From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- 1 Events
- 1.1 550
- 1.2 551
- 1.3 552
- 1.4 553
- 1.5 554
- 1.6 555
- 1.7 556
- 1.8 557
- 1.9 558
- 1.10 559
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- Emperor Justinian I appoints Bessas commander (magister militum) of Armenia, and entrusts him with the war in Lazica (Georgia).
- January 16 – Gothic War: The Ostrogoths under king Totila recapture Rome after a long siege, by bribing the Isaurian garrison.
- Summer – Totila plunders Sicily, after he subdues Corsica and Sardinia. He sends a Gothic fleet to raid the coasts of Greece.
- Justinian I sends two Nestorian monks on a "mission" to Central Asia, to spread Christianity in the East (approximate date).
- The Vendel era begins; the name is given to a region in Uppland (an important area of the sagas' account of a Swedish kingdom).
- The Sassanid Empire, under the reign of King Khosru I, controls the trade of silk destined for Europe and the Byzantine Empire.
- The Eastern Wei Dynasty ends, and Wen Xuan Di becomes emperor of Northern Qi. He forces Xiao Jing Di to yield the throne.
- Wen Xuan Di adopts a defensive policy towards the hostile northern tribes; he builds on the border over 1,000 miles of walls.
- The Gupta Empire falls; India is again ruled by regional kingdoms (approximate date).
- Construction of Quiriguá (Guatemala) begins (approximate date).
- The last known eruption of Chimborazo (modern Ecuador) occurs.
Arts and sciences
- Hindu mathematicians give zero a numeral representation in a positional notation system.
- Procopius writes the Secret History (approximate date).
- The churches of Lazica (Georgia) and Armenia split. While the Armenian Church remains independent, the Georgian church unites with the Byzantine Empire. This ecclesiastical union deepens political and cultural contact between the two states. As a sign of Lazica's status vis-à-vis Byzantium, Lazic princes are vested with honorific titles of the Byzantine court, including kouropalates, or "minister of the imperial palace" (approximate date).
- The main redaction of the Babylonian Talmud is completed under Rabbis Ravina and Ashi (approximate date).
- Chararic, king of the Suevi, converts to Catholicism.
- In Ireland, the Diocese of Tuam is erected.
- After the death of his cousin Germanus, Justinian I appoints Narses new supreme commander and returns to Italy. In Salona on the Adriatic coast, he assembles a Byzantine expeditionary force totaling 20,000 or possibly 30,000 men and a contingent of foreign allies, notably Lombards, Heruls and Bulgars.
- Gothic War: Narses arrives in Venetia and discovers that a powerful Gothic-Frank army (50,000 men), under joint command of the kings Totila and Theudebald, has blocked the principal route to the Po Valley. Not wishing to engage such a formidable force and confident that the Franks would avoid a direct confrontation, Narses skirts the lagoons along the Adriatic shore, by using vessels to leapfrog his army from point to point along the coast. In this way he arrives at the capital Ravenna without encountering any opposition. He attacks and crushes a small Gothic force at Ariminum (modern Rimini).
- Autumn – Battle of Sena Gallica: The Byzantine fleet (50 warships) destroys the Gothic naval force under Indulf near Sena Gallica (Senigallia), some 17 miles (27 km) north of Ancona. It marks the end of the Gothic supremacy in the Mediterranean Sea.
- July 9 – Beirut is destroyed by an earthquake and tsunami. Its epicenter has an estimated magnitude of about 7.2 or 7.6, and according to reports of Antoninus of Piacenza, Christian pilgrim, some 30,000 people are killed.
- Athanagild revolts against the Visigothic king Agila. Their armies meet at Seville (Andalusia), and Agila is defeated.
- Spring – Lazic War: The Byzantine army and their Sabir allies (some 6,000 men) under Bessas recapture the strategic Byzantine fortress of Petra, located on the coast of the Black Sea. He orders the city walls razed to the ground.
- Autumn – Xiao Dong, great-nephew of the rebellious general Hou Jing, succeeds Jianwen Di as emperor of the Liang Dynasty. Xiao Dong has no real power and Hou Jing controls the imperial government at the capital Jiankang.
- Bumin Qaghan, chieftain of the Göktürks, founds the Turkic Khaganate. He unites the local Turkic tribes and throws off the yoke of the Rouran domination.
Arts and sciences
- July 1 – Battle of Taginae: Narses crosses the Apennines with a Byzantine army (25,000 men). He is blocked by a Gothic force under king Totila near Taginae (Central Italy). In a narrow mountain valley, Narses deploys his army in a "crescent shaped" formation. He dismounts his Lombard and Heruli cavalry mercenaries, placing them as a phalanx in the centre. On his left flank he sends out a mixed force of foot and horse archers to seize a dominant height. The Goths open the battle with a determined cavalry charge. Halted by enfilading fire from both sides, the attackers are thrown back in confusion on the infantry behind them. The Byzantine cataphracts (Clibanarii) sweep into the milling mass. More than 6,000 Goths, including Totila, are killed. The remnants flee, and Narses proceeds to Rome, where he captures the city after a brief siege.
- Emperor Justinian I dispatches a small Byzantine force (2,000 men) under Liberius to Hispania, according to the historian Jordanes. He conquers Cartagena and other cities on the southeastern coast.
- Justinian I receives the first silkworm eggs from two Nestorian monks at Constantinople. They were sent to Central Asia (see 550) and smuggled the precious eggs from China hidden in rods of bamboo.
- Battle of Asfeld: The Lombards under King Audoin defeat the Gepids.
- Cynric, king of Wessex, captures the fortress city of Old Sarum.
- The Roman Catholic Diocese of Meath is established in Ireland.
- Teia becomes the last king of the Ostrogoths in Italy.
- Yuan Di succeeds Yu Zhang as emperor of the Liang Dynasty.
- Buddhism is introduced to Japan (approximate date).
- July 11 – First year of the Armenian calendar.
- Bumin Khagan dies; the new khagan is Issik Khagan of the Turkic Empire.
- The Byzantine Church is able to make fabrics, with the intention of developing a large silk industry in the Byzantine Empire.
- Eutychius becomes patriarch of Constantinople.
- Battle of Mons Lactarius: In a secret, well conducted march, King Teia joints forces with his brother Aligern in Campania. They march to relieve the siege of Cumae. Meanwhile at Mons Lactarius (modern Monti Lattari), Narses lays an ambush. The combined Gothic force is crushed in a hopeless last stand for two days (south of Naples), and Teia is killed in the fightings. Aligern escapes, but surrenders a few months later.
- The Ostrogothic Kingdom ends after 60 years of rule in Italy. The Goths are allowed to return to their homes in peace and (re)settle in modern-day Austria. Some 7,000 people retreat to Campsas (Southern Gaul), and resist with minimal help from the Franks against the Byzantines until 554.
- Gothic War: Frankish invasion — Two Frankish-Alemanni dukes, brothers Lothair and Buccelin, cross the Alps from Germany with a force of 75,000 men, mostly Frankish infantry. In the Po Valley, they win an easy victory over a much smaller Byzantine force at Parma, and are joined by remnants of the Gothic armies, bringing the total strength of the invaders to about 90,000 men. Narses, gathering his forces as quickly as possible, marches north to harass the Franks, but is not strong enough to engage them in battle. In Samnium (Southern Italy) the brothers divide their forces: Lothaire goes down the east coast, then returns to the north, to winter in the Po Valley. Buccelin follows the west coast to the very toe of the boot into Calabria, where he spends the winter — his army being seriously wasted by attrition and disease.
- King Seong of Baekje attacks the kingdoms of Goguryeo and Silla. However, under a secret agreement, Silla troops attack the exhausted Baekje army, and take possession of the entire Han River valley.
- In the Turkic Khaganate Istemi is appointed governor (yabgu) in the west of the empire (modern Turkestan), and Muqan Qaghan succeeds his brother Issik Qaghan as emperor (khagan) of the Göktürks.
- May 5 – The Fifth Ecumenical Council is held in Constantinople. Emperor Justinian I condemns in an edict the Three Chapters, causing further schisms and heresies of monoenergism and monothelitism.
- Battle of the Volturnus: In the spring Buccelin marches north; the Frankish army (infected by dysentery) is reduced to about 30,000 men. The Byzantine army, with 18,000 men (including a contingent of Goths under Aligern), marches south to meet them at Casilinum (on the banks of the River Volturno). Narses sends a cavalry force under Chanaranges to destroy the supply wagons of the Franks. Outmanoeuvring Buccelin, he chooses a disposition similar to that at Taginae. After a frontal assault on the Byzantine centre, the Franks and the Alamanni are annihilated. Meanwhile, in the north, Lothair and his army are struck by an epidemic.
- End of the Gothic War: Narses garrisons in Italy an army of 16,000 men. The recovery of the Italian Peninsula has cost the empire about 300,000 pounds of gold.
- August 13 – Emperor Justinian I rewards Liberius for his long and distinguished service in the Pragmatic Sanction, granting him extensive estates in Italy.
- Byzantine forces under Liberius seize Granada (Andalusia) and occupy the old province of Baetica. Justinian I calls Belisarius out of retirement, to complete the consolidation of reconquered regions of Southern Spain.
- Athanagild is crowned as king of the Visigoths and succeeds Agila I. He acknowledges the suzerainty of the Byzantine Empire.
- Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Nu'man is defeated and killed by the Ghassanids under al-Harith ibn Jabalah, at the battle of Yawm Halima; 'Amr III ibn al-Mundhir succeeds as king of the Lakhmids.
- Gong Di succeeds his brother Fei Di as emperor of Western Wei. He is deposed by general Yuwen Tai and puts him to death.
- The province of Jiangling (Central China) is captured; 100,000 inhabitants are enslaved and distributed to generals and officials.
- Wei Shou completes compilation of the Book of Wei.
- Baekje and the Gaya Confederacy wage war upon Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, but are defeated.
- Muqan Qaghan succeeds his brother Issik Qaghan as emperor (khagan) of the Göktürks.
- The second and larger of the two Buddhas of Bamyan is erected in central Afghanistan.
- Emperor Justinian I reconquers many former territories of the Western Roman Empire, including Italy, Dalmatia, Africa and Southern Hispania.
- An earthquake devastates the city of Latakia (modern Syria).
- King Chlothar I annexes the Frankish territories of Metz and Reims, after the death of his great-nephew Theudebald.
- King Erb of Gwent dies; his kingdom is divided into Gwent and Ergyng in Southern Wales (approximate date).
- Summer – Lazic War: The Byzantine army under Bessas is repulsed, and forced to retreat out of Archaeopolis (Georgia).
- King Gubazes II is invited to observe the siege of a Persian-held fortress, and is murdered by the Byzantine military staff.
- Chinese Liang Dynasty: Jing Di, age 12, succeeds his father Yuan Di and is declared emperor by general Chen Baxian.
- The Rouran Khaganate ends; it is defeated by the Göktürks under Muqan Qaghan, who expands his rule in Central Asia.
Arts and sciences
- Around this time, the historian Jordanes writes several books, among them De origine actibusque Getarum (The origin and deeds of the Goths).
- Taliesin, British poet, becomes court bard to King Brochwel of Powys (approximate date).
- June 7 – Pope Vigilius dies on his journey back home at Syracuse. His body is brought to Rome and buried in the San Martino ai Monti.
- Cybi Felyn, abbot of Holyhead, dies at his monastery in Caer Gybi (approximate date).
- King Chlothar I surppresses a revolt of the Saxons and Thuringii in Saxony (Germany). He exacts for some time a tribute of 500 cows every year.
- King Cynric and his son Ceawlin of Wessex fight against the Britons at Beranburh, now identified as Barbury Castle (Wiltshire) in South West England.
- Lazic War: A Byzantine expeditionary force under Justin retakes Archaeopolis (modern Georgia), and routs the Persian army.
- Siege of Phasis: The Persians are defeated at the besieged town of Phasis in Lazica, held by the Byzantines.
- King Khosrau I opens negotiations with Justinian I, leading to the establishment of a 50 year peace agreement in 562.
- April 16 – The diplomatic representative (apocrisiarius) to Constantinople is elected as Pope Pelagius I, succeeding Vigilius as the 60th pope of Rome.
- The Avars arrive in the northern region of the Caucasus, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. They send envoys to the Byzantines in Lazica (modern Georgia). Like the Huns, the Avars are the former elite of a central Asian federation, which has been forced to flee westwards.
- December 14 – The 557 Constantinople earthquake occurs.
- The Western Wei dynasty ends: Yuwen Hu deposes emperor Gong Di, and places Yuwen Tai's son Xiaomin on the throne. Yuwen Hu becomes regent and establishes the Northern Zhou dynasty in China.
- Ming Di is made emperor, after his younger brother Xiao Min Di is arrested while trying to assume power. Xiao Min Di is deposed and executed by Yuwen Hu.
- The Liang dynasty ends: Chen Wu Di, a distinguished general, becomes the first emperor of the Chen dynasty in Southern China.
- The Göktürks under Muqan Qaghan ally with the Persian Empire, and destroy the Hephthalites (White Huns) in Central Asia.
- King Chlothar I of the Franks founds the Abbey of St. Medard at Soissons (Northern France).
- The Jiming Temple in Nanjing is built; the Buddhist pagoda is located near Xuanwu Lake.
- May 7 – In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses due to an earthquake. Emperor Justinian I orders the dome to be rebuilt.
- The Avars and the Slavs occupy the Hungarian Plain on the Balkans. The threat of Avar domination prompts the Lombards to migrate to Italy.
- December 13 – King Chlothar I reunites the Frankish Kingdom after his brother Childebert I dies, becoming sole ruler of the Franks.
- Conall mac Comgaill becomes king of Dál Riata, a Gaelic overkingdom on the western coast of Scotland.
- Istämi, ruler of the Western Turkic Khaganate, establishes diplomatic relations with the Byzantine Empire.
- The Guanghua Temple in Putian (China) is built during the Chen Dynasty, under Emperor Chen Wu Di.
- The Bangor Abbey is founded by the Irish abbot Comgall in Northern Ireland (approximate date).
- December 23 – The Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés is dedicated by Germain, bishop of Paris.
- Winter – The Kutrigurs and Huns under Zabergan cross the frozen Danube River, and invade the Balkans. They raid Thracia and Macedonia, but are driven back near Constantinople by a Byzantine force under Belisarius. Outside the city walls he defeats the "barbarians" with his veteran cavalry (bucellarii), and a few thousand hastily raised levies.
- Glappa succeeds his father Ida as king of Bernicia (North East England). During his rule, Anglian settlers expand their territory in what is now southeastern Scotland.
- First successful human flight: a manned kite lands in the proximity of Ye, China. Emperor Wen Xuan Di sponsors the flight; Yuan Huangtou, a prisoner, is the unwilling aviator; other imprisoned kite flyers also fly, but those die and Yuan survives. Yuan is executed afterwards.
- Wen Di, age 37, succeeds his uncle Chen Wu Di as emperor of the Chen Dynasty. During his reign, he consolidates the state against the rebellious warlords.
- The city-state Ara Gaya, a member of the Gaya confederacy, surrenders to Silla in the Korean peninsula.
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- Imperial Chinese Armies (p. 23). C.J. Peers, 1995. ISBN 978-1-85532-514-2
- J.Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, p. 251
- Sbeinati, M.R.; Darawcheh R. & Mouty M, (2005). "The historical earthquakes of Syria: an analysis of large and moderate earthquakes from 1365 B.C. to 1900 A.D." (PDF). Annals of Geophysics. 48 (3): 347–435. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Isidore of Seville, Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum, chapter 46. Translation by Guido Donini and Gordon B. Ford, Isidore of Seville's History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi, second revised edition (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1970), p. 22
- Bury (1958), p. 116
- Greatrex & Lieu (2002), p. 118-119
- Rance, Philip. "Narses and the Battle of Taginae (Busta Gallorum)". Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte Vol. 54, No. 4 (2005), p. 424
- Getica, p. 303
- Leeds, E.T. (1954). "The Growth of Wessex". Oxoniensia. Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. LIX: 55–56. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
- J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, p. 233
- O'Donnell, "Liberius", p. 69
- Cohen, Roger. "Return to Bamiyan", The New York Times, October 29, 2007. Accessed October 29, 2007.
- Jean Leclerq, "The Love of Learning and the Desire for God", 2nd revised edition (New York: Fordham, Fordham University Press, (1977), p. 25
- Martindale et al. p. 560, 841, 1103–1104; Bury & 1958 p. 118; Greatrex, Leu & 2002 p. 120–121
- Myres, p. 162
- Bury & 1958 p. 119; Martindale et al. p. 752, 845–846; Greatrex, Lieu & 2002 p. 121
- Martindale, Jones & eMorris (1992), p. 81–82
- Rome at War (AD 293—696), p. 59. Michael Whitby, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-359-4
- Michael Whitby (2002-11-13). Rome at War AD 293-696. Osprey Publishing Company. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-84176-359-0.
- Litchi City Putian Archived May 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- （永定三年）使元黄头与诸囚自金凤台各乘纸鸱以飞，黄头独能至紫陌乃堕，仍付御史中丞毕义云饿杀之。 (Rendering: [In the 3rd year of Yongding, 559], Gao Yang conducted an experiment by having Yuan Huangtou and a few prisoners launch themselves from a tower in Ye, capital of the Northern Qi. Yuan Huangtou was the only one who survived from this flight, as he glided over the city-wall and fell at Zimo [western segment of Ye] safely, but he was later executed.) Zizhi Tongjian 167.