50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division

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For the equivalent formation in World War I, see 50th (Northumbrian) Division.
50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division
50th (Northumbrian) Infantry (Reserve) Division
50 inf div -vector.svg
Insignia of the 50th Division.
Active 1939–1945
1947–1961
Country  United Kingdom
Branch Flag of the British Army.svg Territorial Army
Type Infantry
Role Motorised infantry
Infantry
Size Division, approximately 18,000 men
Part of B.E.F.
Eighth Army
Second Army
Home Forces
Engagements Arras
Battle of the Ypres-Comines Canal
Dunkirk
Gazala
Mersa Matruh
Second Battle of El Alamein
Mareth Line
Wadi Akarit
Tunisia Campaign
Operation Husky
Primosole Bridge
Normandy landings
Operation Perch
Battle for Caen
Operation Bluecoat
Operation Market Garden
Nederrijn
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Maj. Gen. G. Le Q Martel
Maj. Gen. W. H. Ramsden
Maj. Gen. J. S. Nichols
Maj. Gen. S. C. Kirkman
Maj. Gen. D. A. Graham
Maj. Gen. L. O. Lyne

The 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that saw distinguished service in World War II. Pre-war, the division was part of the Territorial Army and the two Ts in the divisional insignia represent the two boundaries to its recruitment area, the rivers Tweed and Trent, the old boundaries of Northumbria.[1] The division served in almost all of the major engagements of the European War from 1940 until late 1944 and also served with distinction in North Africa, the Middle East and the Mediterranean from mid-1941 to 1943. The 50th Division was one of two British divisions (the other being the 3rd) to land in Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944, where it landed on Gold Beach. Four men of the division were awarded the Victoria Cross during the war, more than any other division of the British Army during the Second World War.

Pre-War and Mobilisation[edit]

The Division had been reformed in 1920 as an infantry division, part of the Territorial Army. In the late 1930s some of its infantry battalions had been converted to anti-aircraft regiments[a], and in 1938 the conversion of the whole of the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers Regiment to divisional support units[b] reduced the Division to two Brigades and it was converted to a Motorised Division.[citation needed]

The Division was mobilised on 1 September 1939, and until 2 October also administered the units of its 2nd line duplicate, the 23rd (Northumbrian) Division until its headquarters were formed.[4] In October 1939, the division was concentrated in the Cotswolds for training and in January 1940 it was moved to France to join the British Expeditionary Force (BEF).[5]

France and the BEF[edit]

Disembarking at Cherbourg on 19 January it joined the 3rd and 4th divisions as part of II Corps, commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir Alan Brooke. By March it was at work preparing the defences in the Lille—Loos area.[6] With the German attack on the West on 10 May, the British and French acted according to their Dyle Plan and advanced to the River Dyle in Belgium. The next day the 25th Infantry Brigade and other supporting units were added to the Division while it was in reserve on the Belgian border. Ordered to moved on 16 May, the Division headed to the West of Brussels and took up positions on the river Dender, only to be part of the withdrawal and by 19 May was on the Vimy ridge North of Arras.[7] It had become known to the Allies that the German Army's southern spearheads had pierced the PeronneCambrai gap and were threatening Boulogne and Calais, cutting the BEF's lines of communication and separating it from the main French armies. A plan by General Weygand to close this gap between the French and British forces included Frankforce, consisting of the 5th and 50th Divisions and the 1st Army Tank Brigade attacking Southward, and French divisions attacking Northward from around Cambrai.[8]

Arras[edit]

The Arras counter-attack, 21 May 1940

Instead of divisions, the attack was made by two battalion sized columns, with many tanks of the armoured units already unserviceable. Of the 5th Infantry Division's two brigades, one had been sent to hold the line of the river Scarpe to the East of Arras, together with the 150th Brigade of the 50th Division, while the other was in reserve.[9] The two columns comprised the 6th and 8th battalions of the Durham Light Infantry of 151st Brigade supporting the 4th and 7th Royal Tank Regiments, artillery and other supporting troops, totalled 74 tanks and around 2,000 men. One tank regiment and one infantry battalion was in each of the two columns of the attack, which took place on 21 May. The right column (8th D.L.I. and 7th R.T.R.) initially made rapid progress, taking the villages of Duisans and Warlus and a number of German prisoners but they soon ran into German infantry and Waffen-SS, and were counterattacked by Stukas and tanks and had many casualties. The left column (6th D.L.I. and 4th R.T.R.) also enjoyed early success, taking Danville, Beaurains and reaching the planned objective of Wancourt before running into opposition from the infantry units of Erwin Rommel's 7th Panzer Division.[10][11]

French tanks and troop carriers enabled British troops to evacuate Warlus, and the carriers of the 9th Durham Light Infantry (in reserve) helped those in Duisans withdraw to their former positions that night.[12] Next day the Germans regrouped and continued their advance; Frankforce had taken around 400 German prisoners and inflicted a similar number of casualties, as well as destroying a number of tanks. The attack had been so effective that 7th Panzer Division believed it had been attacked by five infantry divisions. The attack also made the German commanders of Panzergruppe von Kleist nervous, with forces left behind to guard lines of communication.[13]

Withdrawal to Dunkirk[edit]

By now Arras was becoming a salient in the German lines and increasingly vulnerable. The four Brigades of the 5th and 50th Divisions[c] were becoming hard pressed and on the night of 23-24 May received orders to withdraw to the canal line.[15] After fighting on the canal line the 5th and 50th Divisions were withdrawn North to Ypres to fill a threatening gap developing between the Belgian and British Armies, after a strong German attack on the Belgians on 25 May. It was late on 27 May when the Division arrived at Ypres to find their positions already being shelled and the Belgian Army being pushed North-eastwards away from them. The gap was covered by the side-stepping 3rd Division the next day.[16] On that day (28 May) the Belgians surrendered, opening up a 20-mile gap South from the English Channel, which the Germans aimed to rapidly exploit. The division was now ordered to form a line East of Poperinghe, with the 3rd Division East of them up to Lizerne, this was done by the morning of 29 May, forming the Southern edge of the Dunkirk corridor. In contact with the Germans from the start the Division was forced back and by late 30 May was in the Eastern end of the Dunkirk perimeter.[17] The division was reinforced by some remnants from the 23rd Division on 31 May,[18] which were needed as the Germans continued to attack and shell the Division's positions.[19] Withdrawn to the beach on 1 June, 151st Brigade was informed it may be used in a diversionary attack to cover the evacuation and formed two columns, but this became unnecessary.[20] That night the Division was evacuated from the beaches (150th Brigade, RASC and Gunners) and the Mole (151st Brigade and others), with Lt.Gen. Brooke having estimated its strength on 30 May at 2400 men.[21][d]

Home Defence[edit]

While in Britain the Division made good its losses with new recruits and convalescents, and was converted into a three brigade infantry division with the permanent addition, at the end of June, of the 69th Infantry Brigade from the disbanded 23rd (Northumbrian) Division, the 50th Division's second line duplicate.[23] It become part of XII Corps, Home Forces, on anti-invasion duty, stationed initially in and to the West of Bournemouth, later on the North coast of Somerset. The Division was first informed of an overseas move in September, but not until 22 April 1941, did part of the Division sail from Liverpool, the rest from Glasgow on 23 May, on the way to North Africa.[24][25]

The Mediterranean and the Middle East[edit]

In June the Division landed at Port Tewfik, where the 150th Brigade and Division H.Q. was immediately sent to plan defences around Alamein. The rest of the Division was sent to Cyprus, where it constructed defences on the island, especially around the airport and city of Nicosia. Reunited in July the Division continued its work in the island's pleasant surroundings, leaving in November, relieved by 5th Indian Division. Landing in Hiafa, the 150th Brigade was stripped of its vehicles and the other two brigades travelled on to Iraq, crossing the Syrian Desert to Baghdad, then beyond Kirkuk, building defences on the crossings of Great Zab and Kazir rivers.[26] In December the 69th Brigade was sent to Baalbek in Syria to relieve the 6th Australian Division which was returning to Australia. In February 1942 the 69th and 151st Brigades were recalled to Egypt.[27]

North Africa[edit]

The 150th Brigade had returned to the Western Desert in November 1941. After training around Bir Thalata it was ordered into Libya and saw action, capturing eight guns and a prisoner from the Afrika Korps. Directed to the Bir Hakeim position it erected wire, laid mines and dug trenches. Exchanging with the Free French in February 1942 it moved North, and rejoining the rest of the Division took over a 25 miles (40 km) section of the Gazala Line from 4th Indian Division; it was now part of XIII Corps in the British Eighth Army.[28] The Gazala Line was a series of defensive "boxes", protected by mine-fields and wire and with little showing above ground, each occupied by a brigade of infantry with attached artillery, engineers and a field ambulance. The Brigades' B echelons, with stores and motor transport, were sited some miles to the rear.[29] These boxes were intended to pin down attacking Axis forces while the 1st and 7th Armoured Divisions attacked them in turn. Close by to the North was the 1st South African Division, isolated to the South were the Free French. Other boxes were sited to the rear of the main line, such as the Knightsbridge Box.[30]

Patrols began, with the aims of gathering intelligence and disrupting German and Italian operations. These ranged in size from two to three platoons of infantry and anti tank guns, to battalion sized formations containing most of the arms of the division. One such operation, Fullsize, launched at the end of March consisted of three columns and was commanded by a Brigadier, Brig. J.S. Nichols of 151st Brigade. This ranged up to 30 miles (48 km) from Gazala to raid Luftwaffe landing grounds, in order to distract them from a Malta bound convoy.[31]

At the end of April 150th Brigade was moved South to relieve the 201st Guards Motor Brigade in a large box with a perimeter of 20 miles (32 km), 6 miles (9.7 km) from 69th Brigade to the North and 10 miles (16 km) from the Free French to the South.[31]

Battle of Gazala[edit]

Main article: Battle of Gazala
The Battle of Gazala in May 1942, in the vicinity of Tobruk

By the middle of May the British were aware that Rommel intended to attack. On 26 May he launched a diversionary attack on the Gazala line, then the next day staged a wide sweeping movement around the left flank of the Gazala line at Bir Hakeim, then North behind it, while the Italians mounted diversionary attacks against the South Africans and 50th Division.

Intense fighting quickly developed behind the 150th Brigade box in an area known as The Cauldron, as four German and Italian armoured divisions fought and initially overran the British formations which were committed piecemeal to the battle. After two days, with the Free French holding out at Bir Hakeim, Rommel's supply situation was becoming desperate due to the long detour to the South, an increasing toll of tanks was being taken by the Desert Air Force. Some supplies reached Rommel through the weakly held mine fields North and South of the 150th Brigade box, but by May 31 the situation was again serious, such that General Bayerlein was considering surrender.[32] Rommel had turned his attention to the 150th Brigade box as a means to shorten his lines of communication and began attacking it on 29 May from the rear, using parts of 15th Panzer, Trieste Motorised and 90th Light Divisions, supported by heavy bombing attacks. The box was gradually reduced over a stubborn defence, and it was overrun by noon on 1 June, with the capture of all three infantry battalions and attached artillery and engineers.[33]

During this time the other brigades of the Division, noting the flow of supplies in front of them, mounted vigorous patrols to disrupt and steal these supplies. Particularly prized was fresh water from the wells at Derna to supplement their own meagre ration, all other types of stores and weapons were taken as well as prisoners.[e][35] This commerce raiding continued until, after the withdrawal of the Free French on 10 June and the defeat of the remaining British armour on 13 June, the remaining Gazala boxes realised they were now almost cut off. On 14 June they received orders to withdraw.[36]

Breakout[edit]

The coast road to the East could only hold one division while it was being held open by the remains of the British armour and the El Adem box, and this was allocated to the South Africans. 50th Division was left with the alternatives of fighting East, through the German armoured formations or taking the long way around through the Italians to their front. Obliged to destroy all they could not take with them, the Division formed mixed columns, which charged through bridgeheads formed by the 5th East Yorkshires and the 8th Durham Light Infantry for their respective brigades and into the Italian lines.[37] Leaving chaos and confusion in their wake, the columns headed South then East around the routes the Germans took in their advance and headed for Fort Maddelena on the Egyptian frontier.[38]

The enemy in the bridgeheads were Italian stiffened by a few German gunners. They were very much taken by surprise. It was late at night before they realised that a whole division was passing straight through their lines. Some vehicles went up on mines, others were shot-up, but on the whole we had very few casualties and both attacking battalions did their jobs successfully. The infantry went in with the bayonet and the Italians departed, often leaving all their arms and equipment lying about in the trenches.

— Lt E H Moss, 50th Division Intelligence Officer[39]

The 9th battalion of the D.L.I., and a party from the 6th, took the coastal route after having been posted behind the 69th Brigade box, and having seen the Italians alerted to the breakout. Attacked by German artillery and infantry and accidentally shelled by the South African's rearguard, the column fought through the Germans and even took prisoners.[40] On 17 and 18 June the Division was reassembled at Bir el Thalata.[41]

Mersa Matruh[edit]

On 21 June Tobruk surrendered, and a new defensive line was made South of Mersa Matruh in similar brigade boxes as at Gazala. In Mersa Martuh itself was the 10th Indian Infantry Division, South-East of the town, on an escarpment, was the 50th Division with a brigade of the 5th Indian Division South of them. The Germans attacked on 27 June and passed around the escarpment, North and South. North of the 151st lay the coast road and the attack fell on the brigade and heavily on the 9th D.L.I. on the left flank. During the attack Private Adam Wakenshaw was to win a posthumous V.C. while manning an anti-tank gun, however most of the battalion was overrun,[f] but the attack was not pressed further due to the Germans own heavy casualties.[43][44] That night a large raid by the 6th and 8th battalions D.L.I. and elements of the 5th Indian Division, set out to disrupt German and Italian lines of communication South of the escarpment, but succeeded in causing as much confusion to their own columns as to the enemy.[42] The same night the 5th East Yorkshires was heavily engaged with the Germans.[45] On the night of 28 June with the Division nearly surrounded, it was ordered to break out. Unlike the Gazala breakout, the battalion columns now faced German armour and the ground was broken by steep sided Wadis. The 8th Battalion D.L.I. was ambushed while driving out of a wadi and lost its D company. The original orders had specified Fuka as the meeting point for the Division but this was in enemy hands, and some columns which had not been informed of this were captured.[46]

The Division had suffered over 9,000 casualties[g] since the start of the Gazala battle, lost much of its equipment and what remained was worn out. The Division was sent into Mareopolis, South-West of Alexandria to refit. The average strength of the remaining infantry battalions was 300 men (less than 50%) and the Division artillery had only 30 guns (out of 72) and all other services had heavy losses. By mid July the infantry had been reinforced to 4-500 men per battalion and training had begun.[47]

Mitieriya Ridge[edit]

In late July the Division was ordered to provide troops for an attack on Mitieriya Ridge, under the command of 69th Brigade, the 5th East Yorkshires and 6th Green Howards (both reinforced by platoons from the 7th Green Howards) were joined by a composite D.L.I. battalion of three companies, one each from the battalions of 151st Brigade. The hasty plan called for the brigade to pass through a gap in the mine field and clear more mines to allow the 2nd Armoured Brigade to pass through during the night of 21-22 July. The 5th East Yorkshires and the composite D.L.I. battalion reached their objectives, the Germans having allowed them to pass through their lines. Surrounded, then shelled and mortared for two days, with the supporting armour unable to advance, they were overrun with only small numbers escaping.[48][49]

Second Battle of El Alamein[edit]

In late July and August the Division was part of the Northern Delta Force, together with the 26th Indian Infantry Brigade, the 1st Greek Brigade, the 2nd Free French Brigade and the Alexandria garrison. The Division's artillery was loaned to XII Corps as reinforcements.[50] At the start of September the 151st Brigade was detached and placed under command of the 2nd New Zealand Division in the front line, and then with the 44th Division later in the month, South of the Ruweisat Ridge. Here they patrolled no-man's land and engaged with patrols from the Italian Folgore Division and Germans. On 10 October the remainder of the Division entered the line reinforced with the 1st Greek Brigade, and deployed opposite the Munassib depression area, Greeks to the North, 151st Brigade in the centre and 69th Brigade to the South.[51]

On the night of 25 October, as part of the Southern Diversionary attacks, 69th Brigade, 5th East Yorkshires and 6th Green Howards, advanced to clear the mine fields, and seize positions. After gaining nearly all of the first objectives, the attacking battalions came up against increasing numbers of anti-personnel mines, barbed wire and retaliatory mortar fire. After losing over 200 casualties the battalions were withdrawn back to the front line.[52] On the night of 28 October, the 151st Brigade was transferred north to join XXX Corps and take part in Operation Supercharge.

Operation Supercharge[edit]

This operation began on the night of 31 October with an Australian attack keeping pressure on the Germans near the coast. Further South, timed for the early morning of 1 November, then delayed for 24 hours, the 151st Brigade with the 152nd Brigade, both under the command of the 2nd New Zealand Division, were to advance 4,000 yards to Tel el Aqqaqir on the Rahman Track, supported by tanks of 8th and 50th Royal Tank Regiments. Following them would be the 9th Armoured Brigade. The advance would be supported by a First World War style creeping barrage provided by 13 field regiments and two medium regiments of artillery.[53] The 151st Brigade, supported by the 505th Firld Company of engineers and the 149th Field Ambulance, was on the Northern edge of the advance, with the 28th (Māori) infantry battalion providing the first half of their Northern flank, the second half would be formed by the 6th D.L.I performing a right wheel halfway through the advance. The infantry had a seven-mile march up to their starting lines during which time the objective were bombed by the Desert Air Force. Moving across the start line at 01:05hrs the infantry advanced into the smoke and dust of the barrage which reduced visibility to 50 yards.[54]

The whole night to the east was broken by hundreds of gun flashes stabbing into the darkness. The shells whistled overhead to burst with a deafening crash in the target area, and from then, until the barrage closed about three hours later, the frightful shattering noise went on continually... Every twelve yards there was a shell hole.

— Col. Watson 6th D.L.I.[55]

It was well organized. On each flank - on the battalion flanks - they had Bofors guns firing tracer every two or three minutes so that you could keep on line. The barrage was going for about two minutes then they'd drop two or three smoke bombs - they were a bloody nuisance... But when they dropped you knew the barrage was lifting. You just moved in.

— Pte Jackson Browne, 8th D.L.I.[56]

In the advance through the German trenches and gun lines, some had been stunned by the bombardment, others fought back, with all three battalions coming under fire. Lines through the mines were cleared behind the advance, and by dawn, having reached their objective the infantry dug in, and were in place to witness the destruction of 9th Armoured Brigade as it charged dug in German guns. Relieved in the early hours of 3 November, the brigade had suffered almost 400 casualties and taken more than 400 prisoners.[57]

In the South, the remainder of the Division, reinforced with the 2nd Free French Brigade, was tasked with clearing the mine fields between the Ruweiiat Ridge and the Rahman Track and capturing the defences around a point called 'Fortress A'. On 7 November the Division was ordered to form a mobile brigade column and strike West. With all Division vehicles given to 69th Brigade and reinforced with anti-tank guns the column ambushed defensive posts and collected several thousand Italian prisoners, including the HQ of the Brescia Division. The 151st Brigade rejoined the Division on 12 November.[57]

The Division now went into reserve, it was grouped around El Adem on the Gazala battlefield where it received new anti-tank and anti-aircraft regiments. Various formations of the Division were detached, transport platoons to carry supplies forward from Tobruk, the engineers to improve the docks and roads around Sirte and the anti-aircraft regiment to protect newly captured airfields. The Division returned to the front line, still with only two infantry brigades, in mid March 1943 when the Eighth Army reached the Mareth Line in Tunisia.[h][59]

Mareth Line[edit]

Operation Pugilist, the attack against the Mareth Line was planned for the night of 19–20 March 1943. The Mareth line was made up of a series of fortified positions, consisting of a number of pillboxes surrounded by wire and trenches, just behind the bank of the Wadi Zigzaou, backed up by a second line of such positions on a ridge to the rear. 69th Brigade had taken the approaches to the Wadi on preceding nights, they were to attack a position called 'the Bastion' in front of the main line while 151st brigade supported by 50th Royal Tank Regiment attacked the line proper to their right. The infantry were to be equipped with short wooden scaling ladders to climb the banks of the Wadi. Non of the infantry battalions had regained their full strength, opposing them were the Italian Young Fascist Division and the German 164th Light Division. It was planned that the 4th Indian Division would then pass through and continue the attack, while the New Zealand Division made a 'left hook'.[60]

The attack began on the night of 20—21 March, on the left, Lt-Col Seagrim of the 7th Green Howards won the V.C. in clearing two machine gun posts on 'the Bastion' which briefly held up the advance, the battalion took 200 prisoners and advanced across the Wadi. On the right 151st Brigade took the front line positions in heavy fighting, but by dawn only four tanks had managed to cross the Wadi. The next day (21 March) reinforced by the 5th East Yorkshires, the brigade advanced and took three positions on the ridge and took several hundred Italian prisoners. More tanks had crossed over but most of them were armed only with the increasingly ineffective 2-pounder gun. The passage of these tanks had damaged the Wadi crossing and only a few anti-tank guns could be moved across. On 22 March, with the Desert Air Force grounded by rain, the Germans counter-attacked with the 15th Panzer Division with supporting artillery and infantry.

By evening a bloody and desperate battle was being fought out west of the Wadi Zigzaou, and slowly but surely the infantry were being driven back to the Wadi edge, until by midnight except for the East Yorkshire Regiment holding out in [a fortified position on the bank of the Wadi] there was no depth whatever in the bridgehead. Though tremendous casualties had been inflicted by the supporting artillery ... they had failed to stop the enemy attack. Later even this support flagged as wireless sets with the forward troops were gradually knocked out or failed due to exhausted batteries. The men of the 6th, 8th and 9th DLI were inextricably mixed up, many without commanders, all hungry, tired and desperately short of ammunition. The whole area was lit up by the twenty seven derelict burning Valentine tanks of 50th RTR fought to a standstill by superior enemy armour.

— Capt Ewart Clay, GS03, 50th Division[61]

The 151st Brigade were withdrawn that night, the 5th East Yorkshires on the night of 23/24 March. The 6th battalion D.L.I had started the battle with only 300 men, and was now reduced to 65 uninjured, the other battalions were in a similar state. The New Zealand Division's flanking attack began on 26 March and was to force an Axis withdrawal.[62]

Wadi Akarit[edit]

Main article: Battle of Wadi Akarit

For the next several days the Division was employed in tidying the battle-field and burying the dead. On 2 April the Division was told to supply a brigade for the coming battle at the next line at Wadi Akarit which runs from the sea to impassable salt marshes of the Chott el Fejej, while the Germans were distracted by the advance of U.S. II Corps to the West. The 69th Brigade was sent forward with the Division machine gunners and a squadron of tanks from the 3rd County of London Yeomanry (Sharpshooters), but they were not to be supported by the Divisional artillery as all available transport was being used to move Eighth Army supplies. Fire support was to come from the 51st Division's artillery, the infantry of which were to attack on their right, while the 4th Indian Division attacked on their left. In the early morning of 6 April the attack achieved its early objectives but then came under heavy fire which killed Lt.Col Seagrim who had won the V.C. only recently. The 5th East Yorkshires' leading company suffered over 70% casualties, and during this attack Pte Eric Anderson won a posthumous V.C., killed while attending to the wounded on the battle field. The 6th Green Howards now passed through the first wave and also took casualties:

He was no sooner on his feet than a single shot rang out and Coughlan...dropped dead in an instant. ... then my rage was up ... Angrily, I grabbed poor Coughlan's machine gun ... When we were about ten yards away we had reached the top of the slit trench and we killed any of the survivors, five of them cowering in the bottom of the trench. It was no time for pussy footing: we were consumed with rage and had to kill them to pay for our fallen pal. We were so intoxicated, we could not hold back, given the chance they would have killed us.

— Pte Bill Cheal 6th Green Howards[63]

By 11:00 the battle was over, the tanks of the Yeomanry having got past the anti-tank ditch, and four hours later the 8th Armoured Brigade pushed on past the Wadi.[64] The Brigade had overrun parts of the Italian La Spezia Division.[65]

The Eighth Army's attack North along the eastern coast of Tunisia, and the First Army's Advance East, lead eventually to the surrender of Axis forces in Africa, with around 250,000 men taken prisoner, a number equal to that at Stalingrad. On 19 April the Division was withdrawn from the front line and relieved by the 56th Division and on 24 April it was ordered back to Alexandria by road. The Division arrived on 11 May with all of the vehicles it had started out with some 2000 miles previously, even though some had to be towed.[66]

Sicily[edit]

Map of the Allied landings in Sicily on 10 July 1943

The Division was joined in the Nile Delta by the 168th (London) Infantry Brigade, detached from the 56th Division. There, on the Great Bitter Lake and on the Gulf of Aqaba they trained in amphibious landing techniques for the Invasion of Sicily.[67]

The invasion, planned for 10 July, would land the Seventh United States Army to operate on the Western sector, and the British Eighth Army to operate in the Eastern sector, and had as its objectives the port of Syracuse and the airfields inland. An airborne operation was to attempt to capture the bridges and waterways behind Syracuse. The Division was to land on a one Brigade front (151st Brigade) south of Cap Murro Di Porco with the 5th Division to their right (North). High winds scattered both seaborne and airborne landings,[i] but were able to concentrate and advance. The landing of 69th Brigade later in the day was also disrupted, 168th Brigade was scheduled to land on D+3. Over the next few days the Division lost most of its motor transport, bombed by the Luftwaffe while still on board ship.[69] Forced to march, the Division was allocated the minor inland road North and urged forward by the Division C.O., fighting the German Battlegroup Schmalz and the Italian Napoli Division. On 13 July contact was established with 51st Division at Palazzolo.[70]

Primisole Bridge[edit]

Main article: Operation Fustian

Operation Fustian was intended to swiftly capture the bridges along the coast of the Catanian plain by Coup de main using No. 3 Commando and the 1st Parachute Brigade, they would then be relieved by troops of 50th Division. On the night 13-14 July the Commandos seized the bridge of Ponti di Malati North of Lentini, and the paratroopers dropped around Primisole Bridge a key bridge on the Sicilian coast South of Catania. High winds and lack of landing craft frustrated swift troop concentration in both cases, with only 30 out of 125 planes dropping on the Drop Zone at Primisole.[71] Early on 14 July, 69th Brigade fought the Germans and Italians around Lentini, allowing 151st Brigade, supported by tanks of 44th Royal Tank Regiment, to make a 25 mile forced march to the bridge. The few paratroopers on the bridge were forced off it by lack of ammunition and newly dispatched German Paratroopers of the 3rd Parachute Regiment, only two hours before 9th Battalion D.L.I. arrived.[72] Attacking in the early hours of 15 July the battalion was forced back over the river after fierce hand-to-hand fighting in densely planted vineyards, with the supporting tanks being engaged by 88mm guns.[73][74] An attack by 8th Battalion D.L.I. was delayed, allowing them to learn of a ford upstream of the bridge from one of the paratroopers. Before dawn on 16 July two companies of the battalion achieved surprise and established themselves across the Catania road some 200 yards North of the bridge, but in doing so lost all their means to summon the rest of the battalion. Communication was restored only when a War Office observer riding a bicycle crossed the bridge to 'observe' the battle and was dispatched back by the C.O. to bring the rest of the battalion forward.[75][76] The arrival of the remaining two companies started a fierce battle in the vineyard, and during the day the battalion fought off a number of counter-attacks, but was slowly pushed back. Early on 17 July supported by division and Corps artillery the 6th and 9th Battalions D.L.I. crossed the river in the face of machine gun fire and gradually established themselves on the Northern shore of the river. By dawn the bridgehead was firmly established and the arrival across the bridge of Sherman tanks from 3rd County of London Yeomanry on the Northern Shore brought about the German surrender. The battle had cost 151st Brigade over 500 killed, wounded and missing, around 300 Germans were dead and 155 had been made prisoner.[77]

The End in Sicily[edit]

While 69th Brigade mopped up around Lentini, 151st Brigade rested South the bridge, 168th Brigade was sent into its first battle at Catania airfield on the night of 17—18 July. They faced the 4th Parachute Regiment and Gruppe Schmalz dug-in in woods and an anti-tank ditch. Almost everything went wrong, reconnaissance was faulty, surprise was lost, the advance was caught by enfilade fire and some units were caught by their own artillery fire. They were forced to withdraw. Directed by enemy observers in these positions, long range artillery destroyed the Primisole bridge but left two Bailey bridges intact. The Division remained in these positions for two weeks.

On 4 August the Germans blew-up ammunition dumps on Catania airfield and withdrew, and on 5 August 6th and 9th Battalion=s D.L.I. entered Catania. The remainder of the advance was through territory ideal for ambush, with terraced vineyards and high stone walls resulting in many casualties.[78] With the end of fighting on 17 August the Division was rested. On 10 October the 168th Brigade returned to the 56th Division and was replaced by the 231st Brigade.[79] The Division learned it was to return to Britain, chosen by General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery, along with the 7th Armoured Division and 51st Division, to be among the veteran divisions to take part in the campaign in North West Europe.[80]

During the campaign in Sicily the Division had lost 426 killed, 1,132 wounded and 545 missing; it had taken almost 9,000 prisoners, mostly Italian, and had earned 68 bravery awards.[81]

Salerno Mutiny[edit]

On 16 September 1943 some 600 men from the 50th and 51st Divisions, convalescents from the North Africa campaign, took part in the Salerno Mutiny when they were assigned to be replacements for other British divisions taking part in the Italian invasion. Part of a group of about 1,500 men, mostly new reinforcements which had sailed from Tripoli, the veterans understood that they were to rejoin their units in Sicily. Once aboard ship, they were told that they were being taken to Salerno, there to join the 46th Infantry Division. Many of the soldiers felt they had been deliberately misled and refusing postings to unfamiliar units. They were addressed by the commander of X Corps, Lieutenant-General Richard McCreery, who admitted that a mistake had been made and promised that they would rejoin their old units once Salerno was secure. The men were also warned of the consequences of mutiny in wartime. Of the three hundred men left, 108 decided to follow orders, leaving a hard core of 192. They were all charged with mutiny under the Army Act, the largest number of men accused at any one time in all of British military history. The accused were shipped to Algeria, where the courts-martial opened towards the end of October. All were found guilty and three sergeants were sentenced to death. The sentences were subsequently suspended, though the men faced constant harassment for the rest of their military careers.[82]

The Division arrived back in Britain at Liverpool Docks in early November:

On the way home we was told to remove all our insignia as no one was to know we was coming, the first thing we saw when we entered Liverpool Docks was a big banner proclaiming 'Welcome Home 50th Division'.

— Sgt Max Hearst 5th East Yorkshire Regiment[83]

North-West Europe[edit]

Operation Overlord[edit]

Objectives[edit]

On 19 October 1943 the division was withdrawn to Britain for reforming and training before landing on Gold Beach on D-Day, 6 June 1944, with the 231st Infantry Brigade (previously an independent unit formed from regular troops stationed on Malta) permanently attached, and the 56th Infantry Brigade temporarily attached (eventually, the 56th would be transferred to the 49th Infantry Division). The 50th Infantry Division was to establish a beachhead between Arromanches and Ver-sur-Mer and then head south towards Route Nationale 13 linking Caen with Bayeux. The first wave comprised the 231st and 69th Infantry brigades. Once the initial assault was over and the beachhead established, the follow-up brigades the 56th and 151st would push inland to the south-west towards RN 13 supported by the tanks of the 8th Armoured Brigade. The 50th Infantry Division was also ordered to meet up with Canadian troops of the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division coming from Juno Beach.

Gold Beach[edit]

Universal Carrier of 50th Division wades ashore D-Day 6 June 1944.

Gold Beach was the codename given for the central invasion beach during the Allied invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944. It lay between Omaha Beach and Juno Beach, was 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) wide and divided into four sectors. From West to East they were Item, Jig, King and Love. The task of invading Gold Beach was given to the 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division commanded by Major-General Douglas Alexander Graham, and the 8th Armoured Brigade of the British Second Army, under Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey. The beach was assaulted by the brigades of the 50th Infantry Division; on the west was the 231st Brigade, followed by the 56th Brigade, attached to this was a regiment of DD tanks from The Nottinghamshire Yeomanry (Sherwood Rangers), the infantry assault battalions that attacked in the west were; the 1st Battalion, Hampshire Regiment, and the 1st Battalion, Dorset Regiment.

On the east 69th Brigade, followed by 151st Brigade, again a regiment of DD tanks was attached, they were from the 4th/7th Royal Dragoon Guards, the infantry assault battalions that attacked in the East were; the 5th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment, and the 6th Battalion, Green Howards. Their primary objective was to seize the town of Bayeux, the Caen–Bayeux road and the port of Arromanches with the secondary objectives being to make contact with the Canadians landing at Juno Beach to the east. The 716th Static Infantry Division commanded by Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, and elements of the 1st Battalion of the German 352nd Infantry Division commanded by Generalleutnant Dietrich Kraiss, defended the Channel coast for the Germans. H-Hour for the Gold beach landing was set for 0725 hours. At 0725 hours, the 50th (Northumbrian) Division landed on Gold beach, then moving to Bayeux.

The landing craft were deployed 7 miles (11 km) from the beach, compared to the American tanks, which were deployed 12 miles (19 km) off the beaches, this meant they had a shorter run in. It was decided that the DD-tanks would go all the way up to shore instead of floating ashore and thus, the men had cover. The successful launch of almost every DD-tank onto the beach in fighting condition. Company Sergeant-Major Stanley Hollis of the Green Howards was already a seasoned veteran when he landed on Gold Beach. His first action was the single handed capture of a pill box which had been bypassed by the first waves of troops. Later that day he led an assault to destroy German gun positions. For his action he was awarded the Victoria cross. He was the only soldier to earn the medal on D-Day. The Division suffered 400 casualties while securing their beachhead. By midnight on 6 June, 24,970 men had landed on Gold Beach, and had penetrated 6 miles (9.7 km) into occupied France. They fulfilled one of their secondary objectives by meeting up with the Canadians, who had landed at Juno Beach but failed in their primary objective of reaching the Caen–Bayeux road. However they had established a foothold into France.

Operation Perch[edit]

Main article: Operation Perch
Members of the Green Howards (of either the 6th or 7th battalions) talking to French civilians, 23 August 1944.

Operation Perch was the second attempt to capture Caen after the direct attack from Sword Beach on 6 June failed. 50th Division was ordered to strike south to capture Bayeux, then Tilly-sur-Seulles following which the 7th Armoured Division would capture Villers-Bocage and Evrecy.[84][85] The 50th Division attack bogged down in front of Tilly-sur-Seulles, which resulted in heavy fighting with the Panzer Lehr Division. With the division unable to break through the Panzer Lehr defences, they attacked on the flank of Tilly-sur-Seulles near the town of Lingèvres. These attacks were a success enabling the British infantry to eat away at the German defence line with one commander stating this was his best battalion action of the war.

Officers inspect a German Mk IV tank knocked out by the Durham Light Infantry, 11 June 1944.

On 11 June the 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry entered Tilly-sur-Seulles, while tanks of the 22nd Armoured Brigade were pulled back. The next day the British were pushed out of the town. After this failure General Montgomery attempted an envelopment manoeuvre through Livry toward Villers-Bocage on 13 June. On 15 June in the evening General Fritz Bayerlein mustered all tanks available to contain a counter-attack of the 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division and 50th Division. On 16 June the 50th Division renewed the assault. After several hours of raging battle the 2nd Battalion, Essex Regiment of the 56th Infantry Brigade entered Tilly-sur-Seulles, while the 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry and tanks of the 24th Lancers pierced west of the town and formed a hedgehog defence. The next day the British liberated the ruins of Tilly-sur-Seulles[86] after the town had been lost and recaptured 23 times before it was finally liberated.[87] [1] The fighting became known as the Battle of Tilly-sur-Seulles. The 50th Division was considered to have performed very well in Normandy, but had suffered almost 5,000 casualties. The division was one of the driving forces behind the British advance, and was exhausted by the end of the battle. After the German collapse, XXX Corps including 50th Division quickly advanced to the north-east and liberated both Antwerp and Brussels in Belgium. There the advance was halted because there was a shortage of fuel.

Market Garden[edit]

Garden[edit]

Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an Allied military operation in the Netherlands and Germany. Garden consisted primarily of XXX Corps and was initially spearheaded by the Guards Armoured Division, with the 43rd Wessex and 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division in reserve. with the 231st Infantry Brigade detached to help support the advance of Guards Armoured Division.

17 September 1944 at 13.30hrs the 50th Division watched as one of the largest air armadas of the war pass overhead. The division's field artillery 74th, 90th and 124th Field Regiments and the Mortars of the 2nd Battalion, Cheshire Regiment took part in the opening barrage. During the day the Irish Guards captured Valkenswaard and later on the infantry of 231st Brigade were called up to clear woods on the left of the Guards' advance. The following day 231st Brigade took over Valkenswaard, as the Guards advanced north on to Nijmegen.

22 September, 69th Brigade was in trouble when two battalions of infantry and a regiment of tanks cut the main Corps centre-line near Uden, 8 miles (13 km) south of the bridge at Grave. The brigade was cut in half with East Yorkshires in the north while the Green Howards were in the south. The next day, the Germans attempted to strengthen their grip on the road by attacking Veghel, farther south, they were met with very warm reception. The American infantry, British tanks and artillery, working in an improvised but close co-operation, drove off the enemy with heavy losses it was a fine example of allied co-operation in the field. Rations were short because of the road congestion. 69th Brigade were forced to eat captured German rations.

Infantry of 50th (Northumbrian) Division moving up past a knocked-out German 88mm gun near 'Joe's Bridge' over the Meuse-Escaut Canal in Belgium, 16 September 1944

23 September, 151st and 231st Brigades were ordered to move north and east of Eindhoven to guard the right flank while 69th Brigade, with 124th Fd Regt RA continued onward towards Nijmegen. On arrival there they came under command of the Guards Armoured Division with the task of capturing Bremmel, a village north of the river. This the 5th Battalion, East Yorks achieved on 25 September but the Germans were not happy at losing this village and kept them under heavy artillery fire for days.

26 September the 6th Green Howards were ordered to occupy Halderen, but the infantry ran into severe opposition and failed to capture their objective. The 69th Brigade now attacked in the direction of Halderen continued throughout the 27 September. During the day the East Yorks gained some ground as they were supported by a quick barrage. The airborne troops farther north at Arnhem had by now been withdrawn. The attempt to reach them by land had clearly failed and attempts to supply them by air had been only partially successful. Thus the final objective of Operation "Market Garden" Arnhem and the crossing of the Rhine defences had not been achieved.

30 September The whole of 50th Division was now tasked with guarding the bridge and bridgehead north of Nijmegen called the Island. The first serious German counter-attack came when seventy tanks and the equivalent of an infantry division was unleashed on the division. 69th Brigade and 5th Guards Brigade were holding the line, while another attack was put in against 43rd Division across the Nederrijn. The intensity of the attack on the 69th Brigade and the intensity of their defence can be judged by the fact that 124th Field Regiment RA fired a total of 12,500 25-pound shells during the action and 'B' Company of 2nd Cheshires fired 95,000 rounds of medium machine-gun fire. For nearly two months static warfare was the norm on the Island. The forward troops rotated regularly. The great bridge at Nijmegen was under constant shellfire and journeys over it were made at full speed. The casualties in the battles on the island in early October had been severe: almost 900 including 12 officers and 111 other ranks killed in action, 30 officers and 611 other ranks wounded and another 114 missing.

Return to England[edit]

Early in November Field Marshal Montgomery made a speech to the division's officers in a cinema in Bourg Leopold. Most of 50th Division would return to England as a training division for reinforcements. Since D-Day 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division had suffered total casualties of 488 officers and 6,932 ORs but had also assimilated 358 officers and 8,019 ORs. Many of these reinforcements were soon posted to other formations. The division stayed in north-west Europe until December 1944, when it was again returned to Britain, this time for the remainder of the war and was converted into a training division. At the end of the war, the Division headquarters was sent to Norway and converted into H.Q. British Ground Forces, Norway.

Order of Battle[edit]

France, 1940[edit]

Officer commanding: Major-General G. Le Q. Martel

25th Infantry Brigade (9-18 May, 19-21 May 1940, from BEF GHQ) [88]

150th Infantry Brigade

151st Infantry Brigade

Divisional Troops

"Frank Force", Arras 1940[edit]

Left Column

  • 4th Royal Tank Regiment
  • 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry
  • 368th Battery, 92nd Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
  • 206th Anti-Tank Battery, 52nd Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery
  • Platoon from 151st Infantry Brigade Anti-Tank Company
  • Company and Reconnaissance Platoon from 4th Battalion, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers

Right Column

  • 7th Royal Tank Regiment
  • 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry
  • 365th Battery, 92nd Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
  • 260th Anti-Tank Battery, 65th Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery
  • Platoon from 151st Infantry Brigade Anti-Tank Company
  • Reconnaissance Platoon from 4th Battalion, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers

North Africa, 1942–1943[edit]

Officers commanding[92]

69th Infantry Brigade (joined 1 July 1940)

  • 5th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment
  • 6th Battalion, Green Howards
  • 7th Battalion, Green Howards

150th Infantry Brigade – (captured at Gazala, 1 June 1942)

  • 4th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment
  • 4th Battalion, Green Howards
  • 5th Battalion, Green Howards

151st Infantry Brigade

  • 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry
  • 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry
  • 9th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry

Divisional Troops[92]

  • 50th Division Signals, Royal Corps of Signals
  • 2nd Battalion, Cheshire Regiment (joined 1 February 1941)
  • Royal Artillery
    • 72nd Field Regiment (captured at Gazala, 1 June 1942)
    • 74th (Northumbrian) Field Regiment
    • 111th Field Regiment (joined 15 October, left 21 November 1942)
    • 124th Field Regiment (joined 22 June 1940)
    • 102nd (Northumberland Hussars) Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery (joined 8 October 1942)
    • 34th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment (joined 18 October, left 6 November 1942)
    • 25th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment (joined 16 December 1942)
  • Royal Engineers
    • 232nd (Northumbrian) Field Company (captured at Gazala, 1 June 1942)
    • 233rd (Northumbrian) Field Company (joined 23 June 1940)
    • 505th Field Company
    • 235th (Northumbrian) Field Park Company
  • Royal Army Service Corps
  • Royal Army Medical Corps

Attached, North Africa[93]

2nd Free French Brigade

  • 5th March Battalion
  • 11th March Battalion
  • 2nd Free French Engineer Company
  • 21st, 23rd North African Anti-tank batteries
  • 2nd Free French Field Ambulance

1st Greek Infantry Brigade

  • 1st Greek Infantry Battalion
  • 2nd Greek Infantry Battalion
  • 3rd Greek Infantry Battalion
  • 1st Greek Artillery Battalion
  • 1st Greek Machine-Gun Company
  • 1st Greek Engineer Company
  • 1st Greek Field Ambulance

Sicily, 1943[edit]

Officer commanding: Major-General S. C. Kirkman

69th Infantry Brigade

  • 5th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment
  • 6th Battalion, Green Howards
  • 7th Battalion, Green Howards

151st Infantry Brigade

  • 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry
  • 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry
  • 9th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry

168th (London) Infantry Brigade (joined 27 April, left 10 October 1943)

Divisional Troops

  • 50th Division Signals, Royal Corps of Signals
  • 2nd Battalion, Cheshire Regiment
  • Royal Artillery
  • Royal Engineers
    • 233rd (Northumbrian) Field Company
    • 501st Field Company, Royal Engineers – (joined 27 April, left 10 October 1943, attached 168 Bde)
    • 505th Field Company, Royal Engineers
    • 235th (Northumbrian) Field Park Company
  • Royal Army Service Corps[94]
    • 522nd (Ammunition), 523rd (Petrol) and 524th (Supply) Companies
  • Royal Army Medical Corps[94]
    • 149th, 186th and 200th Field Ambulances
    • 47th and 48th Field Dressing Stations

Attached to the Division for Operation Husky[95]

North West Europe Campaign, 1944[edit]

Officers commanding:

  • Major-General Douglas Alexander Graham (to 17 October 1944)
  • Major General L.O. Lyne
  • Brigadier Sir A.G.B Stanier Bart (acting)
  • Major General D.A.H. Graham

69th Infantry Brigade (reorganised as a Reserve Infantry Brigade and returned to the U.K. December 1944)

  • 5th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment
  • 6th Battalion, Green Howards
  • 7th Battalion, Green Howards

151st Infantry Brigade (reorganised as a Reserve Infantry Brigade and returned to the U.K. December 1944)

  • 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry
  • 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry
  • 9th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (left 30 November 1944, joined 131st Brigade, 7th Armoured Division)
  • 1/7th Battalion, Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey) (joined 4 December 1944)

231st Infantry Brigade (joined 13 August 1943, reorganised as a Reserve Infantry Brigade and returned to the U.K. December 1944)

Divisional Troops

  • 50th Division Signal Regiment, Royal Corps of Signals
  • 61st Reconnaissance Regiment, Reconnaissance Corps
  • 2nd Battalion, Cheshire Regiment
  • Royal Artillery
    • 74th (Northumbrian) Field Regiment
    • 90th (City of London) Field Regiment
    • 124th Field Regiment
    • 102nd (Northumberland Hussars) Anti-Tank Regiment
    • 25th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment
  • Royal Engineers
    • 233rd (Northumbrian) Field Company
    • 295th Field Company(joined 23 September 1943)
    • 505th Field Company
    • 235th (Northumbrian) Field Park Company
    • 15th Bridging Platoon
  • Royal Army Service Corps[96]
    • 356th, 508th, 522nd Infantry Brigade Companies
    • 524th Division Troops Company
  • Royal Army Medical Corps[96]
    • 149th, 186th and 200th Field Ambulances
    • 47th and 48th Field Dressing Stations

Attached to the Division for the assault phase of D-Day[97]

56th Independent Infantry Brigade (joined 4 April—10 June, 12—15 June 1944))[98]

8th Armoured Brigade (under XXX Corps control)[99]

Other Attached Brigades[edit]

The following brigades were also attached to the Division for short periods.[100]

Recipients of the Victoria Cross[edit]

Time Line[edit]

From[101]

  • September 1939 to January 1940 United Kingdom, an existing Territorial Army division, headquartered in Darlington. Organized as a two brigade motor division.
  • January to June 1940 France and Belgium.
  • June 1940 to April 1941 United Kingdom, reorganised into a three brigade infantry division.
  • June to July 1941 Egypt.
  • July 1941 to November 1941 Cyprus.
  • November 1941 to January 1942 Iraq.
  • January to February 1942 Syria.
  • February 1942 Egypt.
  • February to June 1942 Libya.
  • June to December 1942 Egypt.
  • December 1942 March 1943 Libya.
  • March to April 1943 Tunisia.
  • April to May 1943 Libya.
  • May to June 1943 Egypt.
  • July to October 1943 Sicily.
  • November 1943 to June 1944 United Kingdom.
  • June to December 1944 North-western Europe.
  • December 1944 to August 1945 United Kingdom as the 50th Infantry (Reserve) Division.
  • August 1945 (Division HQ only) Norway and retitled HQ British Land Forces Norway.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The 5th Royal Northunberland Fusiliers became the 53rd Searchlight Regiment,[2] the 5th Durham Light Infantry split into the 1/5th and 2/5 battalions to become the 55th and 54th Searchlight regiments respectively, and the 7th D.L.I. became the 47th Searchlight regiment.[3]
  2. ^ The 4th R.N.F. to a motorcycle battalion, 6th to a tank battalion (43rd Royal Tank Regiment) and the 7th to a machine gun battalion.[2]
  3. ^ The 13th, 17th, 150th and 151st Brigades. The 25th Brigade had been reallocated from the 50th to 'Polforce', defending the canal line between Béthune and La Brasse.[14]
  4. ^ For example, the 8th Battalion Durham light Infantry lost 46 men killed in the campaign.[22]
  5. ^ On the Night of 6 June 220 Italians and some Germans were taken prisoner by one patrol from 8th D.L.I.[34]
  6. ^ Details of the rifle companies and the H.Q company escaped.[42]
  7. ^ 8,000 casualties in Rissik.
  8. ^ The Division's machine gun battalion (2nd Cheshires) and the anti-tank regiment (102nd) had been in action at the Battle of Medenine[58]
  9. ^ B company of 6th D.L.I. landed one and a half hours late and 3000 yards from the target beach, they occupied Avola railway station and met up with a company from the K.O.Y.L.I. (5th Division) who were six miles from where they should have been and some American paratroopers who were 12 miles adrift.[68]

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Hammond p. 1
  2. ^ a b Hewitson p. 150
  3. ^ Rissik Ch. 9
  4. ^ Niehorster, Dr. Leo. "Motor Divisions, British Army, 03-09-39". World War II Armed Forces, Orders of Battle and Organisation. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  5. ^ Delaforce p. 2
  6. ^ Delaforce p. 3
  7. ^ Ellis (1) pps. 73, 83
  8. ^ Ellis (1) p. 87
  9. ^ Ellis (1) p. 89
  10. ^ Ellis (1) p. 91
  11. ^ Delaforce p. 5
  12. ^ Ellis (1) pp. 91-92
  13. ^ Ellis (1) p. 96
  14. ^ Ellis (1) pps. 124, map opp. 133
  15. ^ Ellis (1) p. 132
  16. ^ Ellis (1) p. 196
  17. ^ Ellis (1) chs. 12-14
  18. ^ Rissik p. 33
  19. ^ Ellis (1) p. 235
  20. ^ Rissik pp. 34-35
  21. ^ Delaforce p. 8
  22. ^ Lewis pp. 306-315
  23. ^ Delaforce p. 10
  24. ^ Delaforce p. 11
  25. ^ Lewis pp. 39-40
  26. ^ Rissik p. 84
  27. ^ Delaforce pp. 11-13
  28. ^ Delaforce p. 13
  29. ^ Lewis p. 60
  30. ^ Rissik p. 85
  31. ^ a b Delaforce p. 14
  32. ^ Dimbleby p. 249-250
  33. ^ Delaforce pp. 15-16
  34. ^ Lewis p. 85-86
  35. ^ Lewis p. 82
  36. ^ Rissik p. 88
  37. ^ Delaforce 18—19
  38. ^ Rissik p. 89
  39. ^ Delaforce p. 19
  40. ^ Rissik pp. 92—93
  41. ^ Lewis p. 107
  42. ^ a b Rissik p. 95
  43. ^ Rissik pp. 94—95
  44. ^ Lewis pp. 111—112
  45. ^ Delaforce p. 20
  46. ^ Rissik pp. 96—97
  47. ^ Delaforce pp. 22—24
  48. ^ Delaforce pp. 24—25
  49. ^ Hammond p. 88
  50. ^ Delaforce p. 25
  51. ^ Delaforce p. 28
  52. ^ Delaforce p. 29
  53. ^ Hammond pp. 229—230
  54. ^ Rissik p. 102
  55. ^ Rissik pp. 101—102
  56. ^ Hammond p. 235
  57. ^ a b Delaforce p. 31
  58. ^ Delaforce p. 33
  59. ^ Delaforce pp. 32—33
  60. ^ Delafoce pp.33—34
  61. ^ Delaforce p. 38
  62. ^ Delaforce 37—39
  63. ^ Cheal p. 60
  64. ^ Delaforce pp.40-43
  65. ^ Cheal p. 61
  66. ^ Delaforce pp.43—44
  67. ^ Delaforce p. 44
  68. ^ Delaforce p. 47
  69. ^ Delaforce p. 48
  70. ^ Delaforce p. 49
  71. ^ Deleforce p. 50
  72. ^ Delaforce pp. 50—51
  73. ^ Delaforce p. 51
  74. ^ Rissik p. 125
  75. ^ Rissik p. 127
  76. ^ Lewis p. 215
  77. ^ Delaforce pp.51—53
  78. ^ Delaforce p. 54
  79. ^ Joslen p. 81
  80. ^ Deleforce p 57
  81. ^ Delaforce p. 55
  82. ^ David
  83. ^ Barnes p. 62
  84. ^ Ellis, p. 247
  85. ^ Forty, p. 36
  86. ^ Ellis, p. 261
  87. ^ Forty, p. 182
  88. ^ Joslen p. 272
  89. ^ a b Neihorster, Leo. "Motor Infantry Division". World War II Armed Forces, Orders of Battle and Organisation. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  90. ^ Neihorster, Leo. "Motor Infantry Division, RASC". World War II Armed Forces, Orders of Battle and Organisation. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  91. ^ Neihorster, Leo. "Motor Infantry Division, RAMC". World War II Armed Forces, Orders of Battle and Organisation. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  92. ^ a b Joslen p. 81
  93. ^ Niehorster, Leo. "50th Division, El-Alamein". World War II Armed Forces. Orders of Battle and Organizations. Retrieved 25 December 2015. 
  94. ^ a b Niehorster, Leo. "50th Division, Operation Husky". World War II Armed Forces. Orders of Battle and Organizations. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  95. ^ Delaforce p. 44
  96. ^ a b Palmer, Rob. "50th Division (1944)" (PDF). British Military History. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  97. ^ Joslen p. 581
  98. ^ Joslen p. 296
  99. ^ Joslen p. 160
  100. ^ "50th (Northumberland) Infantry Division Subordinate Units". Orders of Battle. Retrieved 10 January 2016. 
  101. ^ Joslen p. 82

References[edit]

  • Anderson, Charles R. (1990). Tunisia 17 November 1942 – 13 May 1943. The U.S. Army Campaigns of WWII. Washington: United States Army Center of Military History. OCLC 835850360. CMH Pub 72-12. Retrieved 21 May 2014. 
  • Banks, Sir Donald (1946). Flame Over Britain, a Personal Narrative of Petroleum Warfare. Sampson Low, Marston and Co. OCLC 500248999. 
  • Barnes, B.S. , The Sign of the Double 'T' (The 50th Northumbrian Division – July 1943 to December 1944), Market Weighton: Sentinel Press, 2nd Edn 2008, ISBN 978-0-9534262-0-1.
  • Cheal, Paul (Bill) (2011). Fighting Through from Dunkirk to Hamburg. A Green Howard's Wartime Memoir. Barnsey: Pen & Sword Military. ISBN 9781848844742. 
  • Clifford, Alexander (1943). Three Against Rommel: The Campaigns of Wavell, Auchinleck and Alexander. London: George G. Harrap & Co. OCLC 186758297. 
  • Clay, Ewart W. (1950). The Path of the 50th: 50th (Northumberland) Division (Military Library Research Service 2006 ed.). Aldershot: Gale and Polden. ISBN 1-905696-39-6. OCLC 154133213. 
  • David, Saul (2005). Mutiny at Salerno: An Injustice Exposed. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-1-84486-019-7. Fifty years on, Saul David became the first military historian to gain access to the court martial papers normally restricted for 75 years 
  • Dimbleby, Johnathan (2012). Destiny in the Desert. The Road to El-Alamein. London: Profile Books. ISBN 978-1-84668-445-6. 
  • Delaforce, Patrick (2004). Monty's Northern Legions. 50th Northumbrian and 15th Scottish Divisions at War 1939-1945. Stroud: Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9780750935562. 
  • Ellis, Major L. F. (1962). Butler, Sir James, ed. The War in France and Flanders. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series (Naval & Military Press 2004 ed.). London: HMSO. ISBN 9781845740566. 
  • Ellis, Major L. F. (1962). Butler, Sir James, ed. Victory in the West, The Battle of Normandy. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series I (Naval & Military Press 2004 ed.). London: HMSO. ISBN 1-845740-58-0. 
  • Forty, George (2004). Villers Bocage. Battle Zone Normandy. Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-3012-8. 
  • Joslen, Lt-Col H.F., Orders of Battle, United Kingdom and Colonial Formations and Units in the Second World War, 1939–1945, London: HM Stationery Office, 1960/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2003, ISBN 1-843424-74-6.
  • Hammond, Aubrey. "1". The story of "Fifty Div". 1940s (Z.155 ed.). Cairo: Schindler's Press. p. 1. 
  • Hammond, Bryn. El Alamein. The Battle that Turned the Tide of the Second World War (1 ed.). Oxford: Osprey Publishing Limited. ISBN 9781849086400. 
  • Hewitson, T.L. (2006). Weekend Warriors. From Tyne to Tweed. Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 9780752437569. 
  • Lewis, Maj. P J. 8th battalion The Durham Light Infantry 1939–1945. Naval and Military Press. ISBN 9781845741457. 
  • Mackenzie, Compton (1951). Eastern Epic. London: Chatto & Windus. OCLC 1412578. 
  • Rissik, David (1952). The D.L.I. at War. The History of the Durham Light infantry 1939-1945. Naval and Military Press. ISBN 9781845741440. 
  • Young, Desmond (1975). Rommel. London: Fontana. ISBN 0-00-613911-6. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]