555 timer IC

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555 timer IC
Signetics NE555 in 8-pin DIP package
TypeActive, integrated circuit
InventedHans Camenzind (1971)
First production 1972
Electronic symbol

Internal block diagram[1]

The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, delay, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. Derivatives provide two (556) or four (558) timing circuits in one package.[2] The design was first marketed in 1972 by Signetics[3][4] and used bipolar junction transistors. Since then, numerous companies have made the original timers and later similar low-power CMOS timers. In 2017, it was said that over a billion 555 timers are produced annually by some estimates, and that the design was "probably the most popular integrated circuit ever made".[5]


Silicon die of the first 555 chip (1971)
Die of a CMOS NXP ICM7555 chip

The timer IC was designed in 1971 by Hans Camenzind under contract to Signetics.[3] In 1968, he was hired by Signetics to develop a phase-locked loop (PLL) IC. He designed an oscillator for PLLs such that the frequency did not depend on the power supply voltage or temperature. Signetics subsequently laid off half of its employees due to the 1970 recession, and development on the PLL was thus frozen.[6] Camenzind proposed the development of a universal circuit based on the oscillator for PLLs and asked that he develop it alone, borrowing equipment from Signetics instead of having his pay cut in half. Camenzind's idea was originally rejected, since other engineers argued the product could be built from existing parts sold by the company; however, the marketing manager approved the idea.[7]

The first design for the 555 was reviewed in the summer of 1971.[8] After this design was tested and found to be without errors, Camenzind got the idea of using a direct resistance instead of a constant current source, finding that it worked satisfactorily.[8] The design change decreased the required 9 external pins to 8, so the IC could be fit in an 8-pin package instead of a 14-pin package.[8] This revised version passed a second design review, and the prototypes were completed in October 1971 as the NE555V (plastic DIP) and SE555T (metal TO-5).[9] The 9-pin version had already been released by another company founded by an engineer who had attended the first review and had retired from Signetics; that firm withdrew its version soon after the 555 was released. The 555 timer was manufactured by 12 companies in 1972, and it became a best-selling product.[6]

The 555 found many applications beyond timers. Camenzind noted in 1997 that "nine out of 10 of its applications were in areas and ways I had never contemplated. For months I was inundated by phone calls from engineers who had new ideas for using the device."[8]


Several books report the name "555" timer IC derived from the three 5 kΩ resistors inside the chip.[10][11][12] However, in a recorded interview with an online transistor museum curator,[13] Hans Camenzind said "It was just arbitrarily chosen. It was Art Fury (marketing manager) who thought the circuit was gonna sell big who picked the name '555' timer IC.."[14]


Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package incorporated the equivalent of 25 transistors, 2 diodes, and 15 resistors on a silicon chip packaged into an 8-pin dual in-line package (DIP-8).[15] Variants available included the 556 (a DIP-14 combining two complete 555s on one chip),[16] and 558 / 559 (both variants were a DIP-16 combining four reduced-functionality timers on one chip).[2]

The NE555 parts were commercial temperature range, 0 °C to +70 °C, and the SE555 part number designated the military temperature range, −55 °C to +125 °C. These chips were available in both high-reliability metal can (T package) and inexpensive epoxy plastic (V package) form factors. Thus, the full part numbers were NE555V, NE555T, SE555V, and SE555T.

Low-power CMOS versions of the 555 are now available, such as the Intersil ICM7555 and Texas Instruments LMC555, TLC555, TLC551.[17][18][19][20]

Internal schematic[edit]

The internal block diagram and schematic of the 555 timer are highlighted with the same color across all three drawings to clarify how the chip is implemented:[2]

  • Voltage divider: Between the positive supply voltage VCC and the ground GND is a voltage divider consisting of three identical resistors (5  for bipolar timers, 100 kΩ or higher for CMOS) to create reference voltages for the analog comparators. CONTROL is connected between the upper two resistors, allowing an external voltage to control the reference voltages:
    • When CONTROL is not driven, this divider creates an upper reference voltage of 23 VCC and a lower reference voltage of 13 VCC.
    • When CONTROL is driven, the upper reference voltage will instead be VCONTROL and the lower reference voltage will be 12 VCONTROL.
  • Threshold comparator: The comparator's negative input is connected to voltage divider's upper reference voltage, and the comparator's positive input is connected to THRESHOLD.
  • Trigger comparator: The comparator's positive input is connected to voltage divider's lower reference, and the comparator's negative input is connected to TRIGGER.
  • Latch: A set-reset latch stores the state of the timer and is controlled by the two comparators. RESET overrides the other two inputs, thus the latch (and therefore the entire timer) can be reset at any time.
  • Output: The output of the latch is followed by an output stage with push–pull output drivers that can supply up to 200 mA for bipolar timers, lower for CMOS timers.
  • Discharge: Also, the output of the latch controls a transistor acting as an electronic switch that connects DISCHARGE to ground (convenient for discharging a timing capacitor) or leaves it disconnected.


The pinout of the 8-pin 555 timer[1] and 14-pin 556 dual timer[21] are shown in the following table. Since the 556 is conceptually two 555 timers that share power pins, the pin numbers for each half are split across two columns.[2]

In the following table, longer pin designations are used, because manufacturers never standardized the abbreviated pin names across all datasheets.

555 pin# 556 (unit 1) 556 (unit 2) Pin name Pin direction Pin description[1][21][2]
Ground supply: this pin is the ground reference voltage (zero volts).[22]
Trigger: when VTRIGGER falls below 12 VCONTROL (13 VCC, except when CONTROL is driven by an external signal), OUTPUT goes to the high state and a timing interval starts.[22] As long as TRIGGER continues to be kept at a low voltage, OUTPUT will remain in the high state.
Output: this pin is a push-pull (P.P.) output that is driven to either a low state (GND) or a high state (VCC minus approximately 1.7 volts for bipolar timers, or VCC for CMOS timers). For bipolar timers, this pin can drive up to 200 mA, but CMOS timers are able to drive less (varies by chip). For bipolar timers, if this pin drives an edge-sensitive input of a digital logic chip, a 100 to 1000 pF decoupling capacitor (between this pin and GND) may need to be added to prevent double triggering.[2]
Reset: a timing interval may be reset by driving this pin to GND, but the timing does not begin again until this pin rises above approximately 0.7 volts. This pin overrides TRIGGER, which in turn overrides THRESHOLD. If this pin is not used, it should be connected to VCC to prevent electrical noise accidentally causing a reset.[23][22]
Control: this pin provides access to the internal voltage divider (23 VCC by default). By applying a voltage to this pin, the timing characteristics can be changed. In astable mode, this pin can be used to frequency-modulate the OUTPUT state.[16] If this pin is not used, it should be connected to a 10 nF decoupling capacitor (between this pin and GND) to ensure electrical noise doesn't affect the internal voltage divider.[2][23][22]
Threshold: when the voltage at this pin is greater than VCONTROL (23 VCC by default except when CONTROL is driven by an external signal), then the OUTPUT high state timing interval ends, causing OUTPUT to go to the low state.[22]
Discharge: This pin is an open-collector (O.C.) output for bipolar timers, or an open-drain (O.D.) output for CMOS timers. This pin can be used to discharge a capacitor when OUTPUT is low. In bistable mode and Schmitt trigger mode, this pin is unused, which allows it to be used as an alternate output.[22]
Positive supply: For bipolar timers, the supply voltage range is typically 4.5 to 16 volts (some are spec'ed for up to 18 volts, though most will operate as low as 3 volts). For CMOS timers, the supply voltage range is typically 2 to 15 volts (some are spec'ed for up to 18 volts, and some are spec'ed as low as 1 volt). See the supply min and max columns in the derivatives table in this article. Decoupling capacitor(s) are generally applied (between this pin and GND) as a good practice.[24][23]


The 555 IC has the following operating modes:

  1. Astable (free-running) mode – The 555 operates as an electronic oscillator. Applications include:
  2. Monostable (one-shot) mode – The 555 operates as a "one-shot" pulse generator. Applications include:
    • timers, missing pulse detection, bounce-free switches, touch switches, frequency dividers, triggered measurement of resistance or capacitance, PWM, etc.
  3. Bistable (latch) mode – The 555 operates as a set-reset latch. Applications include:
  4. Schmitt trigger (inverter) mode – the 555 operates as a Schmitt trigger inverter gate. Application:
    • Converts a noisy input into a clean digital output.


Schematic of a 555 timer in astable mode
Waveform in astable mode
Astable mode examples with common values
Frequency C R1 R2 Duty cycle
0.1 Hz (+0.048%) 100 μF 8.2  68  52.8%
1 Hz (+0.048%) 10 μF 8.2  68  52.8%
10 Hz (+0.048%) 1 μF 8.2  68  52.8%
100 Hz (+0.048%) 100 nF 8.2  68  52.8%
1 kHz (+0.048%) 10 nF 8.2  68  52.8%
10 kHz (+0.048%) 1 nF 8.2  68  52.8%
100 kHz (+0.048%) 100 pF 8.2  68  52.8%

In the astable configuration, the 555 timer puts out a continuous stream of rectangular pulses having a specific period.

The astable configuration is implemented using two resistors, and and one capacitor . The threshold and trigger pins are both connected to the capacitor; thus they have the same voltage.

Its repeated operating cycle (starting with the capacitor uncharged) is:

  1. Since the capacitor's voltage will be below 13 VCC, the trigger pin causes the 555's internal latch to change state, causing OUT to go high and the internal discharge transistor to cut-off.
  2. Since the discharge pin is no longer short-circuited to ground, the capacitor starts charging via current from Vcc through the resistors and .
  3. Once the capacitor charge reaches 23 Vcc, the threshold pin causes the 555's internal latch to change state, causing OUT to go low and the internal discharge transistor to go into saturation (maximal-conductivity) mode.
  4. This discharge transistor provides a discharge path, so the capacitor starts discharging through .
  5. Once the capacitor's voltage drops below 13 VCC, the cycle repeats from step 1.

During the first pulse, the capacitor charges from 0 V to 23 VCC, however, in later pulses, it only charges from 13 VCC to 23 VCC. Consequently, the first pulse has a longer high time interval compared to later pulses. Moreover, the capacitor charges through both resistors but only discharges through , thus the output high interval is longer than the low interval. This is shown in the following equations:

The output high time interval of each pulse is given by:[16]

The output low time interval of each pulse is given by:[16]

Hence, the frequency of the pulse is given by:[16]

and the duty cycle is given by:[16]

where is the time in seconds, is the resistance in ohms, is the capacitance in farads, and is the natural logarithm of 2[a].

Schematic of a 555 timer in astable mode with a 1N4148 diode to create a duty cycles less than 50%

Resistor requirements:

  • The maximum power rating of must be greater than , per Ohm's law.
  • Particularly with bipolar 555 types, low values of must be avoided so that the output stays saturated near zero volts during discharge, as assumed by the above equation. Otherwise, the output low time will be greater than calculated above.

Shorter duty cycle[edit]

To create an output high time shorter than the low time (i.e., a duty cycle less than 50%) a fast diode (i.e. 1N4148 signal diode) can be placed in parallel with R2, with the cathode on the capacitor side.[16] This bypasses R2 during the high part of the cycle, so that the high interval depends only on R1 and C, with an adjustment based on the voltage drop across the diode. The low time is unaffected by the diode and so remains But the diode's forward voltage drop Vdiode slows charging on the capacitor, so the high time is longer than the often-cited to become:

where Vdiode is when the diode's "on" current is 12 of VCC/R1 (which depends on the type of diode and can be found in datasheets or measured). When Vdiode is small relative to Vcc, this charging is faster and approaches but is slower the closer Vdiode is to Vcc:

As an extreme example, when VCC = 5 V, and Vdiode = 0.7 V, high time is 1.00 R1C, which is 45% longer than the "expected" 0.693 R1C. At the other extreme, when Vcc = 15 V, and Vdiode = 0.3 V, the high time is 0.725 R1C, which is closer to the expected 0.693 R1C. The equation approaches 0.693 R1C as Vdiode approaches 0 V.

Voltage-controlled pulse-width modulation[edit]

In the previous example schematics, the control pin was not used, thus it should connected to ground through a 10 nF decoupling capacitor to shunt electrical noise. However if a time-varying voltage source was applied to the control pin, then the pulse widths would be dependent on the control voltage.


Schematic of a 555 in monostable mode. Example values C = 100 nF, R = 180 kΩ to 220 kΩ for debouncing a pulled-up pushbutton.
Waveform in monostable mode

Monostable mode produces an output pulse when the trigger signals drops below 13 VCC. An RC circuit sets the output pulse's duration as the time in seconds it takes to charge C to 23 VCC:[16]

where is the resistance in ohms, is the capacitance in farads, is the natural log of 3 constant[b]. The output pulse duration can be lengthened or shortened as desired by adjusting the values of R and C. Subsequent triggering before the end of this timing interval won't affect the output pulse.[25]

After the timing interval completes, the capacitor is almost instantly discharged through the Discharge pin, to then allow for subsequent triggering.

Example Values[edit]

Monostable mode examples with common values
Time C R
100 μs (−0.026%) 1 nF 91 kΩ
1 ms (−0.026%) 10 nF 91 kΩ
10 ms (−0.026%) 100 nF 91 kΩ
100 ms (−0.026%) 1 μF 91 kΩ
1 s (−0.026%) 10 μF 91 kΩ
10 s (−0.026%) 100 μF 91 kΩ

The table of common values (right) are solutions to that timing equation.

Scaling R and C by opposite powers of 10 will provide the same timing. For instance, ~1 ms results from either:

  • 1 nF and 910 kΩ,
  • 10 nF and 91 kΩ (values from table), or
  • 100 nF and 9.1 kΩ.

For each row in the example table (right), two additional timing values can easily be created by adding a second resistor in parallel or series. In parallel, the new timing is half the table time. In series, the new timing is double the table time.

  • 5 ms ≅ 100 nF and 45.5 kΩ (two 91 kΩ resistors in parallel)
  • 10 ms ≅ 100 nF and 91 kΩ (values from table)
  • 20 ms ≅ 100 nF and 182 kΩ (two 91 kΩ resistors in series)

Bistable SR latch[edit]

Schematic of a 555 in bistable SR latch mode.

A 555 timer can act as an active-low SR latch (though without an inverted Q output) by connecting a Reset input signal to the RESET pin and connecting a Set input signal to the TR pin. Thus, pulling Set momentarily low acts as a "set" and transitions the output to the high state (VCC). Conversely, pulling Reset momentarily low acts as a "reset" and transitions the Out pin to the low state (GND).

No timing capacitors are required in a bistable configuration. The threshold input is grounded because it is unused.[26] The trigger and reset inputs may be held high via pull-up resistors if they are normally Hi-Z and only enabled by connecting to ground. The discharge pin isn't needed in this configuration, though it can be optionally used as an open-collector output.

Bistable Schmitt trigger[edit]

Schematic of a 555 timer in bistable Schmitt trigger inverter mode. Example values C = 100 nF, R1 & R2 = 100 kΩ.
Schmitt trigger inverter symbol.

A 555 timer can be used to create a Schmitt trigger inverter gate, which converts a noisy input into a clean digital output.

An input signal is AC-coupled through a low value series capacitor, then biased by identical high-resistance resistors and , which causes the signal to be centered at half Vcc. This centered signal is connected to both the trigger and threshold input pins of the timer. The input signal must be strong enough to excite the trigger levels of the comparators to exceed 13 VCC and 23 VCC in order to cause them to change state.[27] The discharge pin isn't needed in this configuration, though it can be optionally used as an open-collector output.


Texas Instruments NE555 in DIP-8 and SO-8 packages[1]

In 1972, Signetics originally released the 555 timer in DIP-8 and TO5-8 metal can packages, and the 556 timer was released in a DIP-14 package.[4]

In 2006, the dual 556 timer was available in through-hole packages as DIP-14 (2.54 mm pitch),[21] and surface-mount packages as SO-14 (1.27 mm pitch) and SSOP-14 (0.65 mm pitch).

In 2012, the 555 was available in through-hole packages as DIP-8 (2.54 mm pitch),[28] and surface-mount packages as SO-8 (1.27 mm pitch), SSOP-8 / TSSOP-8 / VSSOP-8 (0.65 mm pitch), BGA (0.5 mm pitch).[1]

The MIC1555 is a CMOS 555-type timer with three fewer pins available in SOT23-5 (0.95 mm pitch) surface-mount package.[29]


555 timer circuit in a solderless breadboard

These specifications apply to the original bipolar NE555. Other 555 timers can have different specifications depending on the grade (industrial, military, medical, etc.).

Part number NE555
IC Process Bipolar
Supply voltage (VCC) 4.5 to 16 V
Supply current (VCC = +5 V) 3 to 6 mA
Supply current (VCC = +15 V) 10 to 15 mA
Output current (maximum) 200 mA
Maximum Power dissipation 600 mW
Power consumption (minimum operating) 30 mW @ 5 V,
225 mW @ 15 V
Operating temperature 0 to 70 °C


Numerous companies have manufactured one or more variants of the 555, 556, 558 timers over the past decades, under many different part numbers. The following is a partial list:

Manufacturer Part
min. (volt)
max. (volt)
Iq (μA)
at 5 V
max. (MHz)
Remarks Datasheet
Custom Silicon Solutions (CSS) CSS555 Active CMOS 1 1.2 5.5 4.3 1.0 Internal EEPROM, requires programmer [30][31][32]
Diodes Inc ZSCT1555 Discontinued Bipolar 1 0.9 6 150 0.33 Designed by Hans Camenzind [33]
Japan Radio Company (JRC) NJM555 Discontinued Bipolar 1 4.5 16 3000 0.1* Also available in SIP-8 package. [28]
Microchip MIC1555/7 Active CMOS 1* 2.7 18 240 5.0* Reduced pins & features (only astable & monostable & no reset for MIC1555, astable only for MIC1557), only available in SOT23-5, TSOT23-5, UTDFN-10 packages. [29]
ON MC1455 Active Bipolar 1 4.5 16 3000 0.1* [34]
Renesas ICM7555 Active CMOS 1 2 18 40 1.0 [17]
Renesas ICM7556 Active CMOS 2 2 18 80 1.0 [17]
Signetics NE555 Active (TI) Bipolar 1 4.5 16 3000 0.1* First 555 timer, DIP-8 or TO5-8 packages. [4][16][35][2]
Signetics NE556 Active (TI) Bipolar 2 4.5 16 6000 0.1* First 556 timer, DIP-14 package. [16][2]
Signetics NE558 Discontinued Bipolar 4* 4.5 16 4800* 0.1* First 558 timer, DIP-16 package. [2]
STMicroelectronics (ST) TS555 Active CMOS 1 2 16 110 2.7 [36]
Texas Instruments (TI) LM555 Active Bipolar 1 4.5 16 3000 0.1 [25]
Texas Instruments LM556 Discontinued Bipolar 2 4.5 16 6000 0.1 [37]
Texas Instruments LMC555 Active CMOS 1 1.5 15 100 3.0 Also available in DSBGA-8 package. [18]
Texas Instruments NE555 Active Bipolar 1 4.5 16 3000 0.1* [1]
Texas Instruments NE556 Active Bipolar 2 4.5 16 6000 0.1* [21]
Texas Instruments TLC551 Active CMOS 1 1 15 170 1.8 [20]
Texas Instruments TLC552 Active CMOS 2 1 15 340 1.8 [38]
Texas Instruments TLC555 Active CMOS 1 2 15 170 2.1 [19]
Texas Instruments TLC556 Active CMOS 2 2 15 340 2.1 [39]
X-REL XTR655 Active SOI 1 2.8 5.5 170 4.0 Extreme (−60 °C to +230 °C), ceramic DIP-8 package or bare die. [40]
Table notes
  • All information in the above table was pulled from references in the datasheet column, except where denoted below.
  • For the "Total timers" column, a "*" denotes parts that are missing 555 timer features.
  • For the "Iq" column, a 5-volt supply was chosen as a common voltage to make it easier to compare. The value for Signetics NE558 is an estimate because NE558 datasheets don't state Iq at 5 V.[2] The value listed in this table was estimated by comparing the 5 V to 15 V ratio of other bipolar datasheets, then derating the 15 V parameter for the NE558 part, which is denoted by the "*".
  • For the "Frequency max." column, a "*" denotes values that may not be the actual maximum frequency limit of the part. The MIC1555 datasheet discusses limitations from 1 to 5 MHz.[29] Though most bipolar timers don't state the maximum frequency in their datasheets, they all have a maximum frequency limitation of hundreds of kHz across their full temperature range. Section 8.1 of the Texas Instruments NE555 datasheet[1] states a value of 100 kHz, and their website shows a value of 100 kHz in timer comparison tables. Signetics App Note 170 states that most devices will oscillate up to 1 MHz; however, when considering temperature stability, it should be limited to about 500 kHz.[2] The application note from HFO mentions that at higher supply voltages the maximum power dissipation of the circuit might limit the operating frequency, as the supply current increases with frequency.[41]
  • For the "Manufacturer" column, the following associates historical 555 timer manufacturers to current company names.

556 dual timer[edit]

Die of a NE556 dual timer manufactured by STMicroelectronics
Pinout of 556 dual timer[21][16]

The dual version is called 556. It features two complete 555 timers in a 14-pin package; only the two power-supply pins are shared between the two timers.[21][16] In 2020, the bipolar version was available as the NE556,[21] and the CMOS versions were available as the Intersil ICM7556 and Texas Instruments TLC556 and TLC552. See derivatives table in this article.[17][39][38]

558 quad timer[edit]

Die of a NE558 quad timer manufactured by Signetics
Pinout of 558 quad timer[2]
558 internal block diagram. It is different from 555 and 556 timers.[2]

The quad version is called 558 and has four reduced-functionality timers in a 16-pin package designed primarily for monostable multivibrator applications.[49][2] By 2014, many versions of 16-pin NE558 have become obsolete.[50]

Partial list of differences between 558 and 555 chips:[2][50]

  • One VCC and one GND, similar to 556 chip.
  • Four "Reset" are tied together internally to one external pin (558).
  • Four "Control Voltage" are tied together internally to one external pin (558).
  • Four "Triggers" are falling-edge sensitive (558), instead of level sensitive (555).
  • Two resistors in the voltage divider (558), instead of three resistors (555).
  • One comparator (558), instead of two comparators (555).
  • Four "Output" are open-collector (O.C.) type (558), instead of push–pull (P.P.) type (555).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ln(s) is a constant, approximately 0.693147 when rounded to 6 significant digits, or commonly approximated with fewer digits in 555 timer books and datasheets to 0.693, 0.69, or simply 0.7
  2. ^ ln(3) ≅ 1.098612 (rounded to 6 significant digits), but is commonly rounded to fewer digits in 555 timer books and datasheets, like 1.1 or 1.099, or for back-of-the-envelope calculations can be rounded to 1.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "NE555 Datasheet" (PDF). Texas Instruments. September 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 28, 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Linear LSI Data and Applications Manual". Signetics. 1985.
  3. ^ a b Fuller, Brian (15 August 2012). "Hans Camenzind, 555 timer inventor, dies". EE Times. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  4. ^ a b c "Linear Vol1 Databook". Signetics. 1972.
  5. ^ Lowe, Doug (2017-02-06). Electronics All-in-One For Dummies. Wiley. p. 339. ISBN 978-1-119-32079-1. The 555 timer chip, developed in 1970, is probably the most popular integrated circuit ever made. By some estimates, more than a billion of them are manufactured every year.
  6. ^ a b Carmenzind, Hans (2010). Translated by 三宅, 和司. "タイマIC 555 誕生秘話" [The birth of the 555 timer IC]. トランジスタ技術 (Transistor Technology) (in Japanese). CQ出版. 47 (12): 73, 74. ISSN 0040-9413.
  7. ^ Santo, Brian (May 2009). "25 Microchips That Shook the World". IEEE Spectrum. 46 (5): 34–43. doi:10.1109/MSPEC.2009.4907384. S2CID 20539726.
  8. ^ a b c d e Camenzind, H.R. (September 1997). "Redesigning the old 555 [timer circuit]". IEEE Spectrum. 34 (9): 80–85. doi:10.1109/6.619384.
  9. ^ Ward, Jack (2004). "The 555 Timer IC – An Interview with Hans Camenzind". The Semiconductor Museum. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  10. ^ Scherz, Paul; Monk, Simon (2016). Practical Electronics for Inventors (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 687. ISBN 978-1-259-58755-9. The 555 gets its name from the three 5-kW +VCC R1 discharging path 555 R 2 C 6 resistors shown in the block diagram. These resistors act as a three-step voltage.
  11. ^ Kleitz, William (1990). Digital electronics : a practical approach (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 401. ISBN 0-13-211657-X. OCLC 20218185. The 555 got its name from the three 5-kOhm resistors
  12. ^ Simpson, Colin D. (1996). Industrial electronics. Prentice Hall. p. 357. ISBN 0-02-410622-4. OCLC 33014077. The reference voltage for the comparators is established by a voltage divider consisting of three 5 - k2 resistors, which is where the name 555 is derived
  13. ^ GoldStein, Harry (March 3, 2003). "The Irresistible Transistor". IEEE Spectrum. 40 (3): 42–47. doi:10.1109/MSPEC.2003.1184435. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  14. ^ "Oral History Hans Camenzind Historic 555 IC Page2". The Semiconductor Museum. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  15. ^ "Oral History Hans Camenzind Historic 555 Integrated Circuit Page6". Semiconductor Museum. Retrieved 2022-02-27.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "555/556 Timers Databook" (PDF). Signetics. 1973. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 11, 2021.
  17. ^ a b c d "ICM7555-556 Datasheet" (PDF). Intersil. June 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 29, 2017.
  18. ^ a b "LMC555 Datasheet" (PDF). Texas Instruments. July 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 28, 2017.
  19. ^ a b "TLC555 Datasheet" (PDF). Texas Instruments. August 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 28, 2017.
  20. ^ a b "TLC551 Datasheet" (PDF). Texas Instruments. September 1997. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2017.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "NE556 Datasheet" (PDF). Texas Instruments. June 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2017.
  22. ^ a b c d e f Jung, Walt (1977). IC Timer Cookbook (1 ed.). Sams Publishing. ISBN 978-0672219320.
  23. ^ a b c Lancaster, Don (1974). TTL Cookbook. Sams. ISBN 978-0672210358.
  24. ^ Carr, Joseph (1996-12-19). Linear IC Applications: A Designer's Handbook. Newnes. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-7506-3370-3.
  25. ^ a b "LM555 Datasheet" (PDF). Texas Instruments. January 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2017.
  26. ^ Buiting, Jan (2003). 308 Circuits. Elektor International Media. ISBN 978-0-905705-66-8.
  27. ^ "555 Timer as Schmitt Trigger". Electronics Hub. June 19, 2015. Archived from the original on March 15, 2023.
  28. ^ a b "NJM555 Datasheet" (PDF). Japan Radio Company. November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 29, 2017.
  29. ^ a b c "MIC1555 Datasheet" (PDF). Microchip Technology. March 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2021.
  30. ^ "CSS555 Datasheet" (PDF). Custom Silicon Solutions. July 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2017.
  31. ^ "CSS555 Part Search". Jameco Electronics.
  32. ^ Senft, James (February 2016). "The Remarkable CSS555". Nuts & Volts Magazine. Archived from the original on May 27, 2020.
  33. ^ "ZSCT1555 Datasheet" (PDF). Diodes Incorporated. July 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2017.
  34. ^ "MC1455 Datasheet" (PDF). ON Semiconductor. December 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 22, 2020.
  35. ^ "Analog Applications Manual". Signetics. 1979.
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Further reading[edit]

Books with timer chapters
  • See links in "Derivatives" table and "References" section in this article.

External links[edit]