied (Germany).
- August 22 or August 26 – Julius Caesar commands the first Caesar's invasions of Britain, likely a reconnaissance-in-force expedition, in response to the Britons giving military aid to his Gallic enemies. Caesar retreats back to Gaul when the majority of his force is prevented from landing by storms
- Mithridates III, claimant to the throne of Parthia, supported by Aulus Gabinius, Roman governor of Syria, is defeated by Surena, general under Orodes, in the Battle of Seleucia.
- Consuls: Appius Claudius Pulcher and Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus.
- Gallic Wars:
- July – Second of Caesar's Invasions of Britain: receives nominal submission from the Tribal chief Cassivellaunus and installs Mandubracius as a friendly king.
- Winter – Ambiorix revolts in Gaul. He joins with Catuvolcus in an uprising against the Roman army. Caesar's senior officers Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta and Quintus Titurius Sabinus are ambushed by the Eburones, and killed with almost their entire force.
- Pompey builds the first permanent theatre in Rome.
- Crassus arrives in Syria as proconsul and invades Parthian Empire, initiating the Roman–Persian Wars, which were to last nearly seven centuries.
- Octavia Minor and Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor married.
- The beginning of the breakup of the First Triumvirate with the death of Caesar's daughter Julia.
- Consuls: Marcus Valerius Messalla and Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus.
- Parthian war:
- Gallic War:
- Julius Caesar defeats a revolt led by Ambiorix near Sabis (Northern Gaul).
- At Cenabum (modern Orléans) Roman merchants are massacred by the Carnutes.
- Vercingetorix, an Arverni chieftain, leads a revolt against Caesar in Central Gaul.
- Winter – Caesar enrols non-citizen soldiers in Gallia Transalpina, genesis of Legio V Alaudae. He increases his army to ten legions.
- Consuls: Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.
- Pompey marries Cornelia Metella.
- Milo is tried for the murder of Clodius. Despite Cicero's legal defence (Pro Milone) he is found guilty and exiled in Massilia (modern Marseille).
- Last year of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars:
- March – Siege and capture of Avaricum (Bourges).
- April–May – Siege and repulse from Gergovia.
- July – Battle of the Vingeanne: Caesar rebuffs with his German auxiliaries an Gallic cavalry attack of Vercingetorix.
- Summer – Siege of Alesia: Caesar spread out his legions around the Oppidum and builds a string of fortifications.
- September – Battle of Alesia: Caesar defeats the Gauls led by Vercingetorix (who surrenders on October 3), breaking the back of the Gallic insurrection. The final pacification of Gaul is complete the following year.
- Winter – Caesar crosses Mons Cevenna (central Gaul) and sends his army through the passes covered with snowdrifts to take the rebellious Arverni by surprise.
- Consuls: Marcus Claudius Marcellus and Servius Sulpicius Rufus.
- Pompey demands that Julius Caesar lay down his command before he can stand for consul.
- Spring – Pharaoh Ptolemy XII dies and is succeeded by his eldest surviving daughter Cleopatra VII and her younger brother and co-ruler Ptolemy XIII.
- Julius Caesar, Roman politician and general (lived 100–44 BC)
- Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt (lived 70/69–30 BC, reigned 51–30 BC)—meets Julius Caesar and later becomes teenager Pharaoh, after her brothers die young.
- Pompey, Roman general (lived 106 BC–48 BC)
- Marcus Licinius Crassus, Roman politician and general (lived 115–53 BC)
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, Roman politician (lived 106–43 BC)
- Vercingetorix, Chieftain of the Arverni (d. 46 BC)
- Cassivellaunus, British war-leader
- Ariovistus, German king
- Commius, Gaulish king
- Phraates III, King of Parthia (reigned 70–57 BC)
- Mithridates III, king of Parthia and Media (reigned 57–54 BC)
- Orodes II, king of Parthia (reigned 57–38 BC)
- Surena, Parthian general (lived 84–54 BC)
- Bak Hyeokgeose, king of Silla in Korea (69 BC–AD 4, reigned 57 BC–AD 4)
- Marcus Licinius Crassus, Roman politician and general (53 BC) (b. c. 115 BC)
- Posidonius, Greek philosopher, astronomer and geographer (51 BC) (b. c. 135 BC)