|Centuries:||5th century – 6th century – 7th century|
|Decades:||550s 560s 570s – 580s – 590s 600s 610s|
|Years:||580 581 582 – 583 – 584 585 586|
|583 by topic|
|State leaders – Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishment and disestablishment categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||1336|
|Chinese calendar||壬寅年 (Water Tiger)
3279 or 3219
— to —
癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)
3280 or 3220
|- Vikram Samvat||639–640|
|- Shaka Samvat||505–506|
|- Kali Yuga||3684–3685|
|Iranian calendar||39 BP – 38 BP|
|Islamic calendar||40 BH – 39 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1329 before ROC
|Seleucid era||894/895 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1125–1126|
Year 583 (DLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 583 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Emperor Maurice decides to end the annual tribute to the Avars, a mounted people who have swept across Russia and threatening the Balkan Peninsula. They capture the cities Singidunum (modern Belgrade) and Viminacium (Moesia).
- King Liuvigild lay siege to Seville (Southern Spain) and forms an alliance with the Byzantines. He summons his rebellious son Hermenegild back to Toledo and forces him to abandon the Catholic Faith.
- The city of Monemvasia (Peloponnese) is founded by people seeking refuge from the Slavs and Avars.
- Eboric (also called Euric) succeeds his father Miro as king of the Suevi (Hispania Gallaecia).
- Abu Ubaidah, companion of Muhammad (d. 639)
- Liuva II, king of the Visigoths (d. 603)
- Umar, companion of Muhammad (d. 639) and second Caliph of Rashidun Caliphate
- Theodosius, Byzantine co-emperor (approximate date)
- Xiao Xian, prince of the Liang Dynasty (d. 621)
- Saint Brendan the Navigator (484-16 May 583)
- February 3 – Kan B'alam I, ruler of Palenque (b. 524)
- Miro, king of the Suevi (approximate date)