|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|510 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||510 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||244|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 16|
|- Pharaoh||Darius I of Persia, 12|
|Ancient Greek era||67th Olympiad, year 3|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)|
2187 or 2127
— to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
2188 or 2128
|Coptic calendar||−793 – −792|
|Ethiopian calendar||−517 – −516|
|- Vikram Samvat||−453 – −452|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2591–2592|
|Iranian calendar||1131 BP – 1130 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1166 BH – 1165 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2421 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||33–34|
−383 or −764 or −1536
— to —
−382 or −763 or −1535
The year 510 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire, it was known as year 244 Ab urbe condita. The denomination 510 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Hippias, tyrant of Athens, is expelled by his people with the assistance of Cleomenes, King of Sparta.
- The reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of the traditional seven Kings of Rome, concludes. The Kingdom of Rome falls and is replaced by the Roman Republic. (or 509 BC)
- Ariston is succeeded as King of Sparta by Demaratus.
- Stelae begin to be banned in Athenian cemeteries (approximate date; ends c. 430 BC).
- Aryandes, Persian satrap of Egypt (executed by the Persian king Darius I)
- Annei, emperor of Japan (b. 577 BC)