57th United States Congress

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57th United States Congress
56th ← → 58th
United States Capitol (1906)

Duration: March 4, 1901 – March 4, 1903

Senate President: Theodore Roosevelt (R) (until September 14, 1901)
Vacant (from September 14, 1901)
Senate Pres. pro tem: William P. Frye (R)
House Speaker: David B. Henderson (R)
Members: 90 Senators
357 Representatives
5 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Republican
House Majority: Republican

Special: March 4, 1901 – March 9, 1901
1st: December 2, 1901 – July 1, 1902
2nd: December 1, 1902 – March 3, 1903

The Fifty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1901 to March 4, 1903, during the final six months of William McKinley's presidency, and the first year and a half of the first administration of his successor, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority.


Major events[edit]

Major legislation[edit]

Party summary[edit]


(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant

End of the previous congress 23 7 54 2 2 88 2
Begin 28 2 53 0 3 86 4
End 56 89 1
Final voting share 31.5% 2.2% 62.9% 0.0% 3.4%
Beginning of the next congress 33 0 55 0 2 90 0

House of Representatives[edit]

TOTAL members: 357


President of the Senate
Theodore Roosevelt


House of Representatives[edit]

Majority (Republican) leadership[edit]

Minority (Democratic) leadership[edit]


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.


At this time, Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. The Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, precede the names in the list below. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1904; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1906; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1902.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

House of Representatives[edit]

Changes in Membership[edit]

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • replacements: 4
  • deaths: 3
  • resignations: 0
  • vacancy: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 6
    • Note:Delaware's Class 1 Senate seat remained vacant for entire Congress due to the legislature's failure to elect.
Vacator Reason for vacancy Subsequent Date of successor's installation
Vacant Sen. William A. Clark vacated his seat during previous congress. Successor was elected. Paris Gibson (R) March 7, 1901
Vacant Legislature failed to elect to fill vacancy in term. J. Frank Allee (R) March 2, 1903
William V. Allen (Pop.) Successor was elected March 28, 1901. Successor delayed taking seat until December 2, 1901 after resigning as Governor of Nebraska on May 1, 1901. Charles H. Dietrich (R) December 2, 1901
South Dakota
James H. Kyle (R) Died July 1, 1901. Successor was appointed and subsequently elected. Alfred B. Kittredge (R) July 11, 1901
New Jersey
William J. Sewell (R) Died December 27, 1901. Successor was appointed. John F. Dryden (R) January 29, 1902
James McMillan (R) Died August 10, 1902. Successor was appointed and subsequently elected. Russell A. Alger (R) September 27, 1902

House of Representatives[edit]

  • replacements: 17
  • deaths: 14
  • resignations: 5
  • contested elections: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 24
District Previous Reason for change Subsequent Date of successor's installation
Maine 4th Vacant Rep. Charles A. Boutelle resigned during previous congress Llewellyn Powers (R) April 8, 1901
New York 24th Vacant Rep. Albert D. Shaw died during previous congress Charles L. Knapp (R) November 5, 1901
Pennsylvania 10th Marriott H. Brosius (R) Died March 16, 1901 Henry B. Cassel (R) November 5, 1901
Michigan 10th Rousseau O. Crump (R) Died May 1, 1901 Henry H. Aplin (R) October 15, 1901
Texas 6th Robert E. Burke (D) Died June 5, 1901. Morris Sheppard (D) November 15, 1902
South Carolina 7th J. William Stokes (D) Died July 6, 1901. Dudley G. Wooten (D) July 13, 1901
Pennsylvania 17th Rufus K. Polk (D) Died March 5, 1902. Alexander Billmeyer (D) November 4, 1902
Kentucky 3rd John S. Rhea (D) Lost contested election March 25, 1902 J. McKenzie Moss (R) March 25, 1902
Massachusetts 6th William H. Moody (R) Resigned May 1, 1902 after being appointed U.S. Secretary of the Navy Augustus P. Gardner (R) November 4, 1902
Missouri 12th James J. Butler (D) Seat declared vacant May 1, 1902. Butler elected to fill his own vacancy. James J. Butler (D) November 4, 1902
New York 10th Amos J. Cummings (D) Died May 2, 1902. Edward Swann (D) November 4, 1902
Virginia 6th Peter J. Otey (D) Died May 4, 1902. Carter Glass (D) November 4, 1902
New Jersey 4th Joshua S. Salmon (D) Died May 6, 1902. De Witt C. Flanagan (D) June 18, 1902
Texas 3rd Reese C. De Graffenreid (D) Died August 29, 1902. Gordon J. Russell (D) November 4, 1902
New York 26th George W. Ray (R) Resigned September 11, 1902 after being appointed judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York John W. Dwight (R) November 4, 1902
Texas 4th John L. Sheppard (D) Died October 11, 1902. Morris Sheppard (D) November 15, 1902
Connecticut 3rd Charles A. Russell (R) Died October 23, 1902 Frank B. Brandegee (R) November 4, 1902
Pennsylvania 28th James K. P. Hall (D) Died November 29, 1902 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New York 7th Nicholas Muller (D) Resigned December 1, 1902. Montague Lessler (R) January 7, 1903
Oregon 1st Thomas H. Tongue (R) Died January 11, 1903. Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Texas 8th S. W. T. Lanham (D) Resigned January 15, 1903 after being elected Governor of Texas Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Iowa 2nd John N. W. Rumple (R) Died January 31, 1903 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
North Carolina 9th James M. Moody (R) Died February 5, 1903. Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Missouri 12th James J. Butler (D) Lost contested election February 26, 1903. George C. R. Wagoner (R) February 26, 1903
Kansas 7th Chester I. Long (R) Resigned March 3, 1903 after becoming U.S. Senator Seat remained vacant until next Congress



House of Representatives[edit]

See also[edit]