|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|52 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||52 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||702|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 272|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy XII Auletes, 29|
|Ancient Greek era||182nd Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||戊辰年 (Earth Dragon)|
2645 or 2585
— to —
己巳年 (Earth Snake)
2646 or 2586
|Coptic calendar||−335 – −334|
|Ethiopian calendar||−59 – −58|
|- Vikram Samvat||5–6|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||3049–3050|
|Iranian calendar||673 BP – 672 BP|
|Islamic calendar||694 BH – 693 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1963 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||260/261 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||491–492|
75 or −306 or −1078
— to —
76 or −305 or −1077
Year 52 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Pompeius and Scipio (or, less frequently, year 702 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 52 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Consuls: Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.
- Pompey marries Cornelia Metella.
- Milo is tried for the murder of Clodius. Despite Cicero's legal defence (Pro Milone) he is found guilty and exiled in Massilia (modern Marseille).
- Last year of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars:
- March – Siege and capture of Avaricum (Bourges).
- April–May – Siege and repulse from Gergovia.
- July – Battle of the Vingeanne: Caesar rebuffs with his German auxiliaries an Gallic cavalry attack of Vercingetorix.
- Summer – Siege of Alesia: Caesar spread out his legions around the Oppidum and builds a string of fortifications.
- September – Battle of Alesia: Caesar defeats the Gauls led by Vercingetorix (who surrenders on October 3), breaking the back of the Gallic insurrection. The final pacification of Gaul is complete the following year.
- Winter – Caesar crosses Mons Cevenna (central Gaul) and sends his army through the passes covered with snowdrifts to take the rebellious Arverni by surprise.
- January 18 – Publius Clodius Pulcher, murdered on the Appian Way by Titus Annius Milo (b. 93 BC)
- Surena, Parthian General (b. 84 BC)