5535 Annefrank

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5535 Annefrank
Stardust - Annefrank.jpg
5535 Annefrank viewed by Stardust in 2002
Discovery [1]
Discovered by K. Reinmuth
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 23 March 1942
MPC designation 5535 Annefrank
Named after
Anne Frank
(Holocaust victim)[2]
1942 EM · 1978 EK6
1986 TV14 · 1991 BO2
main-belt · Augusta family · Flora[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 16 February 2017 (JD 2457800.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 74.64 yr (27,261 days)
Aphelion 2.3528 AU
Perihelion 2.0722 AU
2.2125 AU
Eccentricity 0.0634
3.29 yr (1,202 days)
0° 17m 58.2s / day
Inclination 4.2473°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions (6.6 x 5.0 x 3.4 km)[1]
4.34±0.23 km[4]
4.8 km[1]
4.94 km (calculated)[3]
15.12 h[5]
15.156±0.0474 h[6]
21.33±0.990 h[7]
0.24 (assumed)[3]
13.650±0.120 (R)[7]
13.679±0.001 (R)[6]

5535 Annefrank (/ˌæn ˈfræŋk/), provisional designation 1942 EM, is an inner main-belt asteroid, and member of the Flora or Augusta family, approximately 4.5 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered 23 March 1942, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southwest Germany.[11] The asteroid was used as a target to practice the flyby technique that the Stardust space probe would later use on the comet Wild 2.[8] It is named after Anne Frank, a Jewish victim of the Holocaust,.[2]


Annefrank orbits among the main-belt asteroids, with its shortest axis aligned roughly normal to its orbital plane.[8] It orbits the Sun at a distance of 2.1–2.4 AU once every 3 years and 3 months (1,202 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.06 and an inclination of 4° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body's observation arc begins with identification 1978 EK6, its first used observation taken at Crimea–Nauchnij 1978, or 36 years after its official discovery observation at Heidelberg.[11]

Physical characteristics[edit]

On November 2, 2002, the Stardust space probe flew past Annefrank at a distance of 3079 km. Its images show the asteroid to be 6.6 × 5.0 × 3.4 km, twice as big as previously thought, shaped like a triangular prism, with several visible impact craters.[8] From the photographs, the albedo of Annefrank was computed to be between 0.18 and 0.24.[8] Preliminary analysis of the Stardust imagery suggests that Annefrank may be a contact binary, although other possible explanations exist for its observed shape.[8]

Later ground based lightcurve data was used in an attempt to measure Annefrank's rotational period. Their data resulted in possible rotational periods of 0.5, 0.63 or 0.95 days, with 0.63 days fitting the data best.[5] The lightcurve data also suggests that the asteroid is not Lambertian, meaning that surface features, such as shadows from boulders and craters, play a role in the object's perceived brightness and not just the asteroid's relative size when seen from that orientation.


This minor planet was named after Anne Frank, the Dutch-Jewish diarist who died in a Nazi concentration camp (World War II).[2] Naming citation was published on 14 May 1995 (M.P.C. 25230).[12]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 5535 Annefrank (1942 EM)" (2016-11-10 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (5535) Annefrank. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 472. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (5535) Annefrank". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Schmidt, B. E.; Bauer, J.; Buratti, B. J.; Russell, C. T. (March 2007). "Rotational Light Curve and Rotation Period of 5535 Annefrank". 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference: 1859. Bibcode:2007LPI....38.1859S. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  6. ^ a b Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  7. ^ a b Chang, Chan-Kao; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Yang, Ting-Chang; et al. (August 2015). "Asteroid Spin-rate Study Using the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 219 (2): 19. arXiv:1506.08493Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJS..219...27C. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/219/2/27. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Duxbury, T. C.; et al. (February 2004). "Asteroid 5535 Annefrank size, shape, and orientation: Stardust first results". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 109 (E2): E02002. Bibcode:2004JGRE..10902002D. doi:10.1029/2003JE002108. hdl:2014/7110. 
  9. ^ Hillier, John K.; Bauer, James M.; Buratti, Bonnie J. (January 2011). "Photometric modeling of Asteroid 5535 Annefrank from Stardust observations". Icarus. 211 (1): 546–552. Bibcode:2011Icar..211..546H. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.10.009. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  10. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  11. ^ a b "5535 Annefrank (1942 EM)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  12. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 

External links[edit]