|Centuries:||5th century – 6th century – 7th century|
|Decades:||540s 550s 560s – 570s – 580s 590s 600s|
|Years:||575 576 577 – 578 – 579 580 581|
|578 by topic|
|State leaders – Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishment and disestablishment categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||1331|
|Chinese calendar||丁酉年 (Fire Rooster)
3274 or 3214
— to —
戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
3275 or 3215
|- Vikram Samvat||634–635|
|- Shaka Samvat||500–501|
|- Kali Yuga||3679–3680|
|Iranian calendar||44 BP – 43 BP|
|Islamic calendar||45 BH – 44 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1334 before ROC
|Seleucid era||889/890 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1120–1121|
Year 578 (DLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 578 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Byzantine–Sassanid War: A Byzantine army under command of Maurice (magister militum per Orientem) invade Upper Mesopotamia and raid on both sides of the Tigris. He deports 70,000 captives from Hyrcania to Cyprus and installs military colonists to guard the strategic locations.
- October 5 – Emperor Justin II dies after several periods of insanity. On the advice of his wife Sophia, he has raised his general Tiberius to the rank of co-emperor (Caesar). From December 574 he has ruled jointly with Sophia, and now succeeds him as emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
- Reccopolis (modern Zorita de los Canes) in Hispania is founded by king Liuvigild in honour of his son Reccared.
- Summer – Emperor Wu Di is engaging in military campaigns on two fronts: against the invading Göktürks to the north and against the Chen Dynasty in the south.
- Wu Di, age 35, dies from an illness and is succeeded by his eldest son Xuan Di as emperor of Northern Zhou.
- Kongō Gumi, the world's oldest construction company (578–2006), is founded in Osaka (Japan).
- Abdul Muttalib, grandfather of Islamic prophet Muhammad
- Bhavyaviveka, Indian Madhyamaka scholar (approximate date)
- July 30 – Jacob Baradaeus, bishop of Edessa
- John Malalas, Byzantine chronicler
- October 5 – Justin II, Byzantine emperor
- Wu Di, emperor of Northern Zhou (b. 543)
- Wuffa, king of East Anglia (approximate date)
- Wu Mingche, general of the Chen Dynasty (b. 512)
- Yuwen Xian, prince of Northern Zhou (b. 544)
- Romano-Byzantine Armies 4th—9th Centuries (p. 9). David Nicolle, 1992. ISBN 978-1-85532-224-0