|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|585 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||585 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||169|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVI dynasty, 80|
|- Pharaoh||Apries, 5|
|Ancient Greek era||48th Olympiad, year 4|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||乙亥年 (Wood Pig)|
2112 or 2052
— to —
丙子年 (Fire Rat)
2113 or 2053
|Coptic calendar||−868 – −867|
|Ethiopian calendar||−592 – −591|
|- Vikram Samvat||−528 – −527|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2516–2517|
|Iranian calendar||1206 BP – 1205 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1243 BH – 1242 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2496 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||−42 – −41|
−458 or −839 or −1611
— to —
−457 or −838 or −1610
The year 585 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. In the Roman Empire, it was known as year 169 Ab urbe condita . The denomination 585 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- 28 May - Eclipse of Thales: A solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Thales, while Alyattes of Lydia fights Cyaxares of Media at the Battle of Halys, leading to a truce. This is a cardinal date from which other dates can be calculated.
- Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, fifth king of Rome, defeats the Sabines in war, taking the town of Collatia and celebrating a triumph for his victories on 13 September.
- King Jian of Zhou succeeds King Ding of Zhou as king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
- Astyages succeeds Cyaxares as king of the Medes.
- Fall of the Kingdom of Urartu following a Median invasion. (The Scythians ruined the Kingdom of Urartu.)
- April 9 (according to legend) – Emperor Jimmu, the first Emperor of Japan (b. 711)
- Cyaxares, king of the Medes
- Nitocris I, Egyptian priestess
- Rusa IV, king of Urartu
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