|583 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1336|
|Balinese saka calendar||504–505|
|Chinese calendar||壬寅年 (Water Tiger)|
3279 or 3219
— to —
癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)
3280 or 3220
|- Vikram Samvat||639–640|
|- Shaka Samvat||504–505|
|- Kali Yuga||3683–3684|
|Iranian calendar||39 BP – 38 BP|
|Islamic calendar||40 BH – 39 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1329 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||894/895 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1125–1126|
709 or 328 or −444
— to —
710 or 329 or −443
Year 583 (DLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 583 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Emperor Maurice decides to end the annual tribute to the Avars, a mounted people who have swept across Russia and threatened the Balkan Peninsula. They capture the cities of Singidunum (modern Belgrade) and Viminacium (Moesia).
- King Liuvigild lays siege to Seville (Southern Spain), and forms an alliance with the Byzantines. He summons his rebellious son Hermenegild back to Toledo, and forces him to abandon the Chalcedonian Faith.
- The city of Monemvasia (Peloponnese) is founded by people seeking refuge from the Slavs and Avars.
- Eboric (also called Euric) succeeds his father Miro as king of the Suevi (Hispania Gallaecia).
- Yohl Ik'nal succeeds Kan B'alam I as queen of the Maya city of Palenque (Mexico).
- Abu Ubaidah, companion of Muhammad (d. 639)
- Liuva II, king of the Visigoths (d. 603)
- Theodosius, Byzantine co-emperor (approximate date)
- Umar, companion of Muhammad (d. 644) and second Caliph of Rashidun Caliphate
- Xiao Xian, prince of the Liang Dynasty (d. 621)
- February 1 – Kan B'alam I, ruler of Palenque (b. 524)
- Miro, king of the Suevi (approximate date)