|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Centuries:||7th century BC – 6th century BC – 5th century BC|
|Decades:||580s BC 570s BC 560s BC – 550s BC – 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC|
|Years:||559 BC 558 BC 557 BC – 556 BC – 555 BC 554 BC 553 BC|
|556 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||556 BC
|Ab urbe condita||198|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVI dynasty, 109|
|- Pharaoh||Amasis II, 15|
|Ancient Greek era||56th Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Chinese calendar||甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)
2141 or 2081
— to —
乙巳年 (Wood Snake)
2142 or 2082
|Coptic calendar||−839 – −838|
|Ethiopian calendar||−563 – −562|
|- Vikram Samvat||−499 – −498|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2545–2546|
|Iranian calendar||1177 BP – 1176 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1213 BH – 1212 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2467 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||−13 – −12|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 556 BC.|
The year 556 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire, it was known as year 198 Ab urbe condita. The denomination 556 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Labashi-Marduk succeeds Neriglissar as king of Babylon.
- Pisistratus is expelled to Euboea from Athens, and makes his fortune from Thrace's mines.
- Nabonidus succeeds Labashi-Marduk as king of Babylon.
- Simonides of Ceos, approximate date
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