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Events and trends
- 589 BC—Apries succeeds Psamtik II as king of Egypt.
- 589 BC—Nebuchadnezzar II begins siege of Jerusalem; the opera Nabucco sets the date at 587 BC.
- 587 BC—Jerusalem falls to the Babylonians, ending the Kingdom of Judah. The conquerors destroy the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem and exile some of the land's inhabitants.
- 586 BC—Death of King Ding of the Zhou Dynasty of China.
- 28 May 585 BC—A solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Thales, while Alyattes II battles Cyaxares. This leads to a truce. This is one of the cardinal dates from which other dates can be calculated.
- 585 BC—Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, king of Rome, defeats the Sabines in war, takes the town of Collatia, and celebrates a triumph for his victories on 13 September.
- 585/584 BC—Astyages succeeds Cyaxares as King of the Medes.
- 585 BC—Ji Yi becomes King Jian of the Zhou Dynasty of China.
- 585 BC—Fall of the Kingdom of Urartu following a Median invasion. (The Scythians ruined the Kingdom of Urartu.)
- 582 BC—Military clash of the major Classical antiquity powers Egypt and Babylon.
- 582 BC—Pythian Games reorganised at Delphi. (This is the traditional date.)
- 582/581 BC—Isthmian Games founded at Corinth.
- 580 BC—Cambyses I succeeds Cyrus I as king of Anshan and head of the Achaemenid dynasty. (approximate date)
- c. 580 BC—Gorgon Medusa, detail of sculpture from the west pediment of the Temple of Artemis, Korkyra, is made. It is now at the Archaeological Museum of Corfu.
- c. 580 BC—Standing Youth (Kouros) is made. It is now at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.