56th Artillery Command

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56th Artillery Command
056 Artillery Command SSI.svg
Active
  • 56th Coast Artillery Brigade (1942–1943)
  • 56th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Brigade (1943–1945) (1951–1958)
  • 56th Artillery Brigade (1958–1964) (1970–1972)
  • 56th Field Artillery Brigade (1972–1986)
  • 56th Field Artillery Command (1986–1991)
  • 56th Artillery Command (2021-present)
Country United States
Branch Army
RoleHeadquarters
Part of
Motto(s)"Quick, Reliable, Accurate"
Engagements
Decorations
Websitehttps://www.europeafrica.army.mil/56thAC/

The 56th Artillery Command is a two-star command of the United States Army that serves as the Force Field Artillery Headquarters for U.S. Army Europe and Africa, with a mission to synchronize, integrate, and control fires and effects in support of the theater land component. The unit was originally formed on September 14, 1942 as the 56th Coast Artillery Brigade and has been reorganized and redesignated several times until its inactivation on June 30, 1991 following the reunification of Germany and the end of the Cold War.

U.S. Army Europe and Africa conducted the reactivation ceremony for the 56th Artillery Command on November 8, 2021 at Lucius D. Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden.,[3][4][5] Germany. The 56th Artillery Command's headquarters in located in Mainz-Kastel and is commanded by MG Stephen J. Maranian.

History[edit]

56th Coast Artillery Brigade[edit]

The 56th Coast Artillery Brigade was organized in the Army of the United States on September 14, 1942 and over six months later, it was activated at Camp Stewart, Georgia on April 10, 1943. The unit was reorganized and redesignated as the 56th Antiaircraft Artillery Brigade on May 28, 1943[6] and deployed to the European Theater for operations in World War II. The 56th deployed from England to Belgium and played a crucial role in the defense of the Allies’ most important port, Antwerp Harbor, from October 1944 to March 1945. The 56th defended the port from V-1 and V-2 rockets, conducting 24 hour operations during a 175 day bombardment. For the Defense of Antwerp Harbor, the Headquarters Battery earned two Belgian Army Order of the Day citations and the Belgian Fourragère.[7] During World War Two, the 56th earned campaign participation credits for the Northern France, the Rhineland, and the Central Europe campaigns before participating in the occupation of Germany. Headquarters & Headquarters Battery is entitled to permanently display the Belgian Fourragère from the spearhead of its guidon.[2]

The 56th was inactivated December 3, 1945 at Camp Shanks, New York.

56th Antiaircraft Artillery Brigade[edit]

On February 10, 1951 the 56th Antiaircraft Artillery (AAA) Brigade was reactivated at Camp Edwards, Massachusetts and assigned to the United States First Army.[8][9] On November 5, 1951 The 56th AAA Brigade transferred from Camp Edwards to Fort Devens, Massachusetts and was assigned to the Eastern Army Antiaircraft Command.[10][11] They were then transferred to Fort Totten, New York on 24 January 1953.[12] The unit transferred back to Fort Devens on 15 July 1956.[13] They were redesignated as the 56th Air Defense Artillery Brigade on 20 March 1958.[14]

The 56th Artillery Brigade was inactivated on December 24, 1964 in Coventry, Rhode Island.[15]

56th Artillery Group/Brigade[edit]

In April 18, 1963, the 56th Artillery Group was activated in Schwäbisch Gmünd, West Germany commanded by Col. Douglas C. France, Jr. The group prepared for the deployment of the new weapons system, the Pershing 1 nuclear missile. Headquarters & Headquarters Battery (HHB) was initially stationed at Hardt Kaserne (formerly Adolf Hitler Kaserne) and moved to Bismarck Kaserne in November 1968.

In 1965, the 56th Artillery Group assumed the critical role of a Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) force and was required to maintain an element of each unit at the highest level of combat readiness. These elements were designated to react within seconds of verified orders, and the entire command was to be fully operational within 2 hours of any alert activation. The increased requirements of the QRA mission necessitated some modifications to upgrade the Pershing missile system and caused the Army to increase the number of launchers at each battalion from four to 36.

The 56th Artillery Group was redesignated as the 56th Artillery Brigade on August 17, 1970. The brigade was authorized an increased level in command positions in the firing units. Platoon leaders were captains, battery commanders were majors, battalion commanders were lieutenant colonels and the brigade commander was a colonel.

With the split of the Artillery Branch into Field Artillery and Air Defense Artillery, the brigade was redesignated as the 56th Field Artillery Brigade on March 15, 1972.

56th Field Artillery Brigade[edit]

The newly designated brigade was to command 1st Battalion, 41st Field Artillery Regiment, 1st Battalion, 81st Field Artillery Regiment, and 3rd Battalion, 84th Field Artillery Regiment as Pershing firing battalions. Also subordinate to the brigade was 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment, tasked to provide defensive support to the firing units according to their security needs. A host of additional units provided support from medical to logistical, ensuring the brigade's ability to operate.

Memorial stone to the victims of the missile accident on 11 January 1985

In November 1983, with the Soviets fully invested in the SS-20, and on the verge of bankruptcy, the Americans began fielding the Pershing II. By 1985 all three firing battalions were completely operational with Pershing II and the Soviet Union faced a threat they were financially unwilling to counter.[16] On January 11, 1985 three soldiers, SSG John Leach, SGT Todd A. Zephier, and PFC Darryl L. Shirley of Battery C, 3rd Battalion, 84th Field Artillery were killed in an explosion at Camp Redleg, Heilbronn. The explosion occurred while removing a missile stage from the storage container during an assembly operation. An investigation revealed that the Kevlar rocket bottle had accumulated a triboelectric charge in the cold dry weather; as the engine was removed from the container the electrical charge began to flow and created a hot spot that ignited the propellant.[17][18] A moratorium on missile movement was enacted through late 1986 when new grounding and handling procedures were put into place.

56th Field Artillery Command[edit]

In January 1986, there was a major reorganization; the 56th Field Artillery Brigade was redesignated the 56th Field Artillery Command and authorized a major general as its commander. 1st Battalion, 81st Field Artillery inactivated and reformed as 1st Battalion, 9th Field Artillery in Neu-Ulm. 1st Battalion, 41st Field Artillery inactivated and reformed as 2nd Battalion, 9th Field Artillery in Schwäbisch-Gmünd. 3rd Battalion, 84th Field Artillery inactivated and reformed as 4th Battalion, 9th Field Artillery in Heilbronn. Along with 3rd Battalion, 9th Field Artillery at Fort Sill, the four firing units were then under the 9th Field Artillery Regiment. Additionally, the 55th Maintenance Battalion redesignated as 55th Support Battalion, E Company, 55th Maintenance Battalion deactivated and reformed as the 193rd Aviation Company,[19] and the communications assets at each battery, were removed and consolidated into the 38th Signal Battalion.

1971–1991
1970–1971
1963–1970

Under the reorganization, the 56th Field Artillery Command would always report directly to the highest commander in Europe at the time. Therefore, during peacetime, they reported to the Commander in Chief of United States Army Europe (CINCUSAREUR), whereas, during heightened tension or war, command passed to NATO, with Allied Air Forces Central Europe as their next higher headquarters.[20] Additionally, command levels for the field artillery batteries were increased by one grade over similar units. Platoons were commanded by a captain, and batteries by a major. Battalions continued to follow a lieutenant colonel while the command itself was led by a brigadier general and later a major general. These actions were meant to mitigate the increased responsibilities inherent with the mission they bore.

The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty[21] was ratified on May 27, 1988.[22] The firing batteries began to draw down their equipment as the missile launchers were destroyed. The Pershing first- and second-stage motors, reentry vehicles, warhead and radar section airframes were returned to Pueblo Depot Activity for elimination. On June 30, 1991, the 56th FA was inactivated,[23] and "discontinued" on September 30, 1991.[24]

Commanders

  • April 1963: Colonel Douglas Carter France, Jr.
  • August 1965: Colonel Rex H. Hampton, Sr.
  • 15 July 1967: Colonel Patrick William Powers
  • November 1968: Colonel James Edward Convey, Jr.
  • September 1970: Colonel Patrick William Powers; promoted to Brig. Gen.
  • December 1972: Brigadier General Tom Judson Perkins; died 24 February 1973
  • February 1973: Colonel Richard Donald Boyle; acting commander
  • May 1973: Brigadier General Milton Eugene Key
  • January 1975: Brigadier General Robert B. Hankins
  • July 1978: Colonel Richard Donald Boyle; promoted to Brigadier General
  • July 1980: Colonel Sidney Davis; promoted to Brigadier General 8 September 1980
  • July 1982: Brigadier General William Earl Sweet
  • 1984: Brigadier General Raymond E. Haddock; promoted to Major General 4 August 1987
  • 1987: Brigadier General Roger K. Bean; promoted to Major General 24 August 1989
    Pershing II of 2nd Battalion, 9th Field Artillery

4th Missile Battalion, 41st Artillery Regiment[edit]

The 4th Missile Battalion, 41st Artillery Regiment was activated on 14 January 1963 per General Order 428 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, with four Pershing 1 missiles. Lt. Col. Fitzpatrick took command on 21 July 1963. The battalion began training and completed live fires at Fort Wingate, New Mexico. The battalion and equipment shipped aboard the USAT General Simon B. Buckner on 3 April 1964 bound for West Germany. The unit deployed to Schwäbisch Gmünd under the 56th Artillery Group and was garrisoned on Hardt and Bismark Kasernes. The battalion increased to six launchers in 1964 and to eight launchers in 1965. The battalion exchanged the Pershing 1 missiles for 36 Pershing 1a missiles in 1969.

The battalion was inactivated on 29 September 1972 by General Order 1033 and reflagged as the 1st Battalion, 41st Field Artillery Regiment.

Commanders

  • 21 July 1963: Lieutenant Colonel Fitzpatrick
  • July 1965: Lieutenant Colonel Milton Leland Haskin
  • July 1967: Lieutenant Colonel William H. Goodwin
  • July 1969: Thomas E. de Sharo
  • 1970: Lieutenant Colonel Charles E. Bush
  • 1972: Lieutenant Colonel Larry H. Hunt

1st Battalion, 41st Field Artillery Regiment[edit]

1st Battalion, 41st Field Artillery was activated on 29 September 1972 in Schwäbisch Gmünd, West Germany. Service Battery was inactivated and reflagged as A Company, 55th Maintenance Battalion in 1982. The battalion exchanged the Pershing 1a missiles for Pershing II missiles in 1984. The battalion was inactivated in 1986 and reflagged as the 2nd Battalion, 9th Field Artillery Regiment.

Commanders

  • 1972: Lieutenant Colonel Larry H. Hunt
  • December 1973: Lieutenant Colonel Raymond E. Haddock
  • June 1975: Lieutenant Colonel Stan King
  • December 1976: Lieutenant Colonel Fred Pope
  • 1978: Lieutenant Colonel Gerald R. Lauzon
  • 24 June 1980: Lieutenant Colonel Myron F. Curtis
  • 2 July 1983: Lieutenant Colonel Doug Middleton
  • 1985-1986 Lieutenant David E. Bronner

Notable members

Gen. (Ret.) Raymond T. Odierno


1st Battalion, 81st Field Artillery Regiment[edit]

The 1st Missile Battalion, 81st Artillery was formed at Fort Sill in 1963 and deployed to McCully Barracks in Wackernheim, West Germany under the 56th Field Artillery Group. The battalion moved to Wiley Barracks, Neu-Ulm in 1968 and was redesignated the 1st Battalion, 81st Field Artillery Regiment effective 1 September 1971. It was initially equipped with eight Pershing 1 missiles and in 1969 replaced these with 36 Pershing 1a missiles. Service Battery was inactivated and reflagged as B Company, 55th Maintenance Battalion in 1982. The battalion exchanged the Pershing 1a missiles for Pershing II missiles in 1984. The battalion was inactivated in 1986 and reflagged as the 1st Battalion, 9th Field Artillery Regiment.

Commanders

  • August 1963 – July 1965: Lieutenant Colonel W.R. Harris
  • August 1965 – July 1967: Lieutenant Colonel R.S. Fye
  • July 1967 – June 1969: Lieutenant Colonel W.C Phillips Jr.
  • July 1969 – January 1971: Lieutenant Colonel J Goldstein
  • January 1971 – July 1972: Lieutenant Colonel Chester F Cambell
  • July 1972 – January 1974: Lieutenant Colonel Harry W Crandall
  • January 1974 – August 1975: Lieutenant Colonel J.S. Hornsby
  • August 1975 – February 1977: Lieutenant Colonel S.J. Zagalak
  • February 1977 – January 1979: Lieutenant Colonel J.W Hutchison
  • February 1979 – January 1981: Lieutenant Colonel J.E. Tindall
  • February 1981 - January 1984: Lieutenant Colonel J. Bachman
  • February 1984 - January 1986: Lieutenant Colonel H. W. Reichert
Graffiti covered bunker photographed in 2013 at the former missile storage area (MSA) in Mutlangen near Schwäbisch Gmünd

3rd Battalion, 84th Field Artillery Regiment[edit]

The 3rd Missile Battalion, 84th Artillery Regiment was formed at Fort Sill in 1963 and deployed to Heilbronn, West Germany under the 56th Field Artillery Group. It was initially equipped with four Pershing 1 nuclear missiles, upgraded to six in 1964 and eight in 1965 and in 1969 replaced these with 36 Pershing 1a missiles. The battalion was redesignated as the 3rd Battalion, 84th Field Artillery Regiment in 1968. Service Battery was inactivated and reflagged as C Company, 55th Maintenance Battalion in 1982. The battalion exchanged the Pershing 1a missiles for Pershing II missiles in 1984. The battalion was inactivated in 1986 and reflagged as the 4th Battalion, 9th Field Artillery Regiment.


2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment[edit]

Reorganized and redesignated 15 February 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battle Group, 4th Infantry, and assigned to the 3rd Infantry Division (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated),Battle Group relieved 18 April 1963 from assignment to the 3rd Infantry Division, Inactivated 3 June 1963 in West Germany. Redesignated 21 July 1969 as the 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry, and activated at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. On 18 September 1970 the battalion was assigned to the 56th Field Artillery Brigade headquartered in Schwäbisch Gmünd, West Germany.

Headquarters and Headquarters Company (HHC) and Company A were garrisoned at Flak Kaserne in Ludwigsburg. Company B was at Nelson Barracks in Neu Ulm and Company C was at Artillery Kaserne in Heilbronn. HHC moved to Nelson Barracks in Neu Ulm in 1971. Company A moved to Wilkins Barracks in Kornwestheim, then to Nelson Barracks in Neu Ulm in 1986. Company C moved to Wharton Barracks in Heilbronn in 1971. By 1974 HHC was at Wilkins Barracks in Kornwestheim, as was battalion headquarters.

The unit defended the missile battalions from intruding protesters of the Nationalist Green Party and other elements. The mission of the 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry was to provide armed security, including patrols, of the Pershing nuclear missiles and missile storage sites; Muetlangen was the Missile Storage Site, and Inneringen (Company A), Von Steuben (Company B), and Red Leg (Company C) were the 3 Combat Alert Sites (CAS). Additional duties included protecting Pershing nuclear systems during field operations and dealing with numerous anti-nuclear protests, as well as a rigorous infantry training schedule. Initially, HHC (Hurons) and Company A (Apaches or Alpha) were stationed at Wilkins Barracks in Kornwestheim, outside of Stuttgart; Company B (Blackfeet) was stationed at Nelson Kaserne in Neu Ulm; and, Company C (Cherokees) was stationed at Wharton Barracks and ultimately moved to Badenerhof Kaserne, both in Heilbronn. HHC and Company A were relocated to Nelson Kaserne in Neu Ulm at some point.

The 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry participated in major exercises each winter at training areas such as Baumholder, Hohenfels, Wildflecken, and Grafenwoehr. This helped to prepare the unit for encounters with Warsaw Pact military forces in the event of an assault on the missile sites. This was considered a very real possibility during the years of the Cold War. In addition each of the line companies rotated each year to Doughboy City, Berlin to train in military operations in an urban terrain (MOUT).

On 18 August 1971, soldiers from the heavy mortar platoon from battalion headquarters were being transported from Ludwigsburg to Grafenwoehr for live fire training exercises aboard a CH-47A helicopter. The helicopter crashed and exploded, killing all 38 on board, including four members of the 4th Aviation Company.

On 17 January 1986 the battalion was withdrawn from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System.

The signing of the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987), the fall of the Berlin Wall 1989, and the demise of the Soviet Union (1991) signaled the end of the Cold War and resulted in the eventual inactivation of the 2d Battalion, 4th Infantry. On 15 May 1991, the 56th Field Artillery Command and all its subordinate units were inactivated.

266th Chemical Detachment[edit]

The 266th Chemical Detachment was activated as part of the 56th Field Artillery Brigade on 13 September 1972. The detachment was attached to Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 56th Field Artillery Brigade and was garrisoned at Bismark Kaserne in Schwäbisch Gmünd.

55th Support Battalion[edit]

The 55th Maintenance Battalion activated as part of the 56th Field Artillery Brigade in 1982. The 579th Ordnance Company deactivated and reformed as Headquarters Company and D Company. The three service batteries in the field artillery battalions deactivated and reformed as forward service companies A, B and C under the 55th.[25] The aviation sections of each field artillery battalion reorganized as E Company.

38th Signal Battalion[edit]

When the 56th FAC reorganized on 17 January 1986, the communication's sections from each of the subordinate field artillery battalions were consolidated into the reactivated 38th Signal Battalion. The subordinate units of the 38th were:

193rd Aviation Company[edit]

Major General Stephen J. Maranian

Under the January 1986 reorganization, E Company, 55th Maintenance Battalion was deactivated and reformed as the 193rd Aviation Company at Cooke Barracks in Göppingen. The unit operated thirteen Bell UH-1 Iroquois helicopters. In June 1988, UH-1H airframe number 68-15387 of the 193rd struck a power line during low visibility conditions and crashed near Hittistetten, Senden, West Germany, killing three soldiers.[26][27]

Decorations[edit]

In 1968 the group created the Pershing Professionals Badge to recognize individual proficiency on the Pershing missile system. It was awarded through 1979.

The Superior Unit Award was presented to the 56th Field Artillery Command and its subordinate units for service during the Pershing II fielding, 1 November 1983 through 31 December 1986.[28][29]

Present Day (2021- )[edit]

On August 12, 2021, U.S. Army Europe and Africa announced that the 56th would be reactivated in October 2021 as the 56th Artillery Command. The two-star Theater Fires Command is led by MG Stephen J. Maranian and headquartered in Mainz-Kastel, near the Army's four-star headquarters in Wiesbaden.[3][30][5]

Subordinate units[edit]

April 1963

September 1970

  • Headquarters and Headquarters Battery (HHB)
  • 4th Battalion, 41st Field Artillery Regiment (4-41st FAR)
  • 1st Battalion, 81st Field Artillery Regiment (1-81st FAR)
  • 3rd Battalion, 84th Field Artillery Regiment (3-84th FAR)
  • 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment

September 1972

1982

  • Headquarters and Headquarters Battery (HHB)
  • 266th Chemical Detachment
  • 1st Battalion, 41st Field Artillery Regiment (1-41st FAR)
  • 1st Battalion, 81st Field Artillery Regiment (1-81st FAR)
  • 3rd Battalion, 84th Field Artillery Regiment (3-84th FAR)
  • 2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment
  • 55th Maintenance Battalion

January 1986 - May 1991[31]

October 2021

  • Headquarters and Headquarters Battery (HHB)
  • 2nd Multi-Domain Task Force (MDTF)

In popular culture[edit]

  • Anderson, Wes (director) (1998). Rushmore. Event occurs at 1:33. The character is wearing the inverted insignia of the 56th Field Artillery Command.
  • Krokus (1986). Change of Address. The gatefold photo has four of the band members wearing the insignia of the 56th Field Artillery Command.
  • Deutschland 83. 2015. A fictionalized of a Stasi agent who infiltrates the West German command during the fielding of Pershing II in 1983. The commander of the 56th Field Artillery Command is Maj. Gen. Arnold Jackson, shown wearing the unit insignia. In real life this would have been Brig. Gen. William Earl Sweet.

Heraldry[edit]

Shoulder sleeve insignia[edit]

Description. On a disc shaped embroidered item edged with a 1/8 inch (.32 cm) White border, upon a torteau and between two lightning bolts chevronwise Or, a stylized missile ascending palewise Sable, emitting fire Gules, all edged Argent, and a demi-cloud in base of the last. The overall dimensions are 3 inches (7.62 cm) in diameter.

Symbolism: Scarlet and gold (yellow) are the colors used for Field Artillery; blue denotes the assigned infantry support. The destructive power and target capability of the missile are suggested by the red disc at center and the upright missile signifies the readiness of the unit. The lightning flashes refer to the ability of the missile team to act and strike quickly in event of need.[32]

Background: The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally approved for the 56th Artillery Brigade on 9 June 1971. It was redesignated for the 56th Field Artillery Brigade on 7 April 1972. The insignia was redesignated effective 17 January 1986 for the 56th Field Artillery Command. It was redesignated for the 56th Artillery Command on 4 August 2021.[32]

Previous insignia: From 1963 to 1970, the authorized shoulder sleeve insignia was the emblem of the Seventh United States Army. From 1970 to 1971, the Pershing tab was worn with the Seventh Army insignia.

Distinctive unit insignia[edit]

The distinctive unit insignia (DUI) was authorized for wear only for Headquarters and Headquarters Battery (HHB).

2021-[edit]

Description: A gold metal device 1 3/16 inches (3.02 cm) in height overall, consisting of a trilobated cloud Gules throughout, bearing and upon two cannons in saltire, points to chief, a domed tower Argent with an archway Sable (as depicted on the coat of arms of the city of Antwerp, Belgium) surmounted on a field fesswise in base Vert. Overall in base, a semi-circular Gold scroll inscribed “QUICK RELIABLE ACCURATE” in Black letters.[32]

Symbolism: Scarlet and yellow (gold) are the colors used for Field Artillery. The trilobated cloud symbolizes the Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 56th Field Artillery Brigade’s Northern France, Central Europe and Rhineland Campaigns during World War II. The crossed cannons with the Antwerp Tower allude to the Headquarters Battery’s two Belgian Army Order of the Day Citations, the Belgian Fourragere for action at Antwerp and the Defense of Antwerp Harbor. Red and green are the colors of the Belgian Fourragere. The “Pershing Missile” alludes to the unique mission of the unit as a participant in the Army’s first Nuclear Strike Force with missiles on constant alert (QRA).[32]

Present Day
1968–1972

Background: The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 56th Field Artillery Brigade on 11 April 1972. It was redesignated effective 17 January 1986 for the 56th Field Artillery Command. It was redesignated for the 56th Artillery Command on 4 August 2021.[32]

1972[edit]

Description: A gold color metal and enamel device 1+316 inches (30 mm) in height overall consisting of a scarlet background with a trilobated cloud at the top bearing two black crossed cannons behind a white domed tower with black archway, (as depicted on the coat of arms of the city of Antwerp, Belgium) on a green base, surmounted overall by a vertical gold Pershing missile; all above a semi-circular gold scroll inscribed "Quick Reliable Accurate" in black letters.[32]

Symbolism: Scarlet and yellow (gold) are the colors used for Field Artillery. The trilobated cloud symbolizes the Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 56th Field Artillery Brigade's Northern France, Central Europe and Rhineland Campaigns during World War II. The crossed cannons with the Antwerp Tower allude to the Headquarters Battery's two Belgian Army Order of the Day Citations, the Belgian Fourragere for action at Antwerp and the Defense of Antwerp Harbor. Red and green are the colors of the Belgian Fourragere. The Pershing missile alludes to the unique mission of the unit as a participant in the Army's first nuclear strike force with missiles on constant alert (QRA).[32]

Background: The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 56th Field Artillery Brigade on 11 April 1972. It was redesignated effective 17 January 1986 for the 56th Field Artillery Command.[33]

Note: The older DUI was worn from 1967 to 1972.

1968[edit]

Description: A gold colored metal and enamel device 1+316 inches (30 mm) in height overall, vesica on top and ovaloid in base consisting of a gold missile with billowing white exhaust behind and between two vertical gold cannon firing black bomb bursts on a red background. All arched by a gold nebuly and encircled in base by a gold scroll bearing the inscription "QUICK, RELIABLE, ACCURATE" in black letters.

Symbolism: Scarlet is the color used for Artillery. The cannon barrels symbolize the basic mission of the organization. The missile alludes to the "Pershing Missile" and to the unique mission of the unit as a participant in the Army's first Nuclear Strike Force with missiles on constant alert (QRA).

Background: The distinctive unit insignia was approved on 24 September 1968. It was rescinded on 14 February 1975.[34]

References[edit]

  1. ^ History Card 1991, General Orders 24. Department of the Army. 10 December 1947.
  2. ^ a b History Card 1991, General Orders 43. Department of the Army. 19 December 1950.
  3. ^ a b "Blast from the past: Cold War artillery command in Germany resurrected and restructured". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  4. ^ Eversden, Andrew (4 November 2021). "Army reactivates theater artillery command amid Russian build-up near Ukraine". Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  5. ^ a b John Gordon IV, John Matsumura, RAND corporation (2021) Army Theater Fires Command: Integration and Control of Very Long-Range Army Fires RR-A809-1
  6. ^ History Card 1991, General Orders 51. Department of the Army. 31 May 1943.
  7. ^ For further details, see U.S. Army, "Antiaircraft Journal," Vol 88.
  8. ^ History Card 1991, AGAO-I 322. Gen Res. 21 January 1951.
  9. ^ History Card 1991, General Orders 73. HQ, First Army. 31 May 1951.
  10. ^ History Card 1991, MO No. 95. HQ, First Army, AHFKC(S) 370.5. 27 September 1951.
  11. ^ History Card 1991, General Orders 27. HQ, Eastern Army Antiaircraft Command. 5 November 1951.
  12. ^ History Card 1991, General Orders 95. First Army. 22 July 1953.
  13. ^ History Card 1991, General Orders 52. First Army. 19 July 1956.
  14. ^ History Card 1991, General Orders 36. First US Army. 28 March 1958.
  15. ^ History Card 1991, General Orders 229. US Army Air Defense Command. 23 December 1964.
  16. ^ Martin, Robert D. "The Pershing Missile System and the Cold War". The Cold War Times. Cold War Museum.
  17. ^ Knaur, James A. (August 1986). Technical Investigation of 11 January 1985: Pershing II Motor Fire (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center.
  18. ^ Davenas, Alain; Rat, Roger (July–August 2002). "Sensitivity of Solid Rocket Motors to Electrostatic Discharge: History and Futures" (PDF). Journal of Propulsion and Power. 18 (4).
  19. ^ "Army Superior Unit Award" (PDF). US Army. 30 December 1992. p. 10. General Orders 34.
  20. ^ "Pershing Keeps Soviet Bear at Bay". The Pershing Cable. 56th Field Artillery Command. 1986–1987.
  21. ^ "Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-range and Shorter-range Missiles (INF Treaty)". United States Department of State. 8 December 1987.
  22. ^ "The Pershing Weapon System and Its Elimination". United States Army.
  23. ^ History Card 1991, PO 132-8. USAREUR and Seventh Army. 21 September 1990.
  24. ^ History Card 1991, PO 147-6. USAREUR and Seventh Army. 17 October 1990.
  25. ^ "55th Maintenance Battalion". Donau. U.S. Army. 16 July 1982.
  26. ^ "The World". Los Angeles Times. 10 June 1988.
  27. ^ "Huey Crewmembers Line of Duty Deaths". Army Air Crews. 12 December 2014.
  28. ^ "Army Superior Unit Award" (PDF). Department of the Army. 1 April 1987. General Orders 9.
  29. ^ "Army Superior Unit Award" (PDF). Department of the Army. 1 July 1987. General Orders Number 30.
  30. ^ Andrew Eversden (4 Nov 2021) Army reactivates theater artillery command amid Russian build-up near Ukraine European Theater Fires Command
  31. ^ "Plotting Pershing on the Map". The Pershing Cable. 56th Field Artillery Command. 1986–1987.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g "Distinctive Unit Insignia: 56th Artillery Command". tioh.army.mil. Institute of Heraldry, US Army. Retrieved 20 January 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  33. ^ "56th Field Artillery Command: Distinctive Unit Insignia". United States Army Institute of Heraldry. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  34. ^ "56th Field Artillery Group: Distinctive Unit Insignia". United States Army Institute of Heraldry. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Bibliography[edit]